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&..,,, II I'U.i II ij^. » 


- * 




















tst €atnimU 

By miss M^ a. COURTNEY. 

€ast fenfoall 



BY TRtjBNER & CO., 57 & 59, LUDGATE HILL. 


t /v 

PiJJ. 7^i ' ^ 

IBnngay : 




I. 8Be«t (Eomtoall. By Miss M. A. Coubtney. 

Introduction ix 

Glossaby 1 

Adi-enda ... ... ... ... ... 65 

II. (Bnet dorntoall. By Thomas Q, Couch. 

Introduction ... ... ... ... ... C9 

Glossary ... ... ... ... ... 7.3 

Addenda ... ... ... ... ... 109 

[In the sketch map which faces the title-page, it should be understood that the 
line of demarcation is only approximately indicated. Mr. Conch writes : 
'* From long observation I can distinctly trace the western brogue and speech 
beyond Truro eastward, though it has become shaded off."— J. II. N.] 


By miss M. a. COURTNEY. 


i 1. Decay of the Dialect in West 

f 2. PronunctoOian and Orammar, 

J 3. Proverbial Sayings. 

i 4. Cornish Names. 

{ 5. The Present Glossary. 

§ 1. With the introduction of railways and the increased means 
of communication, that has brought and brings every year more 
strangers to West Cornwall^ the peculiar dialect is fast dying out, 
giving place to a vile Cockney pronunciation with a redundancy of 
h*a. The younger generation are ashamed of and laugh at the old 
expressive words their parents use. One seldom now hears such 
Shaksperian terms as giglet, a giddy girl ; fadge, to suit ; peig^e, to 
weigh ; nor the old form of the plural — housen, houses ; peasen, 
peas ; nor derivative 6uijectives with the prefix en, such as feaeten 
and stonen. But in the outlying fishing villages and inland parishes v^ 
the dialect still lingers. 

§ 2. A stranger meeting one of our country labourers or miners 
on the *' Downses " (downs), and asking him a question, would pro- 
bably have some difficulty in understanding the answer. Should the 
words in which it was given be common all over England, the sing- 
song drawling tones of the high-pitched voice, ^d the different 
sounds given to the vowels and diphthongs, would greatly puzzle 
him. The pronunciation differs considerably in places not more than 
ten or twelve miles apart, and persons who live in -Penzance and 
make the dialect their study, can easily distinguish a St. Just from a 
Newlyn or Mousehole man, and both from a native of Camborne or v 
St. Ives. The most marked difference in speech, however, is found 


between the dwellers on ** the mainhind " (Penzance, &c.) and the 
inhabitants of Scilly, or, as they would call themselves, '* Scillonians." 
With them thread becomes ** tread," and three ** tree." / is changed 
into oi, as pint, " point j " isles, " oiles ; " but a point would be a 
" pint," and boil " bile." Their voices, too, are pitched in a different 
key. Although none of the islands are more than three miles from 
St Mary's^ the largest, on which is Hugh-town, the capital, each 
" Off-oisland " has a pronunciation of its own, and the people on St. 
Mary's often laugh at the peculiarities of the " Off-oislanders." They 
are fond of giving their children Scriptural names — Obadiah, Methu- 
selah, Melchizedek, Emmanuel, Tobias; which they shorten into 
Diah, Thus, Dick, Manny, Bias. This custom formerly prevailed in 
all the villages of West Cornwall. One man was baptized Maher- 
shalalhashbaz, although known as Maal, and women still live who 
bear the names of Loruliameh and Kerenhappuck. 

Of the dialect and pronunciation of the eastern part of the 
county I know from personal experience next to nothing, never 
having spent more than a few weeks in that locality, except that the 
vowels are broader and the consonants harsher than in West Corn- 
wall, and that it resembles the dialect of Devon. 

The following table will show the peculiarities of pronunciation 
in the Land's End and adjacent districts : — 

A pron. aa : call, caal ; half, haalf ; master, maaster. Have, in 
reading, with old parish clerks and others, is haave. (au Scilly : call, 

A, pron. ec : square, squeer ; care, keer. 

Aiy pron. ae, both vowels sounded : nail, nael ; tail, tael. 

E, as e, with but few exceptions, where it becomes a, as yellow, 
y allow ; secret, sacret. 

Ee, as iy in been, bin ; and meet, mit. 

Ea diphthong, as a I : meat, malt ; clean, clain ; bream, braiui. 

Ea in heard, heerd, 

Ea in earth and ear is sometimes spoken with a faint sound of // ; 
ycarth, year. 

** Ea is sometimes also separated, as o-arth, wii-ar, at Zennor." 
J. W. 



Ea in tea retains the old sound tay, and sea becomes say.' 

Ea in proper names is ay : Pendrea, Pendray ; Tredrea, Tredray 

Ei diphthong, pron. ee, as skein, skeen ; seine, seen; except iii 
receive, where it becomes a, 

/, pron. e, as river, rever ; shiver, shever. 

/, pron. ee, as kite (the bird), keet ; child, cheold ; &c, 

le diphthong, pron. a : believe, Vlave ; relieve, relave. 

0, as a ; grow, graw ; know, knaw ; &c. 

O^dAu: column, culumn ; pollock, pullock. 

0, as where it is u in other counties, as front, not frunt ; among, 
not amung. 

in won't as a long, wan't. 

In proper names the o in the prefix Pol is always long, as Poltair, 
Poletair j Polsue, Polesue. 

Oo, preceded by A, is oo long: hood, not huod; hook, not 

U is pronounced as 2« in puU : dull, duol ; puzzle, puozzle. 

G sometimes y, as angel, anyel ; stranger, stranyer. In words of 
more than one syllable ending in ing the g is omitted, as going, 
goin ; singing, singin. 

P as 6 in peat, beat. 

Words ending in sp retain the old form 2)8, as clasp, claps ; hasp, 
haps ; crisp, crips. 

F in yellow is often changed into j, jallow. 

Old people generally add y to the infinitive, as dig, diggy ; hack, 
hacky ; paint, painty ; walk, walky ; and put an a before the imper- 
fect part, as "goin* a diggin*." 

Be commonly takes the place of are, and be not ia corrupted into 
b*aint ; and when preceded by the verb the pronoun you is almcst 
invariably changed into 'e(?, as ** Whur be 'ee jailin, my sou ? Goin* 
to Mittin, are *ee] " Where are you walking so fast, my soni (my 
son is applied to all males, and even occasionally to females. ) Going 
to Meeting, are youl (A Mittin or a Mittin-house is a Noncon- 
formist, generally a Wesleyan, Chapel.) " You Vaint a goin' to do 
et, sure-ly \ " '* Ess-fye ! I be." (Yes, I am.) " Hav' 'ee most catched 
up your churs 1 " (Have you most finished your housework ?) " Did 


*ee ever knaw sich a g'eat maazed antic in all your bom days 1 " (Did 
you ever know sucli a mad fool f ) &c " I'll gi' 'ee a click under the 
y-ear/' (I'U give you a box on the eais.) 

Verbs and pronouns are often used in the second person singular 
instead of the second person plural, as " Coom thee wayst in, thee 
g'eat chiicklehead, or I'll gi' 'ee a scat on the chacks that 'ull maake 
'ee grizzle the wrong side o' th' moueth. Thee thinkst o' nawthing 
but gammut. (Come in, you great stupid, or I will give you a slap 
in the face that shall make you laugh the other side of your mouth. 
You think of nothing but play.) ** Beest 'ee goin' to painty to-d%y, 
Jan ? " (Are you going to paint to-day, John 1) 

Him and it are contracted into 'ti, as " I don't think much of 'n." 

ffecU takes the place of great^ as '* a g'eat bdfflehead " (a great 
fool); bra* of brave, "a bra' fine day" (a Tery fine day). "And 
between two adjectives applies the preceding one to the latter — 
*bra' and wicked,' bravely or very wicked, although brave alone 
would be a term of commendation." — J. W. The article a is put 
before plural nouns, as " a trousers," " a hellers " (bellows). 

The preposition up is very commonly used after verbs, as '^ I must 
finish up my work," " I must do up my odds and ends ; " and where 
in other places in would be used, as " Take up (not take in) two 
loaves for to-uiorrow." Sometimes a superfluous verb is added, as " I 
looked to see." 

The Cornish are fond of doubling their negatives, ** Never no 
more, says Tom Collins." 

" Wlien he died, he shut his eyes, 
And never saw money no more." 

Old Nursery Rhyhie. 

** I don't knaw, ant I " (I don't know, not I) ; and a favourite answer 
to a question is, " Not as I knaw by," or " Not as I know," all pro- 
nounced quickly as one word, "Notsino." Couldst, wouldst, and 
shouldst are contracted into cu'st, wu'st, and shu'st ; as " How cu'st 
'ee (thee) be such a big fool?" "Thou shu'snt tell such lies;" 
" Wu'st *ee (thee) do et 1 " But to multiply examples would take too 
much space for an introduction, and to those especially interested in 
this branch of the subject, I would recommend the works of the 


late Tregellas, Bottrell*s Traditions and Hearth-side Stories of West 
Cornwall^ first and second series ; and a little work by '^ Uncle Jan 
Trenoodle" (Sandys), Trhich contains amongst other things a col- 
lection of poems in the Cornish dialect by Davies Gilbert. 

§ 3. Like all other Celts, the Cornish are an imaginative and 
poetical people, given to quaint sayings, similes, and pithy proverbs. 
I have heard of a man being '' so drunk that he couldn't see a hole 
in a nine-rung ladder ; " of a piece of beef '^ as salt as Lot's wife's ^ 
elbow." A woman a few days since in describing the " B&l gals," 
said, *' they were all as sweet as blossom ; " and another that some 
boy " was as hardened as Pharoah." You may be often greeted on 
entering a house with, " You are as welcome as flowers in May." A 
servant when she adds a little hot to cold water, will speak of it as 
" taking the edge off the cold." A labourer will tell you that " he's 
sweating like a fuz' bush (a furze bush) on a dewy morning." Any 
one who has seen such a thing will recognize the force of the simile. 
Once I asked an old Land's End guide what made all those earth- 
heaps in a field through which we were passing ) His reply was, 
" What you rich people never have in your house, a want " (a mole). ^ 

Few proverbs express more in a few words than the following : — 
" Those that have marbles may play ; but those that have none must 
look on." " 'Tis well that wild cows have short horns." " You've 
no more use for it than a toad for a side pocket." ^* All play and no ^ 
play, like Boscastle Market, which begins at twelve o'clock and ends 
at noon." 

A great many of the sayings relate to long-since-foigotten 
worthies, such as : — " But — says Parson Lasky." " Oh ! my blessed 
parliament, says Molly Franky." ''All on one side, like Smoothy's 
wedding." "Like ^Nicholas Kemp, you've occasion for all. '^ "As 
knowing as Rate Mullet, and she was hanged for a fool." >^ 

A few may be interesting from an antiquarian point of view : — 
"To be presented in Halgaver Court." "Kingston Down well 
wrought is worth London town dear bought." "Working like a 
Trojan." " As deep as (Jarrick." " As bright as Dalmanazar." " As 
ancient as the floods of Dava." Of the two last I have never heard 
an explanation. 


Each parish has its own particular saint to which the church is 

dedicated. *' There are more saints in Cornwall than there are in 

L heaven." The saints' feasts are held on the nearest Sunday and 

Monday to dedication day, Feasten Sunday and Monday. The 

•^inhahitants of every parish have a distinguishing nickname. 

One curious custom is nearly obsolete, that of speaking of a 
married woman as "Kitty Ben Roscrow," "Mary Peter Penrose/* 
/ instead of Kitty, Ben Roscrow's wife, ^c. 

§ 4. Cornish proper names of men and places have the accent 
on the second syllable, as Borla'se, Boli'tho, Trela'wney, Carne'gie, 
Pendre'a, Polme'nnor (Poleme'nnor). In true Cornish compound 
names the noun is put before the adjective, as Chegwidden (white 
house), ehe, house, gwidden^ white ; Vounderveor (great road), 
voundeTf road, veor, great (through ignorance now called Vounder- 
veor Lane). When the word is formed of two nouns, the distin- 
guishing one is last, as Nanceglos (church valley), nanc (c soft), 
valley, egloSf church ; Crowz-an-wra (a road-side cross), crotcz, cross, 
wra, road ; Peuinnis (island head), pen, a head, innu, an island ; 
Egloshayle (river church), eglosy a church, hayle, a river (now Pen- 
innis Head, Egloshayle Church). These rules hold good even when 
the words are half Cornish, half English, as Street-an-Nowan (the 
new street, of some antiquity). Cairn Du (black cairn). Castle Yean 
(little castle). Castle au Dinas ^ (a reduplication). Chapel Ury, Chapel 
St. Clare. 

§ 5. When asked some years since by the English Dialect 
Society to write a West Cornwall Glossary, wishing to make it as 
complete as possible, I consulted all the published works on the 
subject which were in the Penzance Library, and added to my list 
the words in them unknown to me. Those that I have given on the 
authority of Polwhele alone are, I am afraid, although common in 
the beginning of this century, now quite forgotten except by a very 
few. Had I been aware that I was to have been associated with Mr. 
Couch, I should have taken no examples from his works ; but I have 
retained them, as they were nearly all familiar to Mr. Westlake, Q.C. 
(J. W.), to whom I now take this opportunity of tendering my 

* '* Some make castle a fortification of stone, dinas of earth."— Bann»ter. 


sincere and hearty thanks for his very valuable services, ungnidgingly 
given, he having kindly gone over the entire MS. with me. I must 
also thank Mr. H. R Cornish (H. R C), who has done the same by 
the proof-sheets, and Mr. Thomas Cornish (T. C), who placed all his 
Cornish words at my disposal Those signed W. N. I had from Mr. 
Wm. N^oye, and Davy, Zennor through Mr. Westlake. Garlands are 
from a list by the late Mr. Garland in the Journal of the Royal 
Inst. Cornwall. I have, too, incorporated in this glossary a list of 
words collected by the Rev. Flavell Cook (F. C.) when at Liskeard, 
and kindly sent me through the Rev. W. W. Skeat ; and some from 
those published in the Comiskman by Bernard Victor (B. V.) and 
Wm. Fred. Pentreath (W. F. P.), of Mousehole ; and by F. W. P. 
Jago, M.B., Plymouth. To all these gentlemen my thanks are due. 

Margaret A. Courtney. 

Alvtrton JfouUy PeneoMce, 
January^ 1880, 





Abear, v, to dislike : always used 
with a negative. ' ^ I caan't ahear 
what I caan't abide." 

Acoroshay (accrochet), a kind of 
leap-frog. A cap or small article 
is placed on l^e back of the 
stooping person by each boy as 
he juinx>8 oyer him ; the one who 
knocks either of the things off 
has to take the place of the 
stooper. The first tune he jumns 
over the boy says Accroshayy the 
second Aahotay, the third Asshe- 
fiayy and last^ Lament, lament 
Ldeeman^a (or Lelena's) war. 

Acres, phr. in his acres; in his 

Addle-pool, a cesspool. 

Ad rabbet, inter, bother. 

Adyentnrer, one who takes shares 
in a mine. 

Afeard, p,p, as adj. afraid. ^' I'm 
afenrd of my life to go upstairs 
uter dark.'' 

Aforet adv. before. "He took 
me up afore I were down." He 
corrected me before I had made 
a mistake. 

AAer, Arthur* "Fm coom for 

the dennar for After ^ who works 
at old Dolcoath." 

After - elapses, after - thoughts ; 
superfluous finery. '*I caan't 
manage the after-dapeee.^ Some- 
thing happening after the cause 
is supposed to have been re- 
moved. H. £. C. 

After-winding, waste com. 

Agait, adj. very attentive; ear- 

Agar, adj. ugly. Davy, Zennor. 
Aglet, Aglon, Awglon, Qrglon, 

the berry of the hawthorn. 

Ailer, a receiver of stolen goods. 
'*The ailer is as bad as the 
stailer.'' (He who aids and abets 
the thief oy standing within hail 
as sentry. H. R 0.) Heller, 
Lostwitmel. J. W. 

Aipemt, an apron. 

** A slut never wants a clout 
Whilst her aipernt holds out." 

Airy -mouse, a bat, M. A. C. 
Airy-Uouse, H. E, 0. Hairy- 
Mouse, J, W. 

Aitch-pieoe, the catch or tongue 
of a buckle^ 

/ ^ 


Ake, a groove in a stone used for 
an anchor (peculiar to Cornwall), 
to receive a rope or iron band to 
prevent it from slipping. Monse- 
nole fishermen. K P., through 
W. Noye. 

Aketha, quotha. 

AlairCi a short time ago. Video 
says this is in common use; I 
query it M. A. 0. 

AUee-couclLee, phr, to go to bed. 

Ammenuts, nuts. Almond nuts, 


Anan ? Van 1 inter. " What did 
you say ? " 

Anatomy, Atomy, a thin person. 
Also Anatomis. H. £. C. 

Aneest, Aneist, prep, near. *' I 
.caan*t bear him to come antist 



An end. To drive an end is to 
excavate a level (a gallery) in a 
f mine. 

Angalliflh, a gallows. ''You 

angallish dog, you," 

Angle - twitoh, an earth-worm. 
"Wriggling like an angle-' 

Anointed. '* An anointed rogue " 
= an out-and-out rogue. 

An.passj, Passj, et cetera. 

AntL, p^tr. not I. Always used 
with a negative. ** I caan't say 

Antic, a foolish person ; a merry 
rogue. ** I never seed such an 
antic in my bom days." 

Apple-bird, a chaffinch. Pol- 

Apple^drain, a drone ; a wasp. 

Apsen-tree, an aspen. " Bevering 
(shivering) like an apaen-tree:' 

Aptycock, a clever little fellow. 
"Well done, my little apHcock.*' 
—IF. BriUm, April 3, 1879. 

Araa ! Arear ! Areah ! an inter- 
jection of surprise. Arrea-faa. 
B. Victor and W. V. Pentreath. 

Ardar, a plough. 

Ardnr, a ploughman. 

Argee, Argeefy, v. to argue. 

** He's all*ays ready to argee'' (g 

Ariflh, stubble. " Turn them into 
the arishes ** (stubbles). 

AriBh-fleld, a stubble-field. 

Ariah-geese, stubble-fed geese. 

Ariflh-mow, a rick of corn made 
in the field where it was cut 

Arm-wrift, the wrist. 

Alter, adv, alter. " He's all'ays 
tinkering arter her." 

Asorode, adv. astride. ''She 
rode oBcrode.^ 

As lev*, adv. as lief. " I'd as 
lev' do et as not." 

Asmeger, Aaiinego, a silly 

feUow; a fool. **Do *ee be 
quiet, thee assneger,^^ 

Athnrt, adv. athwart. '' He looks 
atliurt " (he squints). 

Attal, Attle, rubbish cast out 
from a mine. 

Atwixt and atween, phr. be- 
twixt and between. "Neither 
the highest nor lowest; but 
ativixt and atween^ says Bucca." 

Aunt, An', Aint, a term of re- 
spect, commonly used for elderly 
women. **Too fine, like An 
Betty Toddy's gown." 

Awner's 'count, owner's ac- 
count; at the expense of the 

Axed out, p. p. as adj. having 
the banns called in church. 
" I 'be axed out ! keep company ! 
Got thee to doors, thee noodle." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle, 


Baal, V. to beat. 

Baaled, p. p. beaten ; grieved. 

Baalingy a beating. 

Babby-rags, small bits. F. C. 

Backlet, Backside, a court or 
yard behind a house. 

Backysyfbre, pJir. hind-part be- 
fore. P. U. Backsyforcy, J. W. 

Bagonety a bayonet. 

Bakester, a baker. 

Bal, a bother. " What a hal the 
dog es ! noosding up agen me.'' 

Bal, a mine. 

Balch, a small rope ; a sash cord. 

Bal-girl, a mine girL 

Balk, squared timber. 

Ballarag, v. to scold. 

Ballaragging, a scolding. '* She 
gov' me a sound halluragging,'* 

Ball-eye, a wall-eye. ''Billy 

Balflcat, a cross-patch. " She's a 
regular ould baUcat,'* Poor, con- 
temptible. Sometimes appUed to 
vine, as balscat port «r vV. 

Balshag, a coarse flannel with a 
long nap, used in minea 

Bandeleer, a wooden toy, in 
shape like a thin flat reel ; it is 
made to move up and down by a 
string which winds and unwinds. 

Banger, a large thing or person. 

Bankers and Borsars, cushions 
for seats and backs of settlea 

Bankronte, a bankrupt. 

Bannel, the broom, Genista, 

Bare -ridged. He rides bare- 
ridged = without a saddle. 

Barm, Bnnn, yeast, ^arm-cake 
is cake made with yeast. 

Barragon, fustian. Barracan^ 

Barro, Borro, a boar. 

BarweU, Barvil, a leather apron 
formerly worn by fishermen when 
haiding in their nets and taking 
the fish out of the same. Capt. W. 
Pentreath, Mousehole, through 
W. Noye. 

Basaam, the heath; a purple 

Be, baint, are ; are not " Like 
Jan Trezise's geese, never happy 
unless they be where tiiey baint. 
** Where be 'ee going P " = where 
are you going r 

Beagle it ! (sometimes Ad beagle 

it I) a West-country imprecation. 
T. 0. A troublesome person is 
often called a beagle or bagle. 
** Be quiet, you young bagle" 
M. A. C. 

Beal, a bird's bill ; the nose. " I 
knawed 'ee by your beal" 

Beat, a turf; also the verb to 
make or attend to a fire of 

Beat burrow, Beat turf, a heap 
of burnt turves left in the fields. 

Bedabber, Bqabber, v. to fade 

by keeping in the handa 

Bedabbered, p. p, as adj. faded. 
** Yours flowers are bedabbered." 

Bed-ale, groaning-ale; ale brewed 
for a cluistening. Polwhele. 

Bedoling-pain, a constant pain — 
not acute. 

Bedoled, p. p. used as adj. stupe- 
fied with pain or grief. **rm 
bedoled witn the rheumatis." 

Bed-tye, a feather bed : often 
called a feather tye. 

Bee-skip, Bae-bnt, a beehive. 

Beety, v. to mend the net 
Mousehole fishermen, through 
R P. and B. V. 




Begibd, p. p* as adj, allotted. 
<* 'Tis not hegihd to me *' (jr hard). 
B. Hunt, F.B.S. 

Beheemed, adj, sickly. ^<A poor 

beheemed cretur " (creature). 

Belky V, to belch. 

Belong. '*I 2^071^ at home" 
^ I liye at home. *' I am not 
BO ill aa I belong to be" =: not 
ao ill aa I generaUy am. ** She 
helong$ to stay in to-night " = 
it's her turn to stay in to-night. 

Belye, v, to bellow. 

Belvingy part. ** Belving like a 

Bender, anything unusuaUygood 
of its kind. 

Berrin, a funeraL " Bin to the 
berrin, ha' 'ee ? " 

Berrin-tnne, a tune to which a 
hymn is sung by the relations 
and friends on me way to the 

** To shaw our sperrits lev' us petch 
The laast new berrin-tune," 


Besting it, going to sea when the 
weather looks threatening, and 
cruising on the fishing ground 
without shooting the nets, to see 
whether the sky will clear or 
not. T. C. Also commonly used 
for considering a thing, as ** I am 
besting if I shall go to church to- 
night." M. A. C. 

Better -fit. Used for better. 
"You'd better-Jit ha' done what 
I told 'ee." 

Better-most, adj. best. ''My 
better-most dress." ** The better- 
most people were there." 

BetwattiLed, Bewattled, p. p, as 

adj, mad, foolish. '*Thee art 
betwattled; that were afore I 
were bom." 

Bib, a small fish ; a blind. 
Biddix, a mattock. 

Bilder, hemlock; water dropwort, 

Billees, a bellows: facetiously 
called the Cornish organ. 

Biscan, Yescan, a finger-glove of 
leather used in support of a 
woiinded finger; sometimes a 
simple bandage of cloth. Bea- 
gan, W. N. 

Bitter, adv. very. " He's bitter 
cross this morning." ''A bitter 
wet day." 

Biyer, Bever, v. to shiver. " I'm 

aU of a tiver." 

Biyering, Bevering, part, shiver- 

Black-a-moor*s teeth, small 
white-ribbed cowries. 

Blaok-oake, wedding-cake. A 
rich plum-pudding is a black- 

Black-head, a boil. 

Black jack, blend. 

Black strap, gin and treacle. 
An inferior win e g iven to infe- 
rior guests. J. "WT 

Black tin, tin ore ready for 

Blast, a sudden inflammation. " I 
caught a blast in my eye." 

Blaw. '* A man caan't go farther 
than he can blaw" %, e. he can't 
do impossibilities. 

Blind bnck a davy, blindman's 

Blink, a spark. '' There's not a 
blink of fire in the grate." 

Blob, Blobber, a bubble. 

Blood-sncker, the sea anemone. 

Bloody warrior, a wallflower ; 

also the red crane's-bill. 

Blowser, one who assists in the 
pilchard fishery. 

Blowsing, working in seine boats. 
Blowth, blossom. " There's no- 


thing prettier than the apple 

Blabber, Blobber, the sea nettle. 
Sometimes called sting blubbers. 

Bine -poll, a species or, more 
probably, a yariety of salmon, 
remarkable for the steel-blue 
colonr of its head and for ascend- 
ing our rivers (c. g, tiie Camel) 
about Candlemas-day ; hence 
when appearing in numbers 
they are called the *' Candlemas 
SchooL" It is observed by fish- 
ermen that the great majority 
are males or kippers. . Couch. 

Board 'em, an old-fashioned round 

fame of cards. It can be played 
y any number of players from 
two to eight, either for fish or 
low stakes ; but there must not 
be less than six fish in the pool. 
Biz' cards are dealt to each per- 
son, and the thirteentii if two are 
plaving, the nineteenth if three, 
and so on, is turned up for 
trumps. The forehand plays, 
and the next (if he has one) 
follows suit; ii not, he may 

Slay another suit or trump. The 
ignest card of the original suit, 
if not trumped, takes the trick 
and one or more fish, according 
to the number staked. If you 
have neither card in your hand 
that you think will make a trick, 
you may decline to play, in 
which case jou only lose your 
stake ; but if you play and fail 
to maJ^e a trick, you idust pay 
for the whole company) and are 
said to be ^'board^." 

Bob, the largest beam of a mine 
steam-pumping engine. 

Bobble. '* An ugly bobble in the 
sea " ^ a ground swelL 

Bock, V, to shy. "The horse 
becked at the hedge.'' 

Boften, p. p. as adj. bought. 

Boften bread, baker's bread, not 
home-made. Boften dotigh is 

sometunes uused to Express the 
same idea. '*As plum (soft) as 
boften dough " — applied to a very 
foolish person. 

Boiling, a number, crowd, or 
family. " The whole boiling of 
'em were there." 

Boist, corpulence. Boiutis, stout. 
J. W. Lostwithiel. Busthious, 

Bolk, adj. firm. Probably from 
balk, squared timber. 

Boldering, adj. louring; inclin- 
able to thunder. ** 'Tis boldering 
weather." Polwhele. " 'Tis bold- 
ering hot." J. W. 

Bolt, a stone-buOt drain. 

Boo, a louse. 

Boobus, a wick for a small lamp. 
Booba, Boobiin, Newlyn. 

Boostering, part, labouring so as 
to perspire. 

Boots and shoes, the flowers of 
the monk's-hood. 

Boryer, a borer; a bar of iron 
used to make holes in granite ; a 
mining tool. 

Boshy-man, a fop ; a conceited 

Botany-bay, the hydrangea. 

Botham, a tumour arising from 
the blow of a stick on any part 
of the body. Polwhele. 

Bothem, the feverfew. 

Bottom-pie, slices of potatoes and 
pork baked on a thick layer of 
dough. W. Noye. 

Bottoms, a narrow, uncultivated 

Bougie, Bowgie, a sheep's house; 
a ^ed. 

Bonldacious, Bonld, adj. bold. 

Boulter, a moored line, with 
hooks attached, for catohing pol- 



Boutigo, Bout-argo, Bout-'i-go 

{pron, Boutsliego), a tramp. ^'I 
caan't abear linUiaoB ooming 
round the town plaace" (tiie 

Bowed, bent <^A little homd 
old man/* 

Bowerly, adj, burly; corpulent. 
" A fine bowerly man." 

Bowings, bowings of the legs; 
the under part of the knee-joint 

Bow-jowler {ow like hcno), a place 
in fishing boats for hauUng foot- 
line through. Mous^ole fisher- 
men, through W. F. P. and B. V. 

Boys. "There are no men in 
Cornwall; they are all Cornish 

Boy's love, southernwood. 

Braaye, Bra, adj, and adv. fine ; 
very. "He's grown a bra 
cheeld.*' *• I'm hrcuive and well, 
thank *ee."^ And between two 
adjectives (in Cornwall) applies 
the preceding one to the latter. 
Brave and wicked (bravely or 
very wicked), although brave 
alone would oe a term of com- 
mendation. J. W. ** A hrave- 
looking man " is a good-looking 

Brace, the mouth of a shaft. 

Mining Becord, through W. 

Brage, v, to scold violently. 

Braging, part, roaring; raging. 
** Braging like a lion." 

Braggashans. " But I scorn to 

stand speeching hraggaaJians.'^ — 
Unde Jan TrmoodU. 

Braggaty, adj, spotted ; mottled, 
" A dragr^a<y cow." 

Brake, a largjs quantity: parti- 
cularly applied to fiowers, as a 
brake of honeysuckle. 

Brandis, a three-comeied iron 
rest for baking meat on; also 

used to hold a kettle, or support 
burning brands. 

Brash, an eruption ; a rask 

Breach. A horse or cow is said 
to breach when it breaks down 
fences. 'A ** breachy cow" is one 
that breaks bounds. 

Breachy water, brackish water. 
Bread -and -cheese, the young 

leaves of hawthorn, often eaten 
by children. 

Breal, Breel, a mackerel W. N., 
B. V. 

Breed, Breedy, v. to make or 
mend fishing-nets with a mesh 
and needle. 

Bren, Brend, v. to wrinkle the 
forehead. "Don't brend your 
brows so." 

Brow hrenner, eye winker. Old 
Nursery Rhyme, 

Brick, Breck, a rent or flaw. 
** There wasn't a brick in it" 

Brimming, the phosphorescence 
of the waves. 

Brink, the gill of a fish. R. P., 
through W. Noye. 

Briny, adj. lumiaous; phosphor- 
escent: applied to the sea; the 

Brit, a small kind of fish the 
size of a sprat F. W. P., Jago, 
M. B. 

Brithyll, a trout {pron, truff). 

M. A. C. 

Broad-fig, a Turkey fig. 

Broft, p. p. brought. " She was 
bro/t nome in a cart" 

Broil, earth on the surface indi- 
cating a vein of metaL *' The 
burnt stuff, word used by Berry- 
man, who professes to find lodes 
to this day by the divining rod." 
T. C. 

Broil, V. to discover metal from 
the earth thrown up by the heat 
of the vein. 


Broody impurities mixed with ore. 

Broom-swike, a twig of a heath- 

Brose-of-hel; a great heat. " Vm 
in a hrose-of-hH,^' At boiling 

Broasen, burning quickly. Mouse- 
hole fishermen, through W. F. 
P. and V. B. 

Brother - law, brother - in - law. 

Father-law, &c., &c. 

Brown-worti figwort or throat- 

Browse, bruised fish used as bait, 
'•ril pommel thy noddle to 
browser BottrelL 

Browse/ brambles and thorns. 
P.O. ' 

Browihy, adj. light ; spongy : 
applied to bread. 

Bnilh,'a nosegay. 

Brush, dried furze used for fires. 
'*Not quite baked; he*d take 
another brush : " said of a half- 
witted man. 

Bmss, short twigs of heath or 
furze. ** When a younger sister 
marries first, her elder sister is 
said to dance in the brtiss ; from 
an old custom of dancing with- 
out shoes on the furze prickles 
which get detached from the 
stalk." H. B.O. 

Bruyans, crumbs. Buryans, Bot- 

Bncca, a stupid person ; a term 
of derision. 

« Penzance boys up in a tree, 
Looking as wisht (downcast) as 

wisht canbe; 
Newlyn buccas, strong as oak. 
Knocking *em down at every 


Bueea-boo, a ghost; a bug-bear; 
• ablackbucca. 

Bneea-gwidden, a precocious 
child; a simple innocent; an 

insane person. T. 0. A white 

Bnek, fermentation in milk or 
cream, produced by moist heat 
*'The buck is in the milk." 
Buccha-boo, Polwhele. 

Buck, the spittle fiy. 

Buck, v. to bruise copper ore into 
small fragments. 

Bucking-iron, a flat hammer used 
for crushing copper ore. 

Buckle-up, V. to shrink or curl 
up with the damp. '* My dress 
buckleS'Up in the dew." 

Buckshee-buck, a game played 
by an indefinite number of play- 
ers. One shuts his eyes, ana the 
others say in turn, *^Bucksheef 
BucksJiee-buck ! How many fin- 

fers do I hold up ? " When the 
lindman guesses correctly, the 
one whose number is guessed 
takes his place. 

Buckthorn, Buokhom, a salted 
and dried whiting. 

Bucky-how, a boy's game, resem- 
bling touch-timber. 

Buddie, a kind of tub for wash- 
ing ore. 

Buddle-boy, a boy employed in 
washing ore. The operation is 
called " huddling." 

Buddies, bubbles. *' Blowing 
buddies, art 'ee, cheeld P " 

Bud-picker, the bullfinch. Pol- 

Buffle - head, a simpleton ; a 
foolish person. ''I niver seed 
flich a g eat buffle-head^ 

Bulgranack, the pool-toad, or 
locally bull-toady in sea-rock 
pools. H. R C. 

Bulgranade, a stickleback. 

Bnlhorn, a snail. ''If tinners 
in going to bal (the mine) met 
with a bulhom in their path, 
they always took care to drop 


l)efore it a "cram" from their 
dinner, or bit of grease from 
their candle, for good luck." 

Bulky V. to toss on the horns of a 

Bulk, V. to cure pilchards, by 
placing alternate layers of salt 
and fisn ; also a pile of pilchards 
about a yard in breadth and five 
feet in height : with the heads 
turned outward. 

Bnlk-heftded fool» always running 
his head against a widl. H. R. C. 

Bullies, round, smooth pebbles ; 

BuUooky man, a swaggering 

BuUtuHi the fruit of the bullace 

Bun-bread, phrase to 'express a 
severe thrashing. '* Td beat him 
to bun^hread,^* Longrock, T. C. 

Bnnken, Bumpkin, a piece of 
iron projecting from the bow of 
a boat, to which the jib is fiEUst- 
ened, W. Noye. 

Bunker-headed fools. Gwinear, 
T. C. 

Bunting, part, sifting flour. 

Bum, twenty-one hakes (probably 
a burden) ; a pile of furze kept 
in country houses for fuel; a 
rick of hay. 

Burranet, the shelldrake. 

Burrow, a barrow or tumulus. 

Bush, two hoops fixed on a short 
pole, passing through each other 
at right angles. They are covered 
with white calico, and used as 
J signals by a person standing on 
^ a nill to show where pilchards 
lie in a bay. 

Bush, V, Instead of thrashing 
com with a flail, when straw 
was wanted for thatching, women 
were employed to beat out the 
«om into a barrel with the head 

out; the ears of oom were struck 
against the cask. 

Bush the fire, phr, to put on 
more furze: only used where 
there are open chimneys and no 

Busk, a thin slip of wood or 
whalebone, about an inch and 
a-half broad by fourteen long; 
formerly worn by all, now only 
by old women, in front of their 

Busker, an undaunted, persever- 

y ing fisherman in stormy weather, 

in contradistinction to inland- 

outer. B. P., through W, Noye. 

Bussa, a large earthenware pot or 

Bussaroalf^ a calf kept on the 
cow till it weans itself. Pol- 

Bussa - head, an empty-headed 

Bussy milk, the first milk after 

Bustious, adj\ over-fat; burden- 
some to oneself. 

Busy, requires ; wants. " It es 
busy aU my time looking arter 
the childern.*', '' It es buey all my 
money to keep house." 

But, a buttock of beef. 

But, V. to sprain or put out of 

Butted, p, p, " Fve butted my 

But-gap, a hedge of pitched turf. 

Butt, a heavy, two-wheeled cart, 
with timber and yoked oxen. 

Butter -and -eggs, the double 
yeUow daffodil. 

Buyed, v. bought. " I buyed un 
at the draper's.'* 

Buzza. "Stinking Uke buzzcu" 
E. Opie, through W. Noye. ** A 


husza used before oess-pits." H. 

Bye, adv, lonely. " Our house is 
rather bye," 

Caal, Call, v. to give public notice 
by a town crier. * * Have it caaUd, 

• be sure." To have the banna 
** caaied out" (called out) is to 
have them read in church. 

CaalYM-henge, a calf's pluck. 

Cab, a homy gall on the hand 
caused by friction. '* Called a 
callous.'' H. E. 0. 

Cab, a dirty mess. Also v. to 
soil by handling oyer-much. A 
cabby mess is a dirty, sticky 

Cabaggled^ p,p, as adj. messed 
and dirty. J. W. Lostwithiel. 

Cabesta, space between the hook 
and lead in a fishing line. Mouse- 
hole fishermen, through W. F. 
P. Gobesta, V. B. 

Caboolen-stone, a stone used by 
seiners (the crew of a seine boat) 
as a means of keeping the fish 
enclosed in the seine but not 
caught from making their escape. 
It is continually thrown into the 
sea, a piece of ro^ being attached 
to it, until the seine can be drawn 
so close together that the fish can 
be dipped up in baskets. W. F. 
P. and B. V. 

Cader, a small frame of wood on 
which a fisherman keeps his 
lines. Gantor, Penzance. 

Cadge. "Out on the cadge" 
on the tramp ; begging. ** They 
get their tiying by cadging" 
begging from door to door. 

Cafenter, a carpenter. 

** Tm ooom for the dennar for Afber 
Who works at old Dolcoath ; 
And if you be the ca/enter^s dafter 
You'll send enough for both.'' 

CafE^ n. refuse, rubbish. 

Cage. ** She has a beautiful cage 
of teeth." 

Cal, tungstate of iron. 

Caloar, the lesser weever or sting 
fish, with the lance fish in Sennen. 
H. R. 0. 

Cam, Cand, fluor spar. 

Camels, camomile fiowers. 

Canker, a cock crab. M. Matthews, 
through W. Noye. " Grane and 
Grancod." H. B. C. 

Cannifl, v. to toss about carelessly. 

Cant, V. to tip on one side. 
'* Cant up the bottle." A fall 
Polwhele. Cant of a way = a 
long way. W. Noye. 

Caj^el, Cockle, schorl. " Capel 
ndes a good horse " indicates the 
presence of tin. 

Caper-longer, the shell-fish Pinna 
ingens. Couch. Tonkin applies 
the name Caper-longer to the 
razor- shell Solen solignia. 

Capperonse (pron. like house), a 
great noise. ** What & capper ouse; 
'tes like Bedlam broke loose." 
** Cab-a-rouae is in seamen's lan- 
guage to pull together at a cable, 
shouting and singing." H. B. C. 

Cappim. The superintendent of 
a mine is always called cappun. 

Carbona, Carbonas, a large mass 
of rich ore, sometimes called a 

Care, the mountain ash, branches 
of which are used as charms to 
prevent cattle being " ill wisht " 

Cam, Caime, a pile of rocks. 

Camy, v. to coax; to flatter. 
** He thought to camy over me." 

Carrack, Gkurack, a rock : only 
used as a proper noun. 

Casling, a prematurely-born calf. 



The skins are often made into 

Cassabully, winter cress. Pol- 

Catch ap, v, to dry. '' The clothes 
will soon catch up this windy 
weather." ** The roads are nicely 
caught up.*^ Also applied to 
household work. *'mien the 
churs (chars) are caught up.'' 

Cat-in-the-pan. To turn cat-in- 
the-pan is to torn head oyer heels, 
sitting on a rail, whilst keeping 
hold of it. Traitor, J. W. 

Cats and dogB, the catkins of 
the willow. 

Cattern, Catherine. 

Canoh» a sloppy mess. J. W. 

Cauchy, adj\ wet; sloppy. " The 
roads are very cauchy,** 

Candle, a mess. 

Caudle, v, to do household work 
in an untidy manner. Caddie, 
F. W. P., Jago, M. B. 

Candler, one who caudles or 
makes a mess. Caddler, one 
who is always caddling about the 
house, ». e. working but messing. 

Candling, part, making a mess ; 
also wasting ; improyident 
** Caudling away all his money." 

Cannter, a cross-handed blow. 

Canse, case. '' If that's the cause 
I must work later." 

Cawnse, Coanse, stones; a flagged 

Cawnse -way, Coanse-way, a 

paved foot-path. '* Ccfarue-way 
head," a street in Penzance. 

Cay-thollic. "Like Cay4hollic, 
the more he eats the thinner he 
f gets." 

Censnre, v, to give an opinion ; 
consent. " I gived (or gov) my 
censure for they." 

Chaoking, adj, thirsty. ''Half- 
&mi8hed." Couch. 

Chaokfl, the cheeks. " Til ci' 'ee 
a skat (slap) in the chocks, 

Chad, a young bream. 

Chad. "We say, Put a chad, 
that is, a turn of rope, in the 
horse's mouth." J. M. Nanki- 

Chainy, china. "A chainy tay- 

Chall, a cow-house. 

Champion lode, a large vein of 
metal. In St Just *' guides." 

Chape, the catch of a buckle. 

Channce, v. to cheat. 

Channt, Channty, v, to scold ; to 

mutter to oneself ; to prate. 

Channting, jTar^. scolding. "Chea 
chaunter" = cease diaunter! 
stop your prate ! H. B. 0. 

Cheeld, a child; pi Childem. 

Old people call a little child '* a 
cJieeJd yean." "Like Malaohi*s 
cheeld^ chuckful of sense." 

/Cheeses, seeds of mallow, often 
eaten by children. Chokky- 
cheeaes, F. C. 

Cheevy, adj, thin; miseiable- 

Cheins, Cheens, the small of the 
back. '* I've a bad pain in my 

Cherk, a half -burnt cinder. Chare, 
H. RC. 

Chet, a kitten. 

Cheyy-chace, a great bustle or 
i noise. "What's all the Chevy- 
chace about P " 

Chewidden-day, the day on which 
white tin (smelted tin) was first 
sold in ComwalL 

Chiokchacker, the wheatear : so 
called from its note. Chickell, 

Chien, Cheem, v, to germinate in 
the dark, as potatoes. 

Chiff-chaff, the chaffinch. 



Chiffer, Cheffer, t;. to bargain. 
•* I never heerd a woman cheffer 
like she do.'* 

Childer, Childeniy children. 

Childermas-day, Innocents'-day. 
** It's unlucky to sail on ChUder- 
mas-day, ^^ 

Chill, a small earthen lamp, in 
shape like the old Boman lamp, 
formerly used for burning tram 
or piloliard oil. 

Chimhley, a chimney. 

Ching, the chin. 

Chipper, the crossbill. 

Chitterlings, the frills formerly 
worn on gentlemen's shirts. 

Chodf a stew. 

Choris, a carcase ; a feast. 

Choust, a cheat. 

Chonst, V. to cheat << They'll 
choust 'ee out of all thy money." 

Chow, V, to chew. 

Chowter, a female fish-vendor. 
More commonly jotM^. Gener- 
aUy those who go about Ihe 
country in carts. 

Cfarestmas-cnrls, carols. On 
Christmas-eve the choir of the 
parish church goes from house 
to house singing " cw/fo." 

Chrestmas - stock, Chrestmas - 

mock, the Ohnstmas log. A 
piece of this year's Chrestmaa- 
mock is often saved to light the 
one to be burnt at the next 

Chriss-crossed, adj, cross-barred ; 

Chuokf the under part of the 
face ; the throat. ** I like a pie's 

Chudc, V. to choke. '< He looks 
as if butter wouldn't melt in his 
mouth and cheese chuck him." 

Chuck -oheldem, the shad: so 
called from its particularly bony 

Chuckle-head, a stupid person. 

Chuok-sheep, an epithet. F. C. 

Chuff, adj\ sullen ; sulky ; fat. 

ChJiggJ'Vig, a pig. 
Chug-chug (Chee-ah, Bottrell). 
Used to call the pigs to feed. 

Chur, a small piece of work. 
"Tve caught up mr chura** = 
Tve finish^ my wort:. 

Chur,Churrey, t;. to go out by the 
day to do servant's work. 

Churrer, a charwoman. '' She's 
a very good churrer,** 

Churoh-ale, a feast in commemo- 
ration of the dedication of a 

Church-hay, a churchyard. 

Churoh-hay-oough, a hollow, con 
sumptive cough. 

Church-town, a village. Three 
or four houses, and even a single 
house, is called a town in Corn- 
wall. A farm-yard is a town- 
place. London is often spoken 
of as ''Lunnon church^toum," 

Clack, a great noise ; much talk- 
ing. *' Hould your dack," 

Clacker, a rattle to frighten away 
birds ; the tongue ; a valve of a 
pump. "The clacker of the 
oUlees " (bellows). 

Claiu-off, adv, at once ; without 
a mistake. " I did it dain-off.'* 
**I told it (repeated it) c/atn- 

Clam, a stick laid across a brook 
to clamber over, supplying the 
place of a bridge. E. domwall, 
Polwhele. A plank bridge. J. 
W. Loetwithiel. 

Clammed, clamoured; often ilL 

Claps, a clasp. Clapses, pL 



G9.eA]i, t;. to wash ; to make one> 
self tidy. '* I am going to dean 

Cledcy, adj. stiff; lame. 
Clem, V. to choke with thirst. 
Clemb, Climber, v. to climb. 

" He's such a boy to climber." 

Clems, fish and potatoes fried to- 
gether. Also called pick up. 

Clever, adj\ well-grown; good- 
looking ; in ^[ood health. ** A 
clever httle maid.'' ** How art 'ee, 
my son ? *' ** Clever, thank 'ee." 

Clibby, adj, adhesive; sticky. 
Oliggy, F. W. P., Jago, M. B. 

CUck, a blow. "I'll gi' 'ee a 
cZtcAr under the ear." 

Cliok-hand, the left hand. " Thof 
(although) I'm lame in my dick- 
hand." — tinde Jan Trenoodle, 

Click-handed, adj. left-handed. 

Cliders, a plant ; the rough bed- 
straw. '* Olivers, Cleavers, 
goose-grass." H. R. C. 

Clidgy, a sweetmeat ; hardbake : 
so caUed because it sticks to the 

Clidgy, adj, sticky. 

Clig, Cligged, v, to cling to ; to 
stick to in the manner of glue or 
honey. As, ** My finders are 
digged together;" ** Bird-lime 
digs more than anything." F. 
W. P., Jago, M. B. 

Clink, a small room where vaga- 
bonds and drunkards are con- 

Clinker, a burnt-out coal. 

Clip, a smart blow. 

Clip, V. to turn the ground to put 
in crops. 

Clipper, one who turns the 

-Clitter, a flutter, v. to flutter. 
** I was all of a diUer," " Clitter- 
ing its wings.'' 

Cloam, earthenware. 

doamen, made of earthenware. 
Aji old doamen cat hollow to the 
toes ^ a hypocrite. Garland. 

doamers, painted clay marbles. 

dob, a clod or lump of earth. 
Walls made of marl mixed with 
straw are called dob or cob walls. 

dobbedf p. p. as adj\ begrimed. 
"A choked pipe of any kind 
would be said to be dobbed up. 
Dirty clothes or utensils are said 
to be dobbed with dirt" F. W. 
P., Jago, M. B. 

dock, the crop or craw. Sped" 
mens of Cornish Dialed. Unde 
Jan Trenoodle. 

dop, V. to limp. 

dopping, limping. *' Clap and 
go one." '* Mother was c^T^'n^." 

dose, reserved. ^ She's a dose 

douchin. '' He's a douchin sort 
of a fellow," i, e. a man of no 
character, not to be believed. St. 
Buryan. T. G. 

dout, a blow ; a slap. '* Stop 
thy grizzling (giggling), or FU 
gi' 'ee a dout shall make 'ee 
laugh the wrong side of thy 

douted oream, clotted cream ; 
cream made from milk scalded 
over a fire. 

Clnbbish, adJ, rough ; brutal. 

dnok, V. to bend down ; to squat 
** Cludcy down behind the hedge." 
<*The hen has got the dudi** 
(wants to sit). Olutty, W. F. P. 

Clnnk, V. to swallow with an 
effort; to bolt ^* Clunk un 

dunker, the uvula. T. Q. Couch. 

dut, a gap in a hedge. To fall 
with a dut is to fsML in a heap, 
leaving a gap. 



Clyne, a sea-bird's feast. Matthias 
Dunn, Meyagissey. 

Clysty, adj, close ; moist : as 
badly-made bread or bad pota- 
toes. " These taties are bra' and 

Co ! interj. an exclamation of 
entreaty. " Come along, Co I " 

Coady. Sheep are said to be 
cocidy when their livers are 
affected. Stratton district 

Coats, petticoats. " I never seed 
a cheeld with such short coat»J* 

Cob, a bunch of hair on the fore- 
head, often applied to the top 
locks of a horse's mane. 

Cob, V. to beat or thump. 

Cobbing, a beating. '' Gobbet, a 
blow.** Ghurland. Cobbing^ in 
mining, is breaking copper ore 

; into small pieces — done by 

CobbixLg-hammery a minei^s tool. 
Cobba, a simpletoD. 

Cobshans, money or savings. 

^'What, give my cohsharu up to 
Be Alistress Jan indeed." 

Unde Jan Trenoodle, 

Cock-haw, a game played by boys 
with victor nuts (hazel nuts). 
One boy takes off his cap, saying, 
** Code-haw ! first blaw!. up 
hat, down cap. Victor." His 
opponent lays his nut, holding 
it by the string, on the cap. The 
first boy strikes it with his nut. 
Shoidd he fedl to crack it, the 
other boy places his down, and 
BO on until the nut is broken. 
The nut that cracks the other 
is called a "cock-battler." If 
another nut can be cracked with 
the same nut, it is called a " two- 
cock-battler ; " the nut that 
breaks that a " three - cock - 
battler." and so on. Polwhele 
calls the ^me " Cob-nut," and 
the nut it is played with ** cob.** 

Cook -hedge, a trimmed thorn 
hedge, sometimes double for dry- 
ing clothes on. 

Cockle-bread {prm. cock-le). To 
make codde-bread is to turn head 
over heels on a bed. 

" Up with your heels; down with 
your head ; 
That is the way to make codcle^ 

Cockle-button {pron, coc-kle), the 
seed of the biirdock. 

Cockle np, v, Ho shrink or curl 
up with damp. ** My dress 
coddes up with dew." 

Codger, Cadger, a tramp ; a mean 
pedlar ; a term of contempt. * * An 
ould cadger" 

Codger's end, cobbler's wax-end. 

Codgy-waZy^cobbler's wax. 

Coin, a comer. 

Coin-stone, a corner-stone. To 
an'n is to strike off the comer of 
a block of tin, to discover its 
quality before it is stamped. 

Collar, boards uear the surface 
for securing the shaft of a mine. 

CoUey-brands, summer lightning. 
" Smut in com." Couch. 

CoUey-wobbles, a pain in the ^ 
stomach; diarrhoBa. 

Collopping, a flogging. 

Colp, a blow; a short rope for 
carrying sheaves from the rick to 
the bam. 

Colpas, a prop or underset to a 

Cool, a large tub or half-barrel 
used to salt meat in. When 
people brewed their own beer, 
the tub in which it was put to 

Comb, an unturned ridge left in 

Comfortable, adj\ complaisant ; 
agreeable. •* A very com/ortahle 






Comioal, adj. ill-tempered. ''A 
comicaX ould fellow.** " A comical 

Composanti, the meteor Castor 
and PoUox. Coucli. The phos- 
phorescent balls that are some- 
times seen on the masts of yessels 
before a storm. 

Condidladt p. p. as adj. mislaid ; 
stolen ; conveyed away by trick- 

y Condudles, plays; performances. 
'' As I never had seed sich o(m- 
dudle* afore." 

Unde Jan Trenoodle, 

Cfinget, a bow; a parting. 
** Make your congeea" {pron, 

Congee, r. to bow ; take leave. 
** We congeed and parted" {pron, 

Conger - donee, sweet cons^er. 
Couch. Conger - doust«, Pol- 

Conkerbell, Conkabell, an icicle. 
Cock-a-bell, H. B. C. 

Consait, a fancy. " I took a con- 
mH to go out** Sometimes used 
as a verb : *< I eonsaited to do it." 

Come-by-chance (pron, coom-be- 

chaence), something that comes 
into your possession by accident. 

"^ Come-npping (pron, coom-upp- 
ing), a flogging. •* 1*11 gi* 'ee a 
sound come-uppitig,'" 

«/ Cooche - handed, left - handed. 
Stratton district. 

Coor, the time a miner works ; 
eig^t hours. There are two day 
and one night coor, **Out of 
coor,** out 01 the regular course. 
A gang of miners is also called a 
y/ coor. " I belong to the night 

Coose, course. "Iss, o* coose" 
yes, of course. 

Coose, adj, coarse. " Fine coose 
cotton," very coarse. 

Coot, a thrashing. " I've bin and 
gove he a putty coot to-day." 

Cop, a tuft of feathers on a fowl's 

OoppicB, tufted fowls. 

Copper-finch, chaffinch. 

Cor-cri " I'll kiss the Bible to 
it, if there was a cor-cri (Corpus 
ChristiP) between every leaf." 
St. Just T. Cornish. 

Cornish, v, to use one drinking- 
glass for several people. "To 
comish together." J. W. 

Cornish-hog, a peculiar grip used 
by Comiw wrestlers. 

Corrat, adj. pert ; spirited. *' As 
corrat as Crocker's mare." 

Correesy, Corrijeee, an old grudge ; 
a sort of family feud handed 
down from fietther to son. Cor- 
rosy, Polwhele. 

Corre, a large crab-box kept 
afloat. Capt. Henry Bichards, 
Prussia Cove. 

Corwich, the crab. 

Cos*06nd, p- p. as adj. hammered 
into shape and new steeled. ''I'm 
like f ayuier's ould piggal (a large 
hoe used for cutting turf) new 
cog'sened." H. R C. 

Costan, a straw and bramble 

Costeening, a mining term; ex- 
amining the back of a lode (vein 
of metal) by digging pits. 

Conntry, the ground. "The 
country fell on him and killed 
him." A house is said to be 
built against the country when 
the side of a hill forms the back 
of it. 

Conrant, a running romp ; a row. 
**Whafs all the couran*^" C<yw*B 
courant, rough, noisy play. 

Consin, a familiar epithet. All 
Cornish gentlemen are cousins. 
Cousin Jan, a Comishman. 



Coiudn Jaeky, a foolish person ; 
a coward. 

Consse, a chat; a gossip. ''We 
had a bra' oomfor4)le cotuse,** 

CouBser, a goasiper. "She's a 
regular cousaer." 

Conning, part, gossiping. '* She's 
alias coussing,** 

Conssy, v, to chat ; to gossip ; to 
loiter on an errand. Ooursey, 

Cow, a windlass, at top shaped 
like a cowl, for supplying mines 
with air. 

Cowall, Oawell, a basket to hold 
fish, carried by the flsh-wivea A 
broad strap passes over the top 
of the head; the basket, whicn 
in shape somewhat resembles a 
cowl, rests on the back. 

Cow-flop, cow parsnip -, hogweed. 

Cowl, a fish bladder. Moosehole, 
W. F. P., B. V. 

Cowleok, Cowlake, a glutton; 

^ one over greedy of gain. Mouse- 
hole, W. P. P., B. V. 

Cowshern, cow-dung. 

Cowsherny, adj\ the colour of 
cow-dung, dark green: applied 
to thesea^ 

Cozy, adj. pert ; foppish. "What 
a cooey fellow he is." 

Crabalorgin, the thomback crab. 
F. C. 

Craky, adj. hoarse. "I niver 
heerd sich a craky voice." 

Cram, v, to crumple; to crush. 
I ** This stuff crams/* " You have 
crammed your dress." 

Crame down, v. to creep down. 

Crawn, a dried sheep-skin. Davy, 
Zennor. See Crowdy Crawn. 

Craze, v. to crack. " I've crazed 
the jug." * * Craze a squeer " is to 
crack a pane of glass. 

Crease^ a ridge tile. 

Creom, Crim, a shiver; a creeping 
of the flesh. << I feeled a crim 
coom o'er me.** 

Creem, v, to squeeze ; to mash. 
" Creem the taties.*' To hug in 
wrestling. J. W. 

Creen, v. to grieve ; fret ; pine. 

Creening, part, complaining. 
" He's creening all day long." 
"A creening woman hves for 

Creener, one who complains 
habitually. " She's bin a creen&r 
ever since I knawed her." 

Creeved, p. p, as adj. underdone ; 
half raw; badly baked. "The 
dennar is barely creeved." 

Crellas, prop, noun, ancient 
British hut circles. '* An exca- 
vation in a bank, roofed over to 
serve for an outhouse." BottrelL 

Cresser, a small fish resembling a 
bream, but of a brighter red 
colour. Taskis, Newlyn, throuGrh 
H. R 0. ^ 

Crib, a crust of bread ; fragments 
of meat. ** Eat up your crihe/* 

Crib, V. to break off small pieces. 
** He cribs a bit here and there.** 
Crih-Or-flent (flint) is to renew the 
edge by breaking off small pieces. 

Cribbage-faeed, phr. marked with 
the small-pox. '*Lanthom-jawed, 
a small, pinched face." T. Q., 

Crickle, v. to break down. It is 
applied to a prop or support when 
it oreaks down throng feeble- 
ness and simple perpendicular 
pressure of a weight above. 
Video, through W. ^K)ye, 

Cricks, dry hedgewood. Polwhele. 

Crips, adj. crisp ; stiffly curled. 

Crock, a large iron pot standing 
on three legs, used for cooking 
purposes. *' The crock calls the 
kettle smutty." ** From crockan, 
a bowl; hence croggan shells." 
H. B.C. 




Croft, a small common. "An 
enclosed common not yet culti- 
vated," J.W. 

Croggans, shells of limpets. 

Crooks, crooked pieces of wood in 
the form of a half-circle slung on 
each side of a horse. Used in 
the time of pack-horses to carry 
light loads on. 

Croom, a crumb ; a drop. "Taake 
a croom & oaake and a crooin o' 
comfort " (spirits). 

Croony, adj\ childish ; doating. 
Cronging, paj-t. shuffling. " He 

goes crouging along." 

Crow (as in crowd), a hut; a 
smaU house. IHg*$'Crotv, a pig- 

Crowd, a wooden hoop covered 
with sheep-skin, used for taking 
up com. *' Sometimes used as a 
tambourine, then called crotvdy- 
crawn," Davy, Zennor. 

Crowd, a fiddle. 

Crowder, a fiddler. 

Crowdy, v. to play the fiddle. 

Crownin, a coroner's (crowner's) 
inquest. " They held a croumin 
on him." 

Crow-sheaf, the top sheaf on the 
end of a mow. Mow in W. Corn- 
wall is pronounced like cow. 
** The corn was cut and mowed " 

Crowst (ow like cow), refresh- 
ments given to farm-labourers 
in the field at harvest-time. 

Crnddla, v. to curdle. 

Cmdly up, v. to curl up. 

Cruds, curds. Cmdge, T. C, St. 


Cmel, adv. very. "She was 
cruel sick " (verv ill), " A cruel 
shaape " (shape) is a great mess. 
"Twere plaise sure in a cruel 
shaape."~t7wc/« Jan Trenoodle. 

Cmll, a bushy, curly head. " His 
head es all o' a crtUV "Owkd 

Crum, adj\ crooked. " Her 
finger is crum." 

Cmm-a-graokle, mess, difficulty, 
bother. * * Here's a pretty crum- 
a-grackle ! what shall we do by 
it?" St.Just,T.C. 

Cruxnmet, a small bit ; a crumb. 

Cnimpling, a little sweet wrinkled 
apple prematurely ripe. 

Crunk, v. to croak as a raven. 
F. 0. 

Cuekoo, Ouokow, the wild 
hyacinth. *'Fool, fool, the 
Ouck'ow ! " said by one boy to 
another. when he has succeeded in 
fooling him on April Fool's day. 

Cud, a quid of tobacco. 

Cuddle, Coodle, a cuttle-fish. 
** Staring like a coodlej** 

Cue, an ox shoe; an iron heel 
put on a shoe or boot. 

Culiack, a good-for-nothing per- 
son. Davy, Zennor. 

Cuny, adj, mildewed. 

distance, a term used by boys 
in playing. When two boys are 
partners, and by accident hit 
each other's marbles, they cry, 
No custance f meaning that they 
have a right to put back the 
marble struck. If they neglected 
to cry they would be considered 
out of the game. 

CuBtis, a flat piece of board with 
a handle, formerly used by 
teachers in school to strike the 
palm of the hand, Custis is now 
applied to a, smart cut given 
across the palm of the hand by 
a cane. *« 111 give you a custis." 

Custit, adj\ sharp in reply; 

impudently sharp, Couclu 
Custom (pron, coostom), raw, 

smuggled spirits. '*A drap o* 




Dabbety Fay! an expression) 
formerly used by old people in 
W. Penwitb as a pious inter- 
jection, equivalent to " Give us 
faith!" H. RO. 

Daffer, small crockery -ware. 
"Bring the daffer^^ that is, 
" Bring the tea-things, cups and 
saucera" Polwhele. 

Dag, a mining tool ; an axe. 

Daggling, part, hanging down; 
trailing. ** That tree is dogging 
with fruit." " Her dress is dog- 
ging in the mud." 

Bane, *' red-headed Dane,'' a term 
of reproach. 

Dame-kUy a jack snipe. S. H. B., 
through W. Noye. 

DapB, Dops, an image ; a resem- 
blance. ** He's the very da^% of 
his mother." Down-daps, Lost- 
withiel, J. W. 

Dash-an-darrafl, "the stirrup- 
glass. This old custom, ' to 
speed the parting ^est' (his 
foot in the stirrup; with a dram, 
stni obtains in the W. of Oom- 
walL" Polwhele (1808). 

Daver, !?• to soil; to fade as a 
flower. See Bedabber. 

Dayered, p. p. as adj» soiled; 
faded. ** Davered flowers." 

Day-berry, the wild gooseberry. 

Deadf p,p. as adj, fainted. '' She 
went off dead," 

Dead and alive, adj. apathetic ; 

Deads, the refuse of mines. 

Deaf-nettle, wild hemp. 

Dealsey, Delseed, a flr cone. 

Deef, adj, deaf; empty; rotten. 
"A dee/ nut." **The seeling, 
being dee/, was scat" (broken). — 
Unde Jan Trenoodle, 

Denneok. ''There is another 
species of tub-fish caught here 
(Mousehole) very similar to, but 

much smaller than the former 
(i. 6. tub), sometimes called Piper 
or Peeper, and by others Ellick^ 
Denneck, or Bedannech." W. F. P. 

Devil*8 bit, Devil's button, the 

blue Scabious. If picked the 
devil is said to appear at your 
bedside in the nignt. 

Dew-snail, a slug. *' As slippery 
as a deW'SnoiV* 

Didjan, a small bit* 

Dido, a great noise. '' The cocks 
and the hens kicking up such a 

Dig, Diggy, t;. to scratch. ''Don't 
dig your head so." 

Dyey, a small farm. "A very 
smail homestead." BottrelL 

Dimmet, Dnmmet, twilight. 

Ding, V, to reiterate. 

Dinged, reiterated. " He dinged 
it into my ears frdm morning to 

Dinky, adj. tiny. F. C. 

Dinyan {pron» din-yan), a little 
corner.^ "I don't like fitting 
carpets into these stupid din^ 

Dippa, a small pit: a mining 

Dish, the revenue received by 
the .lord of a tin-mine for the 
right of working it. Now paid 
in money, formerly in kind, 
when every fifteenth or twentieth 
dish was put by for him. In 
"W. Cornwall the country people 
still speak of a cup of tea as 
"a disho* tay." 

Disknowledge. " He did not 

disknowledge it." T. C, , St. Just. 

Dissel, Diesel, a thistle. 

Doat fig, a Turkey fig. "And 
dabb'd a ge'at doat fig in Fan 
Trembaa's lap. " 

Dob, V. to throw stones at any- 



Dobbet, adj. short. '< She's a 
regular little dohbet,'* 

Doek, the crupper of a saddle. 

Docy, adj. pretty ; kind ; neat. 
Speaking of a young girl, she is 
said to be docy. Thus, ** she^s a 
docy little maid." F. W. P., 
Jago^ M. B. 

Dogged. "And timber had to 
be dogged (dragged) many miles." 

DoldmniB, low spirits, "Pm 
down in the doldrwna." 

Dole, a parcel of copper ore; a 
share in a mine; mine dues. 
" What dole do you pay P '* 

Dollop, a large piece. "Don't 
cut such a dollop.** 

Dooda, a stupid. 

Doodle, V. to cheat ; to deceive ; 
to trifle. 

Doodling, jxirt. cheating. 

Doole, Dolley, v. to toll a bell. 

Douse, v. to yield; to give up. 
** Douse out your money." 

Donsse. "I have known poor 
peonle call a pillow stuffed with 
husKS of winnowed com a dousse 
pillow." F. W. P., Jago, M. B. 
Chaff firom winnowed com is 

Doust, V, to pelt. " I maade the 
purpoashals to dotist 'em with 
stoanes." — Unde Jan Trenoodle. 

DouBt, Donee, a blow. " A douce 
on the chacks." Polwhele. 

Donster, a fall ; a thump. Gar- 

DouBting, a thrashing. 

Dover, to pay all talkers, no 

Dow. "The aw*d dow, a dis- 
agreeable, cross old woman, one 
who will not do what she is 
wanted to." Gwinear, 1868, T. 0. 

Down, Down-dannted, p. p. as 

adj. oast down ; depressed. ' ' He^ 
dreadfully dotvn-daurded, reg^- 
larly down in the mouth." 

D w n 8 e 8 , downs ; commons. 
* * Out for a walk on the dowtiaesj* 

Down-sonse, adv. plainly; 
frankly; out-spoken. "I up 
and told un down^soute** 

Dowse, V. to throw on the ground. 

Dowser, a man who discovers 
metal by dowsing. 

Dowser, a forked twig of hazel, 
used by Cornish miners to dis- 
cover a vein of metal. It is held 
loosely in the hand, the point to 
the dowsef'a breast, and is said 
to turn round when they are 
standing over metaL 

Dowsing, j>ar^. discovering metals 
by means of a dotner. 

Drag, V. to drawl. " Don't drag 
out your words." 

Drain, a drone. 

Dram, a swathe of cut com. 

Drang, a narrow passage; a 
gutter ; a drain. 

Drash, v. to thrash com. 

Drashel, a flail. 

Draw-bncket, a bucket to draw 
water from a well. 

Dredge, a mixed crop of barley, 
oats, and wheat. 

Dredgy ore, a stone impregnated 
or traversed by mineral veins of 
ore. Mining Eecord. Hie poorer 
sort. Borlase Nat Hist., 203, 
through W. N. 

Dresser, a stand with shelves for 
earthenware. '*A11 over the 
house, .like Aaron*s dresser.** 
HalHwell says, N. Coimtry, 
*'Down with his apple-cart, an 
overturning:." In Cornwidl, 
"Down with your dresser,^ or 
"Over goes your apple-cart" 
M. A. C. 



Oresahely Drezel, the thiesholcL 
Breckstooly Polwhele. 

Dretluuiy a spot of sand It is 
a mutation of " treathen," as in 
Pentreath, <<the head of the 
sands." W. F. P. " Drethen, 
a sand spot ; a sand area. Good 
fishing ground beneath the sea." 
B. Y., Mousehole fishermen. I 
don't think Pentreath is from 
treathy sand, but from Pentref, 
a villsHge. H. E. C. 

Drib, a dribble. " Dnffy a small 
quantity, not now commonly 
used." Video, through W.Noye. 

Drilsy, a monotonous, continued 
sound ''Mydearcheeld, dostop 
your driUy.** A guck-oo song 
18 a regular drUsy, 

Bring, a crowd of people. To be 
drvnged up is to be much pressed 
or worried 

l)rip8lia]i, mother's milk ; spirits. 
** A little drap o' dripshanJ'^ 

Broke, a wrinkle; a furrow; a 

Droll. " It is the duty of the 
last man leaving a level part of 
a mine to explain to the first 
man of a relief party coming to 
it the state of the end they have 
been working, t. e, what holes 
for blasting they leave bored, 
what fired off, what have missed 
fire — ^this is called telling the 
drdV T.C. i>roM, an old tale, 
a legend. It is sometimes ap- 
plied to a tiresome, long-winded 
person. "He's a regular owd 

Drop-ourlfl, ringlets. 

Drops, window-blinds. " I knew 
he was dead — ^the drop9 were 

Drover, a fishing-boat employed 
in driving or fishing, with drift 
or float nets. 

Dmckflhary a small solid wheel. 

Drug, a drag ; v. to drug a wheel 
(to put on the drag). 

DmlOy 17. to driveL 

Dmler, a driveller ; a fool. 

Druling, part, talking in a silly 

Drum, V, to flog. 

Drumming, a flogging. 

Dmmble, r. to go about a thing 
awkwardly ; to fumbla 

Drumble- drain, a drone; a 

'* Bat Graacey were a keen chap 
She were no drumUe-drane,'* 
Uncle Jan Trenoodle. 

Dryth, used by washerwomen 
when clothes don't dry. ** There's 
no dryth in the air." 

Dnffim, a man who praises him^ 
self; a self-righteous hypocrite. 

Dofly, a blunt, out^spoken person. 
" A blunt, happy-go-lucky per- 
son." Bottrell. 

Dag, a push. 

Duggle, V, to walk about like a 
young child 

Dnle, Dool, comfort ; consolation. 

Dnll, hard of hearing ; deaf. 
''He's very duU of hearing to- 

Dumbledory, the cockchafer: 
sometimes ccdled Spanish dumhle- 
dory, *'No more heart than a 
dtmihledory" (a coward). "As 
blind as a dumbledory.'* 

DnmdoUy, a misshapen marble. 

Dnng, mud; dirt. "Sweating 
like dung," 

Dungy, adj, muddy; dirty. 
** What dungy shoes." 

Dnnyon, a dungeon. '' As dark 
as a dunyon," 

Durgy, a short, stout person. 

Dnrk, adJ, dark ; blind. " Durk 
as petdi (pitch) a wonside and 
hare of a crepple." — Unde Jan 




Durnes, Drums, the panels around 
a door; the door jamhe. **I 
were squabVd (squoozed) 'gen 
the dumes." 

Dwaling, jmrt, speaking in a 
rambling, confused manner. 

Sar-bnssas, the tonsUs. Ear- 
buMums, T. a Couch« 

Eave, Heave, v. to thaw; to 
become moist *• Uneeve," Pol- 

Ees-fye, adv. in faith ; certainly. 
" Ees'fye^ there's a bad smell 

Egg-hot, a Christmas drink made 
with hot beer, sugar, ^gg^i ^^^ 

Elements. " The lightning went 
all across the elements,** 

Elioompane, a sweetmeat; hard- 
bake. "What's your name?" 
* * EUcompaneJ* • * Who gave you 
that name F ** " My Master and 

Elioompanie, a tomtit "There 
is a Yulgar tradition that the 
elicompavie is a bird by day and 
a toad by night*' Polwhele. 

Slyan, blue porphyry. Elvan is 
derived from Old Cornish elven, 
a spark, the rock being so hard 
as to strike fire. 

Em-mers, Timers, embers. 

Emmut, stroke, as spoken of the 
wind. ** Ri^ht in the emmut of 
it," that is, right in the stroke of 
it. Polwhele. 

En, the plural termination still 
in use, as "house, housen; prim- 
rose, primrosen.'* 

Ene, mene, mona, mi, Pasca, 
lara, bona (or bora), bL £lke, 
belke, boh. £gg8, butter, cheese, 
bread, stick, stack, stone dead. 
Said by children in W. Cornwall 
when they want to know who 
shall be blmd-man in blind-man's 
buff, &c. See Vizzery. 

Eat, V. to empty. 

Enties, empty bottles. Emjjt is 
often used as a contraction, as, 
" JE^mpe the bag." 

Ettaw, a shackle for fastening 
two chains together, so as to 
make them one long one. Mouse- 
hole fishermen, through W. P. P. 

Eval, a three-pronged stable-fork. 
Turn-down evo/, a garden tool for 

E-ver, a grass; evergreen rye. 
** Eaver, so called in Paul parish, 
is the darnel principally found in 
red wheat" H. E. C. 

Every one week, phr, every 
other week. ** There's a collec- 
tion at our chapel every one 

Eryet, Ebbet, a newt 

Eyeable, adj, pleasant to the eye, 
" Make it eyeabie." 

Faokle, an acute inflammation in 
the foot. 

Faddy, Flora, Furry-day, a feast 

held at Helstone on the 8th May, 
when all ranks (each keeping to 
its own class, and starting at 
different hours) dance through 
the town, to a peculiar tune 
called "The Flora or Furry •" 
sometimes going in through tne 
front door of a house and out at 
the back. Thei^e is always a ball 
in the evening. 

Fade, v. to dance from toi^n to 

Fadge, Fadgee, v, to suit; to 
agree ; to do. ** That 'ull never 
fadgeJ* " How do 'ee fadgee)'* 
how do you do ? 

Faggot, a bad woman. '' It is 
also tLsed to describe a secret and 
unworthy compromise. In wrest- 
ling, a man who ' sells his back' 
is said * to faggci** " Couch. 

Fainaigue, v, to cheat; to deceive; 



to flatter ; to trump a card, hold- 
ing one of the suit. Fumigg, 

FainaigiiLgy part, aaadj. cheating ; 
imposing. * ' A/ainaigtng y ellun ** 

Famaigiiery a cheat ; a deceiver. 

Feneaged. " He agreed with the 
boy for a month at £4 a-year, 
and he went away and feneaged 
that boy, and never took him 
nor paid him." Frobus district, 
through T. 0. 

Fair-a-Mo, a fair held in St. Ives 
in November (pig fair). 

Fairy, a weaseL T. Q. (Jouclu 

Falky, a long- stemmed plant. 

Fallows, boards fastened to the 
sides of a cart to make it hold 

Fal-the-ralfl, Falderals, non- 
sense; frippery. '^Dressed up 
in Budi/aMA«-ra^." 

Fang, V. to earn; to take; to take 
to. ** I don't fang to your 

Fangingpi, wages. "Why a 
spent all hes fanginga laaste 
Saturda' nite." — Uncle Jan Tre- 

Fare-nut, the earth or ground- 

Farthing, a measure of land. 
"Thirty acres." HalliweU. 

Fast The fa^i is the under- 
stratum, supposed never to have 
been moved or broken up since 
the creation. Polwhele. 

Fatch, V. to get home (fetch). " I 
shaan't be long/atcAtn(/ home." 

Feasten, adj. connected with the 
two days yearly dedicated to a 

Satron saint (Sunday and Mon- 
ay). " Madron {pron, maddem) 
feasten Snnday." 

Feather-bog, a quagmire. 

Feather-4ye, a feather-bed. See 

Features. "He feaiurcB his 
fether," resembles him. 

Fee, freehold property. " Our 
house is /ce." 

Feebs, Feeps, pitch-and-toss. 

Fellon, a cattle disease ; an in- 
flammation; mortification. 

Fellon-herb, mouse-ear; chick- 

Fencook, the water-rail. 

Femioook, Femweb, a small 
brown beetle used as bait for 

Fescue, a pin or pointer used to 
teach children to read. "Pro- 
nounced also Tester." Polwhele. 

Fetch up, to get stronger. "She'll 
soon /e/c7i wp again.'' 

Few, a little. " A few broth." 
Broth are always plural in Corn- 
wall : " They a/re too salt," &c. 

Yvg^phr. "in full^,*' very fine ; 
smart : spoken of a person with 
all his orders on. 

Figs, raisins. 

Figs and nuts, almonds and 

Figgy pudden, plum pudding. 

Filth, a slut. " She's a dirty 

Filth, fill. " He had his filth of 
meat." " A poor dear old sister 
that has not got her JUth of 
bread." Gwinear, T. C. 

Find myself phr, know myself. 
* ' I shouldn* t find my^f dressed 
up like that." 

Fine, adv, very. " A fine clever 
boy. ^ * * Fine and coarse cotton "" 
(very coarse). 

Fine and well, very well. " I'm 
getting on fin^ and well, thank 



Fire. '* As drunk as Jire," mad 

Fire-engine, a steam-engine. " A 
fEivourite sign for a public- 

^-pan, a fire-shoveL 
Fire-taU, the redstart 

V, to tease roughly by hand 
F. C. 

Fiah*£Elg, a fish-wife : more com- 
monly called Fish-Joiister. 

Fish-jonsting, part, hawking fish. 

Fisted, p, p. struck with the fist. 
" I JUted her.* 

Fit, V. to prepare meat for cook- 
ing. "When shall I fit the 
dennar P" " Will 'ee ha' a pie 
Jetted f «* The devil won't come 
into Cornwall for fear of being 
put in a pie." 

Fitdier, a pole-cat. '< Stinking 
like &fttcher.'* 

Fitohered, p. p. to be baulked ; 
to be stopped. " Used in mining 
when some difficulty occurs in 
boring a hole for blasting.'* 

Fitty, adj\ nice ; becoming ; 
clever. ** Tour dress isn't look- 
ing fiUyJ* "He goV a fiUy 

Fitty-ways, adv, properly. " Do 
behave fitty'ioayB,** 

Flaad, p. p, as adj, puffed out 
with flatulency, as cattle after 
too much green food. 

Flaire, fat around a pig's kidney. 

Flam-new, ac^\ quite new. 

Flannin, flannel. "A flannin 

Flasket, a large basket with a 
handle at eacn end; a clothes 

Flay-gerry {g hard), a frolic ; a 

Fleet, V, to gutter, as a candle in 
a draught " v, to float" W. N. 

Flem, an instrument for bleeding 

Flesh -malt, butchei^s meat 
** They don't ait flesh^mait once 
a month." Pork is often spoken 
of as flesh in contradistinction to 

Fleokan, a cross-cut that cuts off 
a lode (a vein) of metaL " He's 
out out by the fleukanj* 

Flied, p, p, flown. 

Flink, a fling. *' She went out 
with & flink." 

Flinky i;. to fling; imjh Flinkt 
** She flinkt out of the room." 
" She flinkt off her hat" 

Flip-jack, a lude fireplace. 

Fliflk, a large tooth-comb. 

Flitters, tatters. '< She tore it to 
flitters.** * * Her dress is hanging 
in flitters.** 

Flood-hatehf a flood-gate. phr. 
** It's raining k flood." 

Floor, a grass meadow. In 
mining, planks laid for dressing 

Flop, V. to drop clumsily. ** He 
let un flop on the planohen* 

Flopt, t;. imp. " She^jp^ down 
on her sait ' ' (seat). 

Flopper. an under petticoat 

Flora-in-distress. A woman with 
dishevelled hair is said to look 
like Flora-in-distress. 

Flosh, V. to spill ; to shake over. 
*' Don't flosh the water on the 

Flonery-milk, hasty pudding. 

Flushed, p. p. as adj, fledged. 
" The birds have flushed and 
flied" (flown). 

Flnshet, a dam in a stream. 



Flybanite, a giddy girL 

Fo*ced, p. p, as adj. forced ; 
obliged. •* A /</ced put is no 

Fogo, a cave in a cliff; a hollow. 

YoigeTy Folyer (follower), a boat 
that carries the tuck -net in 
pilchard fishing. 

Foooh, a makeahift. "A fooch 
of a dennar '* (dinner). 

Fooch, V. to make a thing serve ; 
to do upon a push. "Can 'ee 
fooch along wi' that ? " 

Fooeh, V. to push; to thrust 
Yourself forward. " Where be 

Fooohing along, doing indiffer- 
ently well. ** How be 'ee, Jan?" 
. ** Fooehing along, thank 'ee." 

Fooihy, Forthy, adj. forward. 
'* A fine forthy maid." ''He's 
bra' and foothy." 

Fore-stroll, v. "I have never 
walked with her. I may have 
seen her fore-ttroll, and gone to 
overtake her." St Just, T. 0. 

Fo'right-bread, Foreright* 

bread, bread made from unsifted 

Fo'right, Foreright, person, adj. 

an out-spoken person. 

Forrel, the cover of a book. 

Forth-and-baok, adj. inconstant. 

Fousse, V. to crumple ; to ruffle ; 
to disarrange. ** YoTiWe fouesed 
your cap." ** Don't fousse the 
dain clothes.*' 

Fraage, v. to spread out like a 

Frape, v. to bind. Couch. 

Freath, a gap in a wattled hedge. 
Couch. Frith, a gap in a hedge 
made up. J. W. 

Freathed, adj. wattled. 

Freathe, v. to weave. 

Freathe out, to unravel. " This 
stuff freatheB out very quickly." 

French nuts, walnuts. 
Fret, V. to ferment 

Frickets, Fliekets, sudden heats 
in the face. 

Friday-in-Iide, a miner's holiday. 
The first Friday in March. 
** Ducks won't lay till they've 
drinked Hde water." ** Friday- 
in-lide is marked by a serio- 
comic custom of sending a young 
man on the highest bounds or 
hillock of the work, and allow-* 
ing him to sleep there as long as 
he can ; the length of this siesta 
being the measure of the after- 
noon nap for the tinners through- 
out the ensuing twdvemonths.' ' 
T. Q. Couch. 

Fringle, the grate of a kitchen. 

Fringle-hole, the place under the 
grate where the aahes lie. 

Frivolous, adj. thin; liable to 
break. "This wool is very 

Full-butt, p7tr. face to face. '* I 
met }nm full-butt," 

Fulsome, adj, cloying. "This 
tart IB swato and fulsome.^* 

Fanny, well-pleasing. " It looks 
funny " — ^it looks well-pleasing ; 
regular. Polwhele. 

Fur, V. to pull the ears. F. C. 

Fuz*, furze. "Sweating like a 
/ua'-bush on a dewy morning." 

Fuz'-chat, the stone-chatter. 
Fuz'-kite, the ring-tailed kite. 
Fuziy-pig, the hedgehog. F. G. 

Gad, a mining tool ; a wedge for 
splitting rocka 

Oaddle, v. to drink greedily. T. 
Q. Couch. " To fill up ; to brim 
over." Gkurland. 

Oad-je*YrawSy ox-eye daisies. 



Oaern, a garden. 

Oaggled, p, p. as adj. daggled. 

Oale, an ox. '* A childless man." 

Oale-ey gronnds. <' Ground 
V where springs rise in different 

places.** Polwhele. Carew speaks 

of Ghaully grounds. 

Oalligantery a taU, ungainly 

Oallish, the gallows. ** As cross 
as the gallish" 

Oal-yant, adj, gallant. 

Oambers, interj, " Yes, by gam- 

Oambrils, the small of the leg. 

Oammnt, fun ; nonsense. '' She 
thinks of nothing but gammut," 

Oange, Oinge, v. to gange a hook 
is to coyer it with a fine brass or 
copper wire, to prevent its being 
bitten off by the fish. " Ging, 
ginge, the nne wire twisted to 
the line aboye the hook to pre- 
vent congers from biting the 
line." a R. 0. 

Garey, v. Husband and wife 
both trying to tell the same 
story (yery loud), wife turns 
round on husband — **One is 
quite enough to garey ;^ and 
nusband subsides. St. Just, 
through T. C. 

Oashly, adv, ghastly. 

Oathom, a mischievous spirit 
supposed to haunt mines. 

Oaver, a sea crayfish. Polwhele, 

Ctowkum, an awkward person. 
Oay. '' One is a play, two is a 

Oay 8, children's toys : often, 
broken earthenware. 

O'eat {pron. gaite), great 

Oeek, V, to pry ; to look round 
curiously. ** Oeeking about like 

a Custotm-house officer.^ *' Bo" 
geek," bo-peep. 

Gtoricky a whistler fish; sea- 

Oidge, interf. " Oh my gidge ! " 

Oift, a white mark on the naiL 

** A gift on the thumb is sure to 
But a gift on the finger is 
sure to linger." 

Oiglet, a thoughtless, laughing 
girl. "There's nothing but a 
passle (parcel) o' gigleU going,** 

Oyoalter, part of the rigging of 
a ship. J. Kelynack, Newlyn. 

Oirts, groate ; oatmeal. 

Oirty-milk, oatmeal; milk por- 

Oiss, Oeist, a hempen girdle; 
the girth of a saddle. 

Oissing round, Oeesing round, 

V. peering about ; spying. 

Oiz* dance, Onise ^Uince, Oeeae 

dancers, people that go about at 
Christmas disguised and with 
masks on, generally three or 
four in a party. They come into 
your house uninvited, and are 
often very unruly. Sometimes 
they act an old play, " St. George 
and the Dragon.* ' ' ' As good as 
a Christmas play" is said of any- 
thing yery funny. This custom 
has been abolished in Penzance 
for about ten yeara 

Oladdy, the yellow-hammer. * 

Glands, the banks of a river. 
Polwhele, Halliwell. 

Olase, V. to stare. 

Olassenbury dog, a term of re- 
proach, the origin at present 
unknown to the editor. — XJndt 
Jan Trenoodle, 

** Do le' ma knaw the Olaumhury 

Olaws, Oouse, dried cow-dung 
used for firing. 

Olen adder, the cast skin of an 



adder worn as an amulet. " The I 
foot of a toad is worn in a bag | 
around the neck as a cure for 
epilepsy." H. E. 0. 

Olidder, a glaze ; an enamel. 

Glow, Glower, t;. to stare; to 
look cross. 

Olnmps, sulks. "S^e's in the 

Olnmped up, p, p. as adj. sitting 
sulkily. ** Glumped up in a 

Oo abroad, v. to dissolve. " The 
sugar has gone abroad?* 

Oo-a-gooding, v, to go from house 
to house asking alms. On 
Ohiistmas Eve large parties of 
poor women, sometimes as many 
as twenty in a party, call on all 
their rich neighbours, asking 
alms. This they call going a 

Goal, a slow, aching pain. T. Q. 

Go around land, phr. to die. 
** They don't care how soon he 
goes around land" 

GofBuLB, CofFanB, old surface ex- 
carations in a mine. 

Goggle for gapes, v. to look 

astonished; to stare, foolishly. 
** Or stand goggling for gapes 
like an owl at an eagle." — Unde 
Jan TrenoocUe. 

Golden ohain, the flower of the 

Gommoeky a f ooL 

Gone dead, v, '^ He's gone dead 
three years since. '* 

Gone poor, v. " He used to be 
rich, now he's gone poor." 

Gtoodness, butter or any kind of 
fat put in pastry. ** There's not 
enough goodness in this cake." 

Goodspoon, a mischievous child. 
•*A regular young goodspoon,** 
«* A ne'er do weeL'^ J. W., Lost- 

Goody, V. to thrive; to fatten. 
** Our cheeld don't ^oo<iy." 

Goonhilly, a Cornish pony reared 
on Goonhilly downs. 

(Joosechick, a gosling. 

G088, a fuss or perplexity. 

CK>B8, a bulrush ; a reed. " Goss 
moor " is a reedy moor, Gorse. 
J. W. 

Gossan, an old wig grown yellow 
from age and wear ; yellow earth 
just above a vein of metal. 
"Keenly gossan*' is earth that 
looks promising for metal. 

Gourd, Goad, a linear measure ; 
a square yard: so called from 
being measured with the goad or 
staff by which oxen are driven. 

Gt)Ye, V. imp. gave. " I gove et 
to the dog" (gov'). 

Gowk, a large bonnet worn by 
country women, often made 
from printed calico; it has a 
protruding front, and a large 
curtain at the back to keep off 
the sun. 

Grab, something very sour, pro- 
bably a crab apple. ** 8our as 
grab." A grab. Lostwithiel, J. W. 

Grafted, t?., p. p, as adj. be- 
grimed. ** It's grafted with dirt." 
** The dirt is grafUd in." 

Grail, a trident for spearing fish. 
Grainy, adj. proud. "A cut 

a^inst the grain** is a cross, 
disagreeable person. 

Grambler, a stony place. 

Grammer sow, a millipede; a 
wood-louse. **Cafenter." F. 0. 

Grange, Gringe, f;. to grind the 

Ghrass, a mining term for the sur- 
face of a mine. The ores are 
said to be brought to grass when 
they are brougnt to the surface, 
and the miner says he is going 
to groM when he comes up from 
underground. " Grass capun " 



(captain) ia a man wlio Buperin- 
tends the preparing the ore after 
it has been brought to grass, 

Oraving clouds, clouds blowing 
from the quarter of the wind 
branching over the sky in a 
contrary direction, foretelling a 

Orebe, a handful. 

Oreen sauoe, common sorrel; 

Oreen tide, land kept in pasture. 
** The green side is the most pro- 
fitable after all." 

Orend, a kink or twist in a 
chain. Mousehole fishermen, 
through W. F. P. 

Orey, "a badger." Polwhele. 
'' Orey as a badger '' is a Cornish 

Orey bird, the song t'hnish. 
Oriddle, a gridiron, v. to grill. 

flriddling, part» sitting on a low 
stool before the fire warming 

Orie£ " To make grief" to make 

Origgan, a grasshopper. 

OririanSy Origlings, heath. 

"Heathy moonand^ are griglan 
moors.** H. B. C. Heath- 
brooms, j^ri^Zan-besoms. 

0ri2zle, v. to grin ; laugh ; show 
the teeth. *' What's the g*eat 
bufflehead grizzling at P " " He 
grizzled at me ; he was as yezed 
as fire.** 

Orobman, "a sea bream about 
two-thirds grown," Polwhele, 

Orock, t7. to pull ; to tweak. 
** Orock is to tweak the hair up- 
wards over the ears or above the 
nud'eck " (the nape of the neck). 
H. R 0. 

OroBS, adj. stout; big. "A 
grou man." 

Orowan, loose granite. 

Orowder, soft granite used for 
scouring. Decomposed granite 
often called " scouring geard." 

Oroyne, a seal. 

Onidplings, Orooshans, dregs; 
sedmient left in the bottom of a 

Omffler, a chQd. 

Orate, Oreet, coffee grounds; 
finely pulverised soil. '* The 
greet board of a plough is the 
TOurt which turns the furrow.** 
T. Q. Couch. 

Onf^ stuff; refuse. 

Oninea pig, the small white 

Onldize, Ooolandixe, the harvest- 
home feast. 

Onlge, V. to drink greedily. 

Onlly-mouth, a small pitcher. 
*'He*s a regular gully-mouth" 
(one that takes in everything). 

Ounnifl, a crevice in a mine or 
lode. Camborne, through T. C. 

Ourgoe, Ourgey (both g'a hard), 
a low hedge; a rough fence for 
waste land. 

Ourgoes, long narrow lanes. W. 

Onrrie, a hand*barrow for carry- 
ing fish ; or a wicker-basket with 
four long handles, carried like a 

Owaith, the bi^east hook of a 

Oweans, scallops ; periwinkles. 
Sometimes called Queens. 

Owenders, a disagreeable tingling 
in the extremities produced bv 
cold. Also called Wonders. **I 
have the gwenders in my fingers. " 
** I have the wonders for the first 
time this winter.** 

Hack, Hacky, v. to dig lightly. 



Hail, V, to coyer with alates 
(slat). H. E. C. 

Hain, a hind ; a farm bailiff. 

Eair-pitohed, adj. hald. " Hair- 
pitched ould hermit," term of 
reproach. Newlyn, T. C. 

Haivery (the accent on the first 
syllable), miserly. ¥, W. P. J. 

Half (pron. hda/)^ Half-baked, 

Half-saved, half-witted. ''He's 
only liaaf "baked ; he was put in 
witn the bread and taken out 
with tiie cakes.^ 

Half-crease, '< to put out bees to 
feed.'' Half the increase, when 
the owner has half the honey, 
and the person who takes care of 
the bees the other hal£ J. W. 

Halish, adj, pale. *' She's a poor 
hcUish creetur.*' 

Hallan, HaUan-apple, a large 
apple given to eadi member of 
fhe family at Hallantide. 

Hallan-tide, All Saint's Day. 

HaU-nut, a hazel nut 

Halvaner, one who receives the 
half produce of his labour. 

Halyans, refuse of the lode (or 
vein of metal) after the ore is 
separated from the rock. 

Halyaiis, half produce of labour, 
given instead of wages. 

Haly-oaly, v. to throw things to 
be scrambled for. 

Hame, a circle of straw rope ; a 
straw horse collar, with wooden 
ooUar-trees. '*A hame is used 
to fasten the fore-leg of a sheep 
to his neck, in a somewhat un- 
merciful way, to prevent him 
from breaking fence.*' Couch. 

Hand -gloves, gloves. ''What, 
begging with hand-gloves on ! " 

Handsel, HanseL When a man 
is well paid for any chance job 
early in the day, he says '^ that's 
a good hanselJ' 

Hankcher, a handkerchief. 

Haps, a hasp. Hapses, pi. 

Hardah, elvan. Couch. 

Hard-head, the refuse of tin 
after smelting. The plantain, 
J. W^. 

Hare's-meat, wood-eorreL 

Hark, v. to listen, " I wouldn't 
hark to her nonsense." 

Harre, a harrow. 

Hastis, adj. hasty. ** Hysty 
(Cornish), haste, make haste." 
Uncle Jan TrenoodU. 

Hatches, dams ; mounds. 

Hatchet-faced, adj. thin-faced. 

Hatter-flitter, a jack-snipe. 

Haveage, the family ; the race ; 
the lot. ** They come from a bad 

Haysing, following hares by 

Head and henge^ the pluck of 

an animal. 

Heap, the thigh. 

Heap. " When I heard it I was 
knocked all of a Aeop" (Mght- 
ened, astonished). 

Heavy-cake, a flat cake about an 
inch thick, made of flour, cream, 
currants, &c. It should be eaten 
hot from the oven. 

Hedge-a-boor, a hedgehog. 

Heed, v. to hida Mop-and- 
heedy, hide-and-seek. 

Heel of the hand, the inside, 
thick part of the thumb. 

Hele, V. to cover. 

HeUer, Hellier, a thatcher; a 

Helling, a roof. 

Helling - stone, flat slate for 

Hepping-stock, a horse-block. 
nepping'SUKkSf or kepping^itanea, 



are often seen by old garden 
walls. TTpping-Btock. 

Heps, a hatch ; a short half -door, 
often seen in country shops. The 
lower half is kept shut, the top 
open. There is generally a bell 
fastened to it to give notice of a 
customer. When a person has 
been brought before his superiors 
and remanded, he is figuratively 
said ** to haye been made to ride 
the ?iep$," ** More tongue than 
teeth ; she had better keep a heps 
before her mouth." 

Het-up (heat-up), v. to cast in 
one's teeth. ** She het it up to 
him that he was drunk last 

Hey-a, a word shouted through 
St. Ives's streets when there are 
pilchards in the bay. 

Hewer, Huer, a person that 
makes signals from the cliffs to 
the fishermen in their boats, to 
let them know in what direction 
the pilchards lie. 

Hewing, part, making signals 
from the cliffs to the boats. 
There is generally a shed on 
the highest cliff to shelter the 
hewer, caUed the hewing-house 
or bacon-house (beacon-house). 

Hicking cough, a dry, hacking 

Hick-mal, Hekky-mal, the blue 
titmouse. Bkky-mowl, F. W. 
P. J., M. B. 

Hile, Aile, lie, the beard of 

HiUa, the nightmare. 

Eippety - hoppety, adv, " He 

goes hippety ' hop'pety''^ (walks 

Hitch, V, to sew lightly. " Don't 
put too many stitches; hitch it 

Hitcher, the chape of a buckle. 
See Aitch. 

Hobban, Hoggw, a cake made 
of flour and raisins, often eaten 
by miners for dinner. Some* 
times called Figgy Hogg^aa 
or Fuggan. A pork pasty, 

Hobban, or Hoggan-bag, a 

miners* dinner-bag. A piece of 
meat baked or boiled in paste ia 
sometimes so called. 

Hobble, 17. to tie together the 
front and hind leg of an animal 
to keep it from straying. 

Hobbler, an unlicensed pilot ; a 
man who tows in a vessel with 
ropes. Two or three generally 
own a boat between them. 

Hobble, the share each hobbler 
gets when they bring in a vesseL 

Hobby-horse Day, a festival held 

in Padstow on May 1st. A 
hobby-horse is carried through 
the streets to a pool called 
Traitor's Pool, a quarter of a 
mile out of the town. Here it 
is supposed to drink; the head 
is dipped in the water, which is 
freely sprinkled over the specta- 
tors. The procession returns 
home sineing a song to comme- 
morate the tradition that the 
French having landed in the 
bay, mistook a party of mum- 
mers in red cIosks f jr soldiers, 
and hastily fled to their boats 
and rowed away. 

Hoddy-man-doddy, an overgrown 
stupid boy ; a simpleton. 

Hog, Hogget, a two -year -old 

Hog lamb, a sheep under twelve 

Hoity-toity, a see-saw. "She's 
a hoity-toity thing " (capricious, 

Hole to grass, phr, working a 
vein of motal to the surface. 

Hollibubber. " A man who, un- 
attached to the works, makes a 
living out of the rofuLse of the 



slate quaxiies at Delabole.*' T. 
Q. Couch. 

Hollow-pot, a loud-talking poi- 

Hollow - work, in embroidery, 

Holm, the holly. 

Holm Bcritch, the missel-thrush. 

Holster, a retreat or hold for 
anything. J. W. 

Home, Hom'. " Shut koine the 
door.** Put home, v, to escort 

Homer, homeward. " The homer 

Honey Pizi, a peculiar sweet 
apple. BottreU. 

Hoop, a bullfinch. 

Hoot, V. to bray like a donkey. 
" A bad hoot,'' a bad job. ** That's 
a bad hoot, says Madison.*' 

Hootin cough, whooping cough. 

Hoozy, adj. hoarse. " Fm very 
hoozy'' Oisy. "Tm oisy, so 
that I can hardly speak.*' St. 
Just, T. 0. 

Homy-wink, a lapwing ; plover. 
Horrywink, Couch. 

Homy-wink, ^'a toad. An old 
tumble -down house has been 
revilingly described as an old 
shabrag homy-wink place.** H. 
J., Boyal Institute of Cornwall. 

Homy-winky, adj\ " desolate ; 
outlandish; like a moor where 
homwinks or lapwings resort; 
thence a tumble -down house 
might be so called.*' J. W. 

Horse, a fault in the rock; a 
piece of matrix rising in a lode 
(vein) of metal, throwing it out 
of its course. *^ The lode has 
taken horsej*' 

Horse-adder, the dragon-fly: so 
called because it is supposed to 
sting horses. 

Hosgid, a hogshead. 

Honsel of goods, houseful, or a 
furnished house. Morvah, T. C. 

Hove, V. heave ; threw. " I hove 
my ball over the wall.*' ** Why 
did you heave it so high?" 
**Heffc it upon the ground," t. c. 
heaved. St. Just, T. 0. 

Hnccaner, a wood comer. 

Hucksen, the knuckles. " Muck 
(dirt) up to the AwcA^en.** 

Holster, Holt, a hold or retreat 
** This rubbish is only a hulster 
for snails.** T. Q. Couch. 

Hnlster, v. to harbour. " How 
dare you hulster my daughter 

Hummock, a stout, unwieldy 

Hungry, adj. greedy; stingy, 
"He's as hungry as tiie grave.** 

Hunk, Hunch, a large piece. ''A 
hunk of bread and cheese.** 

Hurle, the filament of flax. **Ab 
dry as hurle.'' 

Hurling, a Cornish game played 
with a ball. The players are 
divided into two equal parties, 
each of which tries to secure and 
keep the ball in their possession* 
The prize is one made of cork 
covered with silver. ** Fair play 
is good play** is the huriers' 

Hurly-burly, a scramble. <'A 
hv/rly 'burly for nuts.** 

Hurried, p. p. as adj. frightened ; 
startled. ** I was braly hurried 
when I heard of it." "What's 
your hurry ? *' phr, why are you 

Hurted, v. imp. "murder com- 
mitted, but nobody hurted" 

Hurts, whortleberries. 

Hush-a-bit, phr. go gently. 

Hushed out {pron. hoosh), v. 
imp, turned out by a slight 
noise. "They hushed the hen 
out of the nest ," 



Entch-work, small ore washed 
by a sieve. 

I-fitokfl, adv. in faith ; certainly. 

lies, small flat worms found in 
the livers of sheep — ^the cause of 

lUck, EUick, " the red gurnard, 
called soldiers at St Levan." H. 

ni-wifh, V. to bewitch. The 
common people still believe if 
they have a sudden illness that 
they are ill'Wiahed, and pay a 
visit to the conjuror (white 
witch) to^ try and find out who 
has done it. 

Il^^ots, tin cast in small oblong 
iron moulds; large moulds are 
called blocks. 

Inkle, tape. 

Inkle-maker, a tape weaver. "As 
thick as inkle~7)iaker$^* (very 

Innerds, the bowels. "A pain 
in my innerds.'^ 

Insense, v. to make a thing plain 
to any one. ** 111 inaense him 
into it.'' 

Insi-ooat, an inside coat ; a petti- 

IshaiL, dust from winnowing. 
I* Take up the uhan and put it 
in the costan," meant *'take 
np the dust and put it m the 
basket" F. W. P. 

Jack Harry's lights, phantom 
lights, generally seen before a 
gale, taking the form of a vessel 
sure to be wrecked. Called after 
the person who was said to have 
first seen them. 

Jacky-ralph, a wrasse. 

Jaffle, a handful: generally ap- 
plied to a bunch of flowers. •* A 
jaffle of flowers." "JeffixU, 
Yaffle, handful. 'Jeffulls of 
hay.'" T. 0., Morvah. 

Jail, V. to walk fast "Where 
be 'ee jailing f*' "He jaiU 
along." Jaale, T. 0. 

Jakes, a dirty mess. 

Jailer, Jallishy bnlT, adj. yellow. 

" I want a bit of jallishy huff 
prent, to make a frock for mv 

Jane Jakes, Jean Jakes, a snaiL 
Penzance, T. 0. Jan-Jeak, 
Camborne, Gfarland. 

Jaiuansy, a two-faced person. 
"1 don't like her; she's a jan- 

Jaimek, Jannak. ''The great 

j'annek thoft he could thrash his 
tenant, but the tenant fought 
him out afore the door, and beat 
him rarely." Mem. The J. was 
a lout 6ft 4in. high. Paul, near 
Penzance. T. 0. 

Japes, a jackanape. 

Jannders, the jaundice. 

Jay-pie, a jay. " Sweet as a 
jay-pie sang a Cornish song.*' 
Janner, H. B. C. 

Jenny-qnick, an Italian iron. r. 
to iron with an Italian iron. 

Jerry-pattick, a simpleton. 

Jewish woman, a Jewess. 

Jew's bowels, small pieces of 
smelted tin found in old smelt- 
ing works, [tradition always 
connects Jews with tin in Corn- 

Jicks, Jioenps, hiccough. 

Jifly, adv. at once; quickly. 
" m do it in & jiffy.'' 

Jig, V. to separate the ore from 
tiie refHise by means of a sieve ; 
so placed in a box of water that 
by the continuous action of a 
brake-staff the ore is precipi- 
tated to the bottom of the sieve. 
The work is done by girls called 

Jigger, an ill-made thing. 



JoflOL Blunt, a rongh, plain-spoken 

Joan -fhe- wad, the name of a 
pisky (pixie). 

** Jack-the-lantem, Joan-the-vrndf 
That tickled the maid and made 

her mad, 
Light me home, the weather is 

T. Q. Couch, Folperro. 

Joggle, V. to shake ; to shake the 

*' Hold your glass up to your chin, 
And let your neighbour /o^^^e it 



Johnny Fortnight, a packman. 

Jofing, a scolding. 

Jonds, pieces. ** He scat all to 
midjans and jouds '* (he broke all 
to pieces). 

Jondy, r. to walk in the sea with 
boots and stockings on. Mouse- 
hole fishermen, W. F. P. and 
B. V. 

Jowst, a fall £rom a donkey's 

Jowster, a person that buys 
things to sell again; a huck- 
ster; a fish-dealer. 

Jnok, the oil in the fleece of 

Jnnket, a dish made of new 
milk, sugar, and rum; curdled 
with rennet, and eaten with 
clotted cream. 

Kager, Keggas, wild parsnip; 
wild carrot. ** Keggas, often 
called kai-yer, are good pigs' 
feed.'' H.E.O. 

Kaig-nail, Keg-nail, a misshapen 
finger-nail or toe-naiL 

Xaille-alley, a ninepin-alley. 

Kailles, ninepins. 

Kaa-kayers, ''two or three con- 
federates who unite to disparage 
anything they wish to buy, or 

make fictitious offers and praise 
anything they wish to sell; 
tricksters." iBottrell. 

Kayer, a coarse sieve used to 
winnow com. 

Kearny, adj\ mouldy. Cider is 
said to be keamy when there is a 
thick scum on the top. 

Keddened, covered over with 
mud or dust. W. P. P. 

Keddened and Cabaged, booted 

with mud; dirty. Mousehole, 
B. V. Kaggled, H. B. C. 

Keem, v, to comb the hair with 
a small tooth-comb.* 

Keeming-oomb, a small tooth- 

Keenly, adj\ promising. " A bra' 
keenly lode," spoken of a pro- 
mising vein of metaL Some- 
times *^ A bra* kindly lode." 

Keenly, adv. deftly. '* He takes 
to it keenly" 

Keep company, v. Engaged 

people are said to keep company. 

Keep on, v. to scold incessantly. 
** What are 'ee keeping on 
about ? " 

Keeve, a brewer's tub. "She 
must speak out; she can't 
under tbe keeve." ** Consider 
St. Knighton's kieve, also a 
potato kieve, where potatoes are 
kept covered with earth," J. W. 

Keggle, V. to draggle. 

Kelter, order, condition. "In 
bad kdter:' 

Kendle-teening, candle-lighting 
time. To light a candle is to 
teen it. 

" Twas kendle-teening when yung 
Mall Treloare." — Unde Jan 

Kennel, an ulcer in the eye. 
Kenning, T. Q. Couch. 

Kenning-herb, the crowfoot: used 
in incantations for curing ken- 
nings. Polwhele. 



Kente-pathen-gy, wooden pins 
belonging to the stone anchor 
used in punts. B. Y. Xente- 
purthurg^ [g hard), W. F. P., 
Mousehole fishermen. 

Kern, v. to curdle. 

Kerned, p. j). as adj, turned from 
flower to fruii "The apple 
blowths have kerned'* The word 
set is often used, as " the blos- 
soms have all set." Metal fixed 
or concreted around quartz is 
also said **to have kerned.* 

Keveran, the leather that joins 
the two pieces of wood in a flail. 

Slib, V. to mend a gap in a hedge 
with thom& 

Slibbed, fenced by wood, thorns, 
briars, &c., being laid down, as 
applied to a hedge. Polwhele. 

Kibble, a mine bucket 

Kibby, adj. sticky. "To play 
kihhy*^ a term of contempt used 
by boys in playing marbles when 
the marbles hit the player* s 

Kibby heels, chapped heels. 

Kicker, a small mizen used by 
fishing boats. W. F. P. 

Kicklidi, adj. ticklish ; tottering. 

Kicky, V. to stutter ; to stammer. 
**A kick-hammering fellow," a 
stammerer. " A kick in his 
speech," a defect. 

Kiddaw, a sea-bird ; a guillem. 

Kidge, V. to stick ; to unite, as 
broken bones. ** We don't kidge** 
we don't agree. 

Kidley-wink, Tidly-wink, a beer- 
shop. A man is sometimes said 
** to keep a kidly** 

Kidling, adj, ailing; physically 
weak. S. C. J. Kidling or 
kidly, T. C, tricking; cozening. 

Kigg^ ''a spindle. Kiggal- 
ringB, spindle whirls." Bottrell. 

Killas, clay-slate ; schist. 

Killick, a stone set in a frame of 
wood, or thick rope used to 
anchor boats on rough &;rounda 
''I must up killick and go/* I 
must be off. 

Killimore, an earth-nut Halli- 
weU. Cornish, literally the groye* 
nut Polwhele* 

Kimbly, the name of an offering, 
generally a piece of bread or 
cake, still given in some districts 
to the first person met on going 
to a wedding or a christening. 
Sometimes given to a person 
bringing the news of a birth to 
an interested person. A cake, 
called a groaning cake, is made 
in some houses alter the birth of 
a child, of which eveiy caller is 
expected to partake. * * The mother 
carries the groaning cake when 
going to be church^" H. B. C. 

Slings, donkeys. Eedruth, Com- 
ish Telegraphy Sept, 1879. 

Kip, a cap or net. 

Kipes, a thin, lanky person. 

Kipesy, axlj, thin; lanky. "A 
kipcBy as thin as a bundle of 

Kiskey, a dried, brittle stem. 
The dry stems or stalks of 
"keggas," wild carrot, or wild 
parsmp. "A withered kiskey of 
a man.*' 

Slist-YeaiL, a small stone chest 

Kit, a smear, v. to dab. Halli- 

Kit, kith and kin. " The whole 
kit of them." 

Kit, a kite. "As yellow as a 
kifs foot" {pron, keet). 

Kitt, V. to steal ore. 

Kittens, the kidneys. 

Kittereen, a primitive omnibus. 
**The Kit-Tereen was an open 
car that ran between Penzance 
and Truro, set up by Christopher 
Treen." J. W. 



Kitting, part, stealing. '^Tbe 
famous kitting case.*' Tregellas. 

Kitty-bags, rags wrapped round 
iaboiurers' legs to keep off the 
wet, or straw bands. 

Kity, adj. cracked ; harebrained. 

Knack,. a knock, v, to stop. 
" The bal is knocked.'* ** Knack 

Knap, "the top or brow of a 
hill.'* T. a Couch. 

Knawed, «. imp, knew. 

Knitflter, a woman who knits. 

Xaee, a rood or perch; a land 

Lace, t7. to flog. A lacing is a 

Ladies' trees, small branches of 
dried seaweed, hung up in chim- 
neys to protect the house from 

Lafts, lathes. 

Lag, a dirty mess on the bottom 
of a dress. ^ I hate a to(/ as 
much as any one." v. to draggle 
in the mud. 

Lagen, v. walking in the water 
with naked feet P. W. P. 
liaggen, v, to splash in the 
water: applied to flsh, also to 
^uldren playing in the sea 
without shoes or stockings. B. 
v., Mouaehole. 

Laiiter, the yellow water iris. 

Lake, a portion of a bay, as 
Qwayas lake, Penzance. ''At 
Lostwithiel a brook is called a 
lake:' J.W. 

Lammy, a kid ; sometimes made 
into a pie called *' lammy pie." 

Lampered, mottled. *^ Lampered 
all oyer." T. Q. Couch. 

Land-yard, two staves, or 18ft., 
are a land-yard ^ and 160 land- 
yardi an acre. 

Lanthom-fisli, a smooth sole. 

Lap, V, to beat Garland. 

Lap, anything disagreeable to eat 
or drink. <'I don't like such 
cold /op.'* 

Lappior, a dancer. Halliwell, 

Lappy, V, to lap. 

Lash, V, to pour. ''A lash of 
rain " is a torrent of rain. ** To 
laeh in pieces" is to break in 

Lashei, a large thing. ^This 
fish 19 a lasher y 

Lasking, a word used by the 
Cormsh fishermen when nearing 
a point They say " Keep the 
boat lasking y^ i, e, steer the boat 
so that she may go near the 
point. F. W. P. Lasking, keep 
near shore ; a term used by fish- 
ermen. B. y., Mousehole. 

Lattice, tin-plate. Latteen, Lost- 
withiel, J. W. 

Lattice-ware, tin-plate ware. '' A 
lattice cup," a tin cup. 

Lannder, a trough for washing 
tin ; a gutter for carrying off the 
water fiom the roofs of houses. 

Lawn, Lawen, a large, open 
mine- working in the back of a 
lode left in a 'dangerous state. 
Towednack, T. C. 

Lawrence, the patron saint of 
idlers. ** He's as lazy as Lawr 
rtnce:' ** One would think that 
Lawrence had got hold of him ' ' 
{pron. La'rence). 

Layer, a winnowing sheet. 

Leaf out, slightly insane. '' Like 
Crocker, a leaf out:^ 

Leaping stocky a horse-block. 

Leary, adj. hungry; weak. 
"Empty," J. W. "Lairy," 

Lease, v., to pick stones from the 



surface of the fields. <* Lta$ing, 
picking stones." Polwhele. 

Leat, a gutter ; a narrow artificial 
water; a mill-stream. "Don't 
waalk in tibe leai ; thee baist." 

Leave. ^' I'm not left to go out 
in the cold." Xcv'forlet. ''Lev' 
us go." 

Lemon plant, the verbena. 

Lent lily, the common yellow 

Lerriok, v, to flap about. 

Lermppingy a flogging, adj, 

LermpSy the scrape of meat sold 
by butchers. Lirrups, Sdlly. 

Lestereock, a toy-boat sent out 
before the wind by fishermen in 
roueh weather with a string of 

Let, V, to stop ; to hinder. " You 
Ut my marble.'' T. Q. Couch. 

Letterpoooh, an old Cornish 

Lexutre, v, to plan. 

Level, a gallery of a mine. 

Levener, Elevener, a luncheon. 

Levers, the marsh iris {'pron, 

Lewth, Lew, a place sheltered 
from the wind. 

Liard, a liar. ''You're a g'eat 
Hard, you are." 

Libbety-lat, a game for children. 
They stand before a hassock or 
step, and put the right and left 
foot alternately on it as fast as 
they possibly can, keeping time 
to the words, 

** Libbety, lihhety, Ubiety lat. 
Who can do this and who can do 

that ? 
And who can do anything better 
than that ? " 

Libbings, the webs of a water- 
ibwl's feet, ** Wingy, wingy, ' 

l»ggy» l®g?y. lii^ngt and all; 
oh, where is my maUard ? " 

Lick, V. to smear lightly. ''You've 
licked your sleeve in the mus- 
tard." " Your dress is licking in 
the mud." 

Lidden, a word ; talk ; a burden 
of a song or complaint. '* The 
same old lidden^ A monotonous 
song. T.Q. Couch. Also'* broad," 

Lie, V. " The wind has gone to 
lie'' (subsided). " The com has 
gone to lie" (broken by wind 
and rain has fallen flat). 

Lig, Liggan, a kind of seaweed. 

Liggan, "manure composed of 
autumnal leaves washed down 
by a stream and deposited by 
side eddies.'* Fowey, T. (i. 

Liggan. " He's coming home 
with penny liggan" (lacking, 
like a bad penny returned). ** I 
can't play any more, I'm penny 

Likes, adv, probability; likeli- 
hood. " Do 'ee think there's 
likes o' rain ? " 

Lilly-banger. Until within the 
last twenty years it was the 
custom in Penzance on Easter 
Monday to bring out in the 
lower parts of the town tables 
before the doors, on which were 
placed thick jgingerbread cakes 
with raisins m them, cups and 
saucers, &c., to be rafiEled for 
with liUy-bangera (cup and dioe)« 
The stalls were called "lilly- 
banger stalls." 

Limb. "Your daughter looks 
well." "No, she's but slight; 
her face is her best limb,'' 

Lime-ash, a composition of sifted 
ashes and mortar used for floor- 
ing kitchens. 

Limner, a painter. " You caan't 
paint a boat as well as our 



limner J* ^ Newlyn: spoken by a 
fisherman of an artist who lives 

Luicll, V. to beat severely. 

Idner, a threshed sheaf of com. 

LiBgnistery an interpreter. 

Linhaj, an out-hoiise with a 
lean-to roof; a shed for cattle. 

Linknin, a term of endearment. 
" She's her mother's linkur^/" 

Linaing, a thrashing. 

Xinteniy the linteL 

Lipsy. " He taalkg Upgy " (he 
lisps). ' ' I had a seizure ten 
years ago, and I can't talk but 
lipsy,'* Penzance, T. C. 

Liquorice - ball, liquorice. ^' A 

pennard of liquorice-haW^ 

Lirnip, a strip ; a sloven. 

Idrmpping, hanging in strips; 
coming down. ** Your gown is 
lirrupping in the mud." See 

Idstong, p. p, as adj, writhing 
with pain. 

Idttle-moimt, an old-fashioned 
diild. ** She's a regular little- 
mount The Mount (St. Michael's 
Mount) will never be washed 
away whilst she's living." 

Xoach, a doctor^s draught; also 
a lotion. 

loader, " a double apple." T. Q. 

Xob, V, to throw or knock about 
in a careless manner. 

lobbft, Loblolly, an idle, stupid 

Loeust, long, thin sugar-stick, 
always rolled up in paper. 

Lodden, a pool. Also Plodden. 
Lode, a vein of metal. 
Loff, V. to laugh. 
Log, V. to oscillate. 

Logan-rook, aetone that oscillates. 

Loggers, ears. " I'll grock (pull) 
thy loggers for thee." 

Logging, moving to and fro. 

Long -cripple, a lizard. '* In 
Devonshire a snake." J. W. 

Loilg-dog, a greyhound. ** Run- 
ning Hke a long^dog^ 

Long oyster, '< the sea crayfish." 

Looby - weather, warm, misty 

Loooh, filth ; refuse. Hayle, T. C. 

Looking, part, asking ; demand- 
ing. '* They are ^oo^'t'n^ a shilling 
a dozen." 

Loon, the northern diver. 

LootaL '^ Stinking, great lazy, 
great lootal ; if thee canst have a 
veil and go walking about the 
lanes, thaf s all thee carest for." 
Penzance, T. C. 

Lop, Loppy, V, to limp. 

Lopperd, a limper. F. C. 

Losting, part, losing. ''Our 
horse is losting his coat." 

Longgy, fagged; " Th^ crew of 
the brig seemed very Jouggy" 
G. E., Peiizance, Cornishman^ 
Dec, 1879. 

Lonstre, v, to work hard. See 
Leust^e. "Hethatcaan't^etM<r« 
lauBtlcustre^'* or '* He that caant 
planny must work.' * 

Lonstring man, a strong man, 
able to do a hard day's work. 

Love entangle, ''the nigella or 

fennel-flower." HalUwell, Pol- 
whele. ' ' Love - in - tanigle," 
J. W. 

Lnbberoook, Labberleet, a 


" Lubber, Itibbcf-leet, 
Look at your dirty feet ! ** 

Said by boys in a harsh voice to 

D 2 



turkeys to yex them. ''As red 
as a luhhercock,'^ 

Lad. " Sent all of a Ind;' struck 
all of a heap. W. N. 

Lng, the beach-worm, used for 

Lngs, ears. ** Til gi' 'ee a click 
under the 7k^/' a box in the ear. 

Lug-sandy the fine sand close to 
&e water's edge in Mount's Bay. 

Lnggy the undeigrowth of weeds 
in a field of com. 

Lump, V, '' If you don't like it 
you must Itrnip it." "Swallow 
in a lump,^* 

Lnmping-eely Sudles-eel, a fish. 

** A lamprey of the family called 
Petromyzidio (query)." H. B. 0. 

LnmpouB, adj, all of a heap. 
" She sat down lumpousJ* 

Xnrker, a boat in which the 
master seiner sits to giye instruc- 

Lurk, Lurgy, idleness; laziness. 
** The fever of lurk, two stomachs 
to eat, and neither one to work ; " 
or the fever of lurgy. 

Latter -poooh, Litter -poooh, a 

slovenly person. 

Xabyer, a young hen that has 
never laid. ''As stiff as a 

Kadgiowler, a laige moth. 

Kaggety-pie (g^a hard), a magpie. 

Kahogany, a drink made of gin 
and treacle. 

Hair. "The weather was so 
catching that I could not put my 
sheaves of com either into shoclcs 
or arish-mows ; but made them 
into maira." These are built 
longitudinally, about 18ft. in 
length by 12ft. deep. St. Levan, 
through H. B. 0. 

Kake-home, v. to shut. '' Make- 
home the door." 

Make wise, a make-belief. ^'He's 

only a make-wise/* 
Ifaking-wige, v. to make belief. 

KalktOf a cloth nailed to a stick ; 
used to dean out ovens ; a dirt} 

Kaacket, a small loaf of bread, 
not baked in a tin, in shape like 
a large bun ; called by the com- 
mon people " Manchun bread.*' 

Karketjew, Marazion. A cor- 
ruption of the old name, Mai- 
raiew ; a Thursday's market 
(Carew). Norden spells it Mar- 
cajewe, and gives it the same 
meaning. "& his own lights 
like the Mavor of Markdjew,^^ 
'* Capital inhabitants,'' the oor- 

? orate electors of Marazion. 
hrough J. M. Cornish, Pen- 

Karket-jew tormat, a large 
white turnip grown in Marar 
zion, or Yellow Dutch. 

Kashes, a great number. " Aye, 
a caled the poor doctor a mcuhn 
of names." — UncU Jan Trenoodle^ 

Kaon, Kaand, a large ooarsely- 
made hamper used for sending 
potatoes, &c., to market. 

Kaw, a piece of bread and butter. 
"A sugary maw," bread, butter, 
and sugar. (Morsel, pron. 

Maxim, a whim ; idea. " That's 
old Ann's work; she's full of 
her mctxims,** 

May, the young shoots of the 

May-bee, a cockchafer. 

May-bird, the whimbrel. Couch. 

Kay-game (pi'on. maygum), an 
odd, foolish action ; also a person 
who so acts* '* Don' t make mock 
of a may game; you may be Struck 
comical yourself one day." 

May-horn, a large tin horn blown 
by boys on May-day. Sometimes 
as early a« five in the mornings 



parties of boys, five or six in a 
party, will assemble under your 
-windows, blowing tin boms and 
concb sbellsy and begging for 
money. Witb the money col- 
lected they go into the country 
and have bread-and-cream jun- 
ket, &C. An additional ring of 
tin is added to the bottom of the 
horns every year» 

Xazed-antio, Mazegerry, Haze- 

g^ny-patticlc {pron, maazed), 
a wild, foolish, frolicsome fellow. 

Xazzard, a small black cherry* 

Xeanolas, a kind of stove* It 
: was a square box filled with 
stones and clav, used by fisher- 
; men in tiieir boats, before the 
invention of stoves, as a fire- 
place on which they dressed 
tiieir meat. W» P. F., Mouse- 
bole. Mteolas, H. B. a 

Xeat (pron, malt), v, to feed. 
"Matt the pigs.'* "Jf«a« is 
still used in Cornwall in its 
general sense, and not for ani- 
mal food only." J. W* 

Keat-earth, soiL 

Meaty, adj, fleshy. ** Sbe's a 
maity little pig." 

Heayer, a measure. 

Keeder, a mower. Polwhele, 
Halliwell, Couch. 

llen» a stone. Men is not used 
as a common noipi, but only in 
proper names. 

HSn-an-toly a stone with a round 
hole in it. Called by the country 
people ** crick-stone,'* because it 
IS supposed to have the power of 
healmg those who would crawl 
througn it. ** Maen toly or the 
stone with a hole, on Anguidal 
Downs in Madem, famous for 
curing pains in the back, by 
going through the hole, three, 
nve, or nine times." — ^Borlase*s 
** Antiquities," p. 178. 

JK&ikrilkijts^ an inscribed stone. 
Sometimes spelt ^Min scryffa^^^ 

Kerle, a link of a chain. 

Keryon^ an ant ; a term of en- 
dearment. " She' s fayther' s little 
meryon^^ (pron^ mer-yon). 

Kerry-danoers, tbe Aurora 

Kerrysole (pron. merisol), a 
French sole. 

Kewed, p. p. ''scattered by 
fright." Sennen, T. C. 

Kidget, a very small bit; a scrap* 

Xidgetty-morrows, the fidgets. 

Xidgetty-por, a great confusion. 
" what a midgetty-pcT you have 
around you." Kiggalconpore, 
M. B. C. 

Xid^iifl, small bits ; shreds. 
''The cup is skat (broken) to 

Milohy - bread, moist, sticky 
bread, made from milchy com. 

Milchy-com, com that has germi- 

Kilpreve, a coralline ball worn 
as a charm against adders. 

Kmsey, the minnow. 

Kinoh, Minchy, v, to play the 
truant. Meech, Folwhele. 

Mincher, one who plays thQ 

Kisment, a mistake. '' Twas a 
miement on my part." 

Mi2-maze, Kizzy-maze» a bewil- 
derment. " Tm all o' a mizzy^ 

Kock, a large block. A piece of 
this year's Christmas mock is in 
some parts saved to light the 
next year's. See Ohrestmas- 

Kook, the cheese or compound of 
apples and reeds in the wring or 
cider press. Folwhele. 

Kocket^ a bib attached to an 
apron to keep the front of the 
I dress dean. 



Kood, tbe fungus produced on 
liquor by fermentation. J. W. 
A sweetbread. " Vegetable sap." 

Koonshine, spirit that has been 

Koor, Maur, the root of a plant 
Or tree. ** Nack't the mabyers 
^little hens) both stiff wi* a great 
maur of fuz" (furse). — Uncle 
Jan Trenoodle. 

Koorstone, granite. 

Koney-penny, the small white 
cowrie. Scilly. 

Kop and heedy, hide and seek 
(mope and hide). '* Every fit 
and turn, mapping about to- 
gether. Mopping = going to- 
gether in company; spoken of 
a young man and woman sup- 
posed to be courting." Towed- 
nack, T. 0. 

Hor, Kxirre, a guillemot. 

Moral, a resemblance ; a likeness. 
**The very moral of his fayther." 

Horrabs, Horraps, land near the 
sea. Now used as a proper noun. 

Korty hog's lard. 

Kort, a plenty ; a great number. 
** A mort of people." 

Kort, Korty, v. to digest; to 
turn to fat. 

Kot, the root 

Koth, moss. F. C. 

Konth-speeohy speech. ** Hav' 
*ee lost your mmUh-speech?^* 

How, Bnumnal, a round mow, 
enlarging in diameter from the 
base uj) to a certain height, from 
which it again contracts to the 
a^ex. All the sheaves are placed 
with the ears inward m the 
lower, and outward in the upper, 
part. (Brummal Mow.) 

How, Pedraok, a round mow 
preserving the same diameter 
throughout until it begins to 
contract at the apex, having all 

the ears inside.'' (Pedrack Mow.) 
Davy, Zennor. 

Howhay (pran, mo-ey), an en- 
closure of ricks of com or hay. 
** Out in the wio-ey close." 

Hoyle, a mule. *' A hybrid be- 
tween a stallion and an ass." T. 
Q. Gouch. '*As stubborn as a 
moyle,^^ Moyle is a surname in 

Hnggeto, sheep's entrails. 

Hoggety-pie, a pie made of 
sheep's entrails^ parsley, and 

Hole, V. to work haid ; to knead ; 
to make dough. 

Hnller, a stone formerly used for 
reducing tin ore to powder. 

Humehanoe {pron, chaence), a 
silent, stupid person. *'To sit 
mwnchance, to sit silent." J. W. 

Hnmming-booth, the tent in 
which strolling players perform. 
The performers are never spoken 
of as actors, but play-actors. 

Hon, decaying fish used fcn- 

Hnndic, iron pyrites ; sometimes 
cut, polished, and sold for oma^ 
ments under the name of *' Mar- 

Hnnge, v. t-o chew; to knead. 
** Munge your dough well." 

Hnnged (g soft). '< He did not 
stiike me ; he munged me upon 
my side with his knee when I 
was on the ground." Penzance, 
T. 0. 

Hunger, a horse-collar made of 
twisted straw. Polwhele. 

Hor, Hnrs, '* a mouse, mice ; a 
dormouse, dormice." (Qu. mures 
Lat.) I heard a woman in Meneg 
say of two children asleep, "They 
are sleeping like two little mure.^ ' 

Hnred, p, p. squeezed. '' He 
mured me up agen the walL" 




Xorely, adv, almosi. "I jm 
murely ready to datince where I 
stood.'* — Unde Jan TrtnoodU. 

Xurfled, freckled. 

Xnrfles, freckles. 

Xnrgy, a dog-fish. 

Xnrriok, a sloven. B. I. C. 

XnsiciaxLer, a musician. 

Xute, a mule. ''The hybrid 
between the male ass and mare." 
. Conch. See Moyle. 

Matting, cross; glum; sulking. 
*' Don't sit mutting there.** 

Xy-ivers, Ky-iverinos, inteijec< 
tion of snipiise. 

Vackan, Vaoker, Hackin, a 
pocket handkerchief. 

Hacker, the wheatear. T. Q. 

Hagging-pain, a dull pain. 

Hag-ridden, troubled with the 

Hail-spring, a hang-nail. 

Hale, Hawl, an awL 

Hanny- viper, a caterpillar. 

Hash, cidj, pale ; debilitated ; 
susceptible of cold. 

Hatey, ''applied to meat when 
Mrly composed of fat and lean.** 
T. Q. Couch. 

Hatlings, the small entrails. 

Heap, a turnip. 

Heary, a^. stingy. 

Heck, the last sheaf of corn, 
which is cut by the oldest reaper. 
He calls out '* I haye et 1 I have 
eti I have et !'* The others 
say ''What hav* *ee? What 
hav* *ee? What hav* *eeP** 
He answers, " A neck ! A neck! 
A neck ! * * They then all hurrah 
loudly three timeiL The neck is 

afterwards made into a minia- 
ture sheai^ 9^J decorated with 
ribbons and flowers; carried 
home in triumph, and hung up 
to a beam in the kitchen, wnere 
it is left untU the next harvest. 
T. Q. Couch, PolperrOf p. 169, 
gives rather a different account 
of this custom, and says that 
the neck is given on Christmas 
Eve to the master bullock in the 

Heck of the foot, phr, the instep. 

Heflin, ^Newfoundland cod. 

Hepperkin, the eighth part of a 

"We'U drink it out of the 
nepperkt7i, boys. 
Here's health to tiie Barley 
Mow." — I'Jie Barley Mow, 

Hestle-bird, nestling ; the smallest 
bird of a brood; a pet. "The 
youngest of a family left at 
home, when the others nave gone 
into the world.** J. W. 

nibbles, nebulous clouds. 

Hice chance, phr. near chance, 
***Twas a nice chance I didn't 
throw it in the fire.** 

Hicey, sweetmeats. " A ha' pord 

of niceyj 

Hicked, p.p. deceived. ^Tve 
nicked him.'* 

Hickers, Haggles, gnomes ; mine 
fairies; heard working before 
the miners. 

Hickly-thize, the harvest-home 
supper. SciUy Isles. 

-nan-night (Hall Monday). 
" On the day termed * Hall Mon- 
day,* which precedes Shrove 
Tuesday, about the dusk of the 
evening, it is the custom for 
boys, and in some cases for those 
above the age of boys, to prowl 
about the streets with short 
dubs, and to knock loudly at 
every door, runnin^^ oft to escape 
detection on the slightest sign of 



• a motion within. If, however, 
no attention be excited, and 
especially if any article be dis- 
covered negligently exposed or 
carelessly guarded, tnen the 
things are carried away, and on 
the following morning are seen 
displayed in some conspicuous 
place, to expose the disgraceful 
want of vigilance supposed to 
characterise the owner. The 
time when this is practised is 
called ' Nicky-nan-night,^ and 
the individuals concerned are 
supposed to represent some imps 
of darknessy that seize on, and 
expose unguarded moments." 
Couch (Polperro), p. 151, Boyal 
Institution of Cornwall, 1842. 

Hiff, a slight quarrel ; a tifi 

Viffed, p, p. vexed. " She's gone 
away niffed" 

Night-Robbyy a commode; a 

Nimpingale, a whitlow. 

Hoggin, a gill, the fourtb part 
of a pint. 

Hoggin-wall, a wall built of 
rough stone, 

Voggle-bead, Hoggy, " a block- 
head." Qarland. 

Noise, a scolding. ** I said there 
would be a bitter (great) noise 
when Missus know'a you'd brok 
un" (broken it), 

Hool, V. to thump ; to beat. 

NooUng, a beating. 

Hoozled the nepple, v, to nuzzle 
or nestle, as a child to its mother's 
bosom. " Thof (though) I've bin 
ever sense I noozled the nepple J*^ 
•^Unde Jan Trenoodle, 

Ho qnarterings, no halfings, no 
pick-a-daniel8, a term used by 
boys when they find anything. 

Hones, Honce, Hines, on pur- 
pose; for the occasion. '*He 
gove me a scat (slap) on the 
chaks for the nonce^* *' Dressed 

up for the wmea," "Nauns: 
* He didn't do it for the naunsj* 
that is on purpose." (Camborne), 
T. C. 


Hotino, Hotsino, no; emphatie 
denial ; not that I know, or not 
as I know. 

Howie, a pig's head. 

Hnddioky the neck. Hiddiek, 
T. a, Couch. 

Hull, a dry crust. 

Hnrly. " He's a nurly fellow to 
deal with," ». c. sulky. T. 0. 

Hnthall, the hazeL 

Oak-web, a May-bee; the cock- 

Oft» V, ought. ''He ofi to 
do et." 

Ogofi, caves along the shoreL 

Oiler, a waterproof mackintosb. 

Old, must. "It tastes of old." 
''The clothes smell of old** 

Old hunderd, Little bunderd, an 

old-fashioned person or child. 
<< What an old hunderd she es." 
Queiy, as solemn as the old 
100th Psalm. 

OUlck, the h6use leek. 

Ool, wool, "As plum aa *ool" 
(very soft). 

Oost, a disease of cattle caused by 
worms in the windpipe. 

Ope, a narrow covered passage 
between two houses; gui opening. 

Oreweed, sea-weed. 

Organ, Orgal, penny royal 

Orrel, a porch or balcony. " The 
ground-apartment of a fisher- 
man's house is often a fish cellar, 
and the first floor serves him for 
kitchen and parlour. The latter 
is rea<)hed by a flight of stone 



stepe ending in an crrd or poroh." 

OniLoe^ the sixteenth part of any 

Ontlander, a foreigner. 

Oat-window (pron, wender), a 
bay or bow window. 

Orerfiuiged, p. p. as adj. strained ; 
stretched. *' What ovtrfa/nged 
notions yon haye.*' 

Orergoney p, p, as adj, over- 
powered ; faint. F. C. 

Overlook, to bewitch 3 overlooked; 

OwiSy the eaves of a honse. 
•* Ovear Couch. 

PaddlOy an agricultural instru- 
ment ; a small, sharp piece of 
iron with a long handle for cut- 
ting out the roots of weeds. 

Padgetypoo, a frog ; a tadpole. 

*' Frenchmen with their wooden 
Eating snails andj^cu^cfypoM." 
Uncle Jan Trenoodl§, 

PadgypoWy an eft ; a lizard ; the 

Pair, a set of miners that work 
together in a gang. 

Pair of mcyles (mules), usually 
about thirty, for oarrymg tin. 

Palched, always ailing; half- 
cured; patched: applied to inva- 
lids. ' * A ^ooT pcUched creature.'' 

Pallace, a cellar for the bulking 
of pilchards: usually a square 
building with a pent nouse roof, 
enclosing an open area or court. 

Palsh, palsied. Towednack, T. C. 

Palshallals, the diarrhoea. 

Pame, the palm of the hand. 

Pan-orock, an earthen pan. 

Pane, a parsnip. 

Pane-seedy parsnip-seed. 

Panky r. to . pant ; to breathe 

Panshion, a milk-pan. 

Pare, a field (proper noun), 

Pasher. "He's a pasher^'^ a 
clumsy workman. Ludgvan, 
T. 0. 

Pass, a slap ; a beating. 

Pass. " Quietus, they'll give him 
his pass some night or other." 
J., Uoyal Institution of Com- 

Passle (parcel), a great number. 
'* A bra' passle of peopla" 

Pasty, a meat and potatoe or 
fruit turnover. 

Patch-hook, a bill-hook. 

Pattick, a merry fellow ; a fooL 

Pattiok, Paddick, a small pitcher. 

Paul's pitcher-day, St. Paul's 
Eve (January 24th); a miner's 
holyday. They set up a water- 
pitchier, which they pelt with 
stones imtil it is broken to pieces. 
They then buy a new one which 
they carry to a beer-shop and 
fiU, and empty it until they get 
dnink. In Ilfraoombe the boys 
fill a pitcher with filth, and going 
about the streets throw it slily 
into people's houses. 

Pawn, a forfeit. ** Here's e^pawn^ 
and a very pretty pawn, and 
what shall the owner of this 
paton do?" 

Payse, Peize, v. to weigh. 
Paysen, Peizen, weights. 

Payser, Peizer, a man who 

waghs tin. 

Pea, the hard roe of a fish. 

Peach, chlorite. 

Peach away, v, to coax or entice 

Peecher, "a bait; an allure* 
ment." B. V. 



Peart, adj. smart. "He's a 
peart fellow." 

Peasen, the plural of peas. 

Peathy, adj. witty ; full of quaint 
sapngs. ** He's a peathy man." 
" Peathy old fellow with plenty 
of gumption." 

Pedalinean, the great cuttle-fish. 
Scilly Isles, through H. B. 0. 
{pron. padilincan). 

Pednameny, a game played with 
pins : also called Pmny-Ninny. 
* * Pedna - a - mean, heads - and - 
tails, a game of pins." B. Y. 

Pednan, small pieces of turf. 
Davy, Zennor. 

Pednbokshrlostwithel. Spoken 

, by fishermen in describing the 

peculiar model of a boat : is said 

■ to mean * * cod's head and coneer's 

tail." W. P. P. 

Pedn-borbas, cod's head. B. Y. 
PediL-paly, the blue-tit 
Peel, a pillow. Polwhele. 

Peendy, adj. tainted, applied to 

Peeth, a well 

Pellar, a conjuror; a cunning 
man, applied to in supposed | 
cases of bewitching. 

Pellas, Piling, oats without 
. husks. "I hove down some 

pelloB amongst 'em to eat" Pil. 

com, Avend Nuda. 

Pellowe-bere, Pillow-bere, a 

pillow-case. "I were glad to 
put ma head 'pon the pellowe- 
here." — Unde Jan Trenoodle. 

Pond, V. to shut in. T. Q. 

Pendle, a pendulum. 

Penique, adj. firm ; precise ; neat 
" She's a penique little thing." 
•* You are looking qmte penique" 

Peijinkety, adj. apt to take 

r Phrase. '' I shall soon learn the 
phrases of the house " (the habits 
of the fiimily). Polwhele. 

Pick-np, fish and potatoes mashed 
together and fried. 

Pierovi-day, the miner^s great 
holyday, supposed to be in 
honour of Picrous, the discoverer 
of tin. 

Pie. " Your hands are like pie " 
(very warm), 

Pieeen (prm. peacen), v. to 
patch; to put in a piece. 

PifT, a slight quarrel ; a tiff. 

Piggal, a pick-axe ; a large hoe 
used for cutting turf. 

Kggy-dog, a dog-fish. 

Pig87'Whidden, the smallest or 
youngest pig, sometimes applied 
to the youngest chUd. "My 
piggy-whidden " (a white pig). 

Piggy - whidden - pie. " Some 
would die, and some did die, 
and of these we' made piggy ^ 

Pig's-erowe. See Crowe. 

Pilcher, a pilchard. ** Money 
without love is like salt without 
pilchers." * * Killed as dead as a salt 
pilcher." **Like crame (cream) 
upon pilchera,'* or pilchaids. 

Pile, deeply involved. "In a 
pile of wrangle," ♦. «, deeply in- 
volved in the dispute. Polwhele. 

Piler. " A farm implement used 
to pound, or cut the beards from 
barley in winnowing.'' B. Y. 

Pilf^ light grass and roots raked 
together to be burnt. 

Pilf, Pilm, Pillem, light dust or 
fluff. WestCornwaU. "In the 
east of Cornwall applied to dried 
mud." Polwhele. 

Piliers, places on the downs in- 
terrupting their smoothness ; 
tufts of long grass, rushes, &c., 
forming covers for hares. 



Pi^aeki a poor, mean fellow. 
Piliack, Davy, Zennor. 

Pill, a pool ; a creek. 

Pimpy, the after cider, made by 
throwing water on the almosik 
exhausted mass of alternate apple 
and straw (beverage). 

Pin, the hip. 

Pin-bone, the hip-bone. 

Pindy, monldy. J. W, 

Pinnick, the wryneck. 

Pinnikin, weakly ; pnny. 

Piran-day, the fifth of March; 
a tinner^B holyday. St. Piran 
is the patron saint of tinners, 
popularly supposed to have died 
drunk; the proverb says, ''As 
drunk as a PiranerJ* 

Piflky, Pizie, a fairy. '^ Laugh- 
ing like a pisky.*' "See-saw, 
Margery Daw, sold her bed and 
lay upon straw. Sold her bed 
and lay on hay, Pisky came and 
took her away." 

Pisky-led, one who has lost his 
way, and is supposed to be be- 
witched. The remedy is to sit 
down and turn your stockings. 
**Fisky'ledy often whiskey-led." 

a mnshroomu 

Piteh, the working of a piece of 
a mine, sold by public auction 
to two or four workmen every 
two months. The whole mine 
is let out in pitches, **A good 
pitch " is a good bargain. 

Pitched, p>p, taking root after 
transplanting. ''The turmats 
fburmps) are pitched,** "Also 
miit iei after the flower is gone 
is said to be pitcJied (the mean- 
ing in all these cases is iety^ 

Pitch-to, V, to set to work. 

Planohen, a board; a wooden 
floor. "Thrawed his hat on 
the plancheUf and died kickey 
rather.'* " Tendar I tendar ! stop 

the injun, left ma boondle on the 
planchen^* (called out of a rail- 
way carriage to the guard). 

Plashet, a moist place where a 
stream riaes ; a quagmire. 

Plat-footed, Splat-fboted, adj. 


Flethan, v, to braid; to plait 

Plofiy, adj, fat; plump. «A 
ploffy yoimg mabyer" (hen). 

Plosh, a puddle. 

Plosher, a half-grown bream. 

Plough, a wheel-cairiage drawn 
by oxen. 

Pluk; fur. 

Plnf^, adj, soft; out of con- 
dition, applied to feathers, &c., 
sometimes to a spongy turnip. 

Plum, adj. soft; light; stupid; 
foolish. ' ' This ty e (f eather-bedj 
is as • plum as 'ool (wool)." 
♦ ' Pretty plum weather." * ' He's 
as plum as boften dough." To 
fall plum is to &11 soft, as in 

Plum, PUm, r. to swelL « Twill 
plum in boiling." 

Plum-cake, a light cake. 

Plum-dough, well nsen dough. 

Plumming, yeast, raising dough 
with yeast. 

Plump, a pump; a well, v, to 

Plumpy, V, to chum. HalliwelL 

Poam, V, to pummel; to knock 
with the fist. 

Poaming, a pummelling. 

Pocks, shoves or pushes. Unde 
Jan Trenoodle, 

Peddling, adj, meddling; inter- 
fered. " She goes j}ocW/t7i^." 

Podging, part, as adj. poking 
about. "Podging about the 



house.'* ''In this thing, and 
podging in that." 

Pod^, short and stout. '^A 
podgy man." 

Poldary, coarse, hempen cloath. 

PoUet, FoUeok, a stick, crooked 
or knobbed at one end. W. F. P. 
Pol-yn, a stick, B. Y. 

Polmmptioiu, adj, restive; ob- 

Poltate, Tatie, a potatoe. 

Pomster, v. to cure a sick person 
by quackery. * * For there's doc- 
tors as pomsters all sorts of dis- 
eases." — Uncle Jan Trenoodle, 

Poooh-monthy a protruding 

Pooohy, V, to make mouths* 
Pook, hay-€0ck. 

Poor, bad. " It's gone poor" — 
turned sour (as beer). 

Poor-money, bad money. 

Poor-tempered, ill-tempered. 

Poot, a push with the feet. 

Poot, V, to push. "To be pooted 
and flopt so, I wesh I was dead." 
« This young fellow caught him 
by the hair of his head and gauye 
him a bit of a shake, and gauve 
him a poot or two with his foot, 
but as to kicking him, he didn't." 
Towednack, T. 0. 

Pop-4ook, Pop-glove, Poppy, the 

flower of the fox-glove. 

Pope, a puffin ; a sea-bird. 

Popple, Popple-stone, a pebble. 

Popple-stone pavement, a pebble- 
stone pavement. 

Popples, poplar trees. 

Por, a bustle or fuss. " What a 

por you're in." 
Porf, a pool of stagnant water. 

Portens, a butcher's term; 
appurtenance. *'Sheepsheadand 

Perth, a cove. 

Portmantle, a portmanteau. ^Did 
'ee see or hear tell of sich a thing' 
as ikporimanUef** 

Porvan, a rush-wick for a lamp. 

Posh, a heaviness on the chest 
from mucus, occasioning a loose 
cough. Folwhele. 

'fimiplural posses), a gate-post. 
'* Water will wear away stonen 


Possed up, p, p. posted up; 
pushed up; placed up. "With 
a make- wise fietace, poased on top 
of his awn." — Unde Jan 2V»- 

Pots, the entrails 

Pots, wooden boxes without 
covers, and with moveable sidee, 
formerly used to carry dung on 
horses' backs to the fields. 

Pot-water, water for common 
household use: not drinking 

Pound, a cider mill; the place 
where cider is made. 

Powdered, slightly salted. '^A 
powdered cod." 

Powers, a great number. ** Maade 
of pasty-board, with potver% of 
beads and looking-glass." — Undt 
Jan Trenoodle* 

Prall, V. to tie a tin pan to a dog's 

Preedy, adj. forward ; conceited. 
** A preedy piece of goods." " I 
shall not make myself prtedyl* 
Eedruth, T. 0. 

Preedy, adv, with ease. "She 
does it bra' and preedy P 

Preventive-man, a coastguard. 
Preventive-station, a coastguard 

Prid-prad, a tomtit 
Priden-prall, a blue-tit. 
Pridy, handsome ] good-looking ; 



emart. *'A11 prinked up so 
pridy " (all dressed). — UncU Jan 

Prill, a small stone, as ^' a prill 
of tin." Masons speaking of a 
stone wLich does not at once 
make mortar, but afterwards 
bursts out, call it ** a hoi prilV* 

Prill, V. tc mix. 

Prill, V, to turn sour (as beer)* 

Prill, V. to get drunk. 

Prilled, p, p, drunk. 

Prink, 17. to walk jauntily. 

Prinkt, p. p. dressed finely. 
*' You're _pr»nA:< up for the nones." 

Prong, a silver fork ; also a hay- 

Proper, adj, handsome; well- 
formed. * * He's a proper man.'' 

Proud-flesh, fungus flesh around 
wounds (exuberant granula- 

Pru-it-Pm-it, a word used in 
calling cowa 

Pfialmasimtmg-person, a hypo- 
crite ; a person who continiiaJly 
goes to church to the neglect of 
other duties. 

Pod, the fi&L 

Pnllan, a pool of salt water 
among the rocks. 

Pnlloronaek, a small fish found 
in pools left by the sea (bully- 
cods) ; the shanny ; small-fish. 

Pnl-rote, the wbeel-pii Bottrell. 
The pit in which the wheel of a 
water-mill revolvesi 

Pnlt^ the pulse. T. Q. Couch. 

Pimiok, ''a small person; a 
dwarf." B. V. "Puntcfe, a 
small eater.'' W. F. P. 

Punlon, Pnnyon-end, the end of 
a house, not hayins any windows 
or doors ; the gable-end. 

Pure, Pewer, adj, good-looking ; 
adv, very many. " He's a pure' 

looking boy." * * Pure and stout" 
" A pure lot of people." 

Piirgy, a short, thick, stout per- 
son. << She's a regular little 

Purgy, a fat little boy. 

Purl, a guard or watch. *' One 
need be always upon one's tmW,'* 
«'. e. one's watch. Polwhele. 

Pnrvan, shreds of doth. ' W. 
F. P. See Porvan. 

Pnrvans, ^' shreds of cotton used 
in wick-making for a 'chilL'" 
B. V. The purvane were rush 
wicks, the plaited rag wicks 
were called "boobas." H.E.O. 

Pnssiyanting, part, fussing; 
meddling. In the latter p^ 
of the seventeenth century the 
PoureuivarvU came into the county 
to search out all those entitled to 
bear arms : hence the term. 

Pat-going, adj. murdered. 

Pnt-home, v. to shut. ^* Put 
home the door." To see a per- 
son safely home. '* Shall I put 
you home 9 " 

Quab, V. sickly, infirm person. 

Quaff {pron. quaif), v, to puff up. 

Quaffed, p, p. used as adj, satis- 
fied; full "Tm quaiffed:' 
Sometimes called quaUed, 

QuaH, V, to wither; p, p. as adj. 
quailled. ''Those flowers soon 
quaiV "Your flowers are 

Quail-a-way, a stye on the eye. 

Qnalk, a heavy fall. 

Quarry, Quarrel, a squats or 
diamond-shaped piece of glass: 
sometimes applied to a sheet of 

Quarterer, Quaterman, a lodger. 

Quarters (pron. quaarters), lodg- 



ftnat, ftnatty, v. to hide by Btoop- 
ing down, as boys behind a hedge, 
or a hare when pursued. 

Queans, ftweans, scallops. "Peri- 
winkles." Bottrell. 

ftneedy, adj\ sharp; shrewd; 

ftuignogs, foolish notions or 

fancies. ''Get out with your 

quignoys,** * * You're full of quig- 

ftuilkin, a frog or a young toad. 

Wilky. LostwithieL J. W, "As 

cold as a quilkin" 

Quillet, three-leaved grass, clover. 

Quilter, v, to flutter. " I veeled 
sich a quiltering come over my 

Quilting, a beating. ** Til give 
'ee sich a quilting as you never 
had in your life." 

Bab, decomposed granite used for 
mending roads. 

2abbin, a robin. F. C. More 
generally rudbrist; occasionally 

Bace, a go-cart. 

Baoe, V, to place in a row. " Cups 
raced along a shelf." 

Badgell, an excavated tunnel. 
W. Briton, December 27th, 1877. 

Bafe, a tear or rent in a garment. 

Bafe, v. to rend or tear. 

Baff, Baffle-fish, unsaleable flsh 
divided amongst the fishermen. 

Barnes. '* Looking like the rames 
of death : ** said of a sickly per- 
son. M. A. 0. 

Barnes of a goose, the bony frame- 
work of a eoose after most of the 
meat has been cut off. J. W. 

Bams-cat, a male cat. ''Every 
thing is a he in Cornwall but a 
rams-caty and that's a sha" '* As 

teasy as a rams-eai,'* Bam eat, 

., a string of nonsense ; 
rhodomontade. " Ifs a regular 
randigal of lies.'* 

Bandivoose, a noise; a bastla 
"Whafs all the randivoosef — ^I 
can't hear myself speak." 

Banter-go-round, an old-fashion- 
ed game of cards played in divi- 
sions, marked with chalk upon a 
bellows or tea-tray. Now at a 
table, and called Miss Joan. 

' ' Here's a card, as you may see ! 

Here's another as good as he I 

Here's the best of aU the thnde ; 

And here's Miss Joan, come 

tickle me. 

Wee, wee." 

Bap and rind, phr. got together 
by hook or crook. F. C. 

Bare, adj, early. '' The broccolow 
(brocoH) are bra' and rare this 
year." "We go to bed pretty 
rare on Sundays." T. C. Lelant. 

Bash, adJ, crisp ; brittle. " This 
lettuce is very rash" **The 
wood is rcuh,'* 

Banning, Baunish, adj. ravenous ; 

voracious. "This is a rauning 
pollock, a whiting poUock is 

Baw cream, the cream that rises 
naturally to the top ; not scalded 
or clotted, Baw-ream, J. W. 

Baw milk, milk that has not been 

Beam, v. to stretch. "Don't 
ream it out of shape." 

Beamer, a milk-skimmer (profK 

Beohat, Bichard. 

Beed, unbruised straw used for 
bedding horses. 

Been, prop, noun, a steep hill-side. 

Beese, Beeze, grain is said to 
reeze when from ripeness it falls 
out of the ear. 



Keeve^ v. to separate by means of 
a sieve, seeds, small com, &c. 
from the good grain. 

Bemlet, a remnant. 
Eefnrrectioii- lay, Easter Sunday. 
Sibble-rash, Babble-rash, the 


Biffle, a break in a roof made by 
a strong wind carrying away 
the slates or thatch. 

Biffled, t7. carried away by the 
wind. •' The wind riffled lots of 
housen last night; the hellings 
(slates) were flying about." 

Big, fun ; frolic ; noise. 

Bingle, v, to ring; to tinkle. 
"The bells are ringlinq all day 
long. < * I heard something ringU 
on the floor." 

Biyer (pron, rewer), any small 
stream of water is called a river, 

Boach, a rash. 

Bobin's alight, a game of forfeits 
played around the fire. A j^iece 
of stick is set on fire, and whirled 
around rapidly in the hand of 
the first player, who says, 
" Bobin's alight, and if he go out 
I will saddle your back.*' It is 
then passed to the next who 
says the same thing, and so on. 
The person who lets the spark 
die out has to pay a forfeit. 
BdUy. " Jack's j&ive." 

" Jack's aliye and likely to live ; 
If he die in my hand a pawn 
111 give." 

J. W. Lostwithiel. 

Bode, sense or wit " He hasn't 
the rode to do it." 

Bodeless, adj, without sense or 

BodeliJig, Boiling, part, talking 
deliriously. • * She's bin rodeling 
all the night." 

Boostoook, a domestic cock. '' As 
red as a rooetcock,'^ 

Bopsi's-news, anything told as 
news that is not news. ** That's 
Boper'g new9 — ^hang the crier ! " 

Bory-tory, adj, very gay; tawdry. 
"I wouldn't wear such a g'eat 
rory^tory pattern." 

Bosum, rosin. '' Short of rosum,** 
short of cash. 

Boup, V, to gulp down ; to drink 


Bonsabont, a bustling woman. 
'* She's a reg^ular rotieabotU,** 

Bont-oat, a Saturday-pie (spoken 
in jest), 

Boving, p, p. raving. "He's 
roving mad." 

Bow, rough. 

Bow, Bows, coarse, undressed tin 
ore; refuse from the stamping 

Bow-oast, rough-cast (a compost 
of lime and pebbles plastered 
over the outside of houses). 

Budded, v, made red. '^ Es feace 
all rttdded and whited." Uncle 
Jan Trenoodle, 

Badge, " a partridge.*' Polwhele. 

Bud looks, the rood loft. BottrelJ. 

Bully, Bull, V, to wheel ; to roll 

Bulls, rolls of carded wool. 

Bnmbelow. "With Halantow, 
Rwfnbelow,'^^ the burden of the 
Furry song. 

Bnmbustioiis, <idj, noisy ; trouble- 
some. ** They strutted about so 
braave and rumbuetioui as lubber- 
cocks" (Turkey-cocks). Uncle 
Jan Trenoodle, 

Bummage, rubbish. ''A good 
riddance to bad rummage,^^ 

Bnmmet, dandriff. 

Bumpin, adj, small; miserable. 
F. C. 

Bumpy, adj\ coarse; uneven. 
** This cotton is rumpy,^* 




Bunky, oJ;. wheezy ; hoarse. 

Bnnxungy rennet. 

Bnflh, Bishy a list; a number 
made at playing at ball, &c., for 
another to lieat ** He's gone on 
another rush" (another course). 
To make a new rush, v» to torn 
oyer a new leaf. 

Bnstring-eomby a diessing-comb. 

Biuty, adj. rancid. This bacon is 

Sabby, adj. soft ; moist ; rotten. 
''These taturs (potatoes) are 
brave and sahby.^ 

Sammy Bawkm, a stupid person. 

** You are a regular Sammy 
Dawkiny cant sciul a boat" (a 
Padstow proverb). 

Sam-OTen, Zam^ven, a luke- 
warm oven. 

Sampson, a drink made of brandy, 
cider, sugar, and a little water. 
** Sampson with his hair on." 
The same kind of drink with 
double the quantity of spirits. 

Sam-Bodden, Zam-sodden, half- 
oooked, whether by boiling or 
baking ; also bread not properly 
risen, baked in a half -heated 

Sape, Sapey, a stupid peison. 

8aTe*all, a large pinafore with 
long sleeves to keep children's 
dresses clean. 

Savour, meat or fish eaten as a 
relish. ''I alius like a Mvour 
for breakfast" 

Say, the sea. In Penzance, on 
Midsummer-day, a fiedr is held 
on the quay ; tne boatman take 
the country people out for a 
short row (a great number at 
one time) for a penny each ; they 
call it, ''A pennord of eay.^ 

Say-fenoiblea, old coast-guards. 
Seabby-gnllion, a stew — meat 

and potatoes hashed. B. Y. 
8cably-gulyun» W. F. P. 

Seal, Scale, loose ground about 
a mine ; it sometimes does great 
injury by falling down and 
stoppmg uie shaft of a mincL 

Scald-cream (pron. scaal'd cream), 
clotted cream. 

Scald-milk, skim-milk, milk from 
which the clotted cream has been 

Scalplons, salt dried fish ; salt 
wmting. ^ 

l^aly, adj. miserly. " A regular 
sccUy old fellow." 

Scam, V. to scam a shoe is to 
twist it out of shape by wearing 
it wrongly. 

Scat, a slap. ^Tll 9cai your 
chacks" (face). 

Scat, a long season. ** A seai of 
fine weather." 

Scat, diarrhoea. 

Scat, a game played by boys with 
a small flat board or paper knife. 
One plaver holds out nis hand, 
which the other tries to strike 
before he can draw it away. 

Scat, V. to slap; to break; to 
become bankrupt. " He let fedl 
the cup and scat un to pieces." 
* * He's a scat merchant" * * The 
bal is scat.*' ** SccU up and eo 
home I '* (break up your meeting. 
" iSca* her feoe." 

Scat abroad, v. to enlarge; to 
open. **The rose has «ca<a^roa<2.'' 

Scat-to, a fight. "Thej had a 
little scat-to.** 

Scayel-an-gow, a pack of lies; 
a great chatter ; a noise of scold- 
ing. "I heard such a «oaveZ- 

Scayemick, a hare. Polwhele. 

Scaw-coo, night shade. 
Scaw-dower, water elder. 

West Cornwall glossary. 


SoawHsey Se01ise» sense; under- 
standing. < < He hasn't the ^conse 
to do it." 

Soawsy-budB.eldeTfloweis. "Rvib 
the hive with seaway buds/* 

Scaw-tree, Scow-tree, Skew-tree, 

an elder tree. 

Scethen, a piece of fish cut out 
for bait. F. W. P. Shethen, 

Sclow, Sclwn, t?. to scratch. "Ah, 
you old sdum-oatr F. W. P., J., 

Scoad, Scud, v. to* scatter manure 
over fields. 

Sooanse. Se^ Coanse. 

Scool, School, a shoal of fishes. 

Scotch-dew {pron, Scott's-doo), 

Soonriiig - guard {pron, geard), 
decomposed granite used for 
whitening floors. 

Scovy, adj, spotted; mottled. 
" Streaked, smeared, for example, 
a badljr nainted flat surfece 
would, if the paint were uneven 
and smeared, be called bwwJ* 
F. W. P. J., M. B. 

Scoy, adj, thin silk or stuff; 
V, to make a thing thin or small. 
* * For my fengings (wages) would 
look 9coyJ' — Uncle Jan Trenoodle, 

Soramblings, scraps of broken 

Scranny, & scramble. 

Scrawl, Scroal, v. to broil fish 
over a fire. They are split open, 
slightly dried, and seasoned with 
pepper and salt. 

Screech, a short, sudden blaze. 
"Come to the fire; PU put on a 
fuz* (furze) and make a screech.*' 

Bereed, a little piece. " Gi' me 
a screed o' mait." 

Screedle, v. to cower over the 

Sen»w. a shrew mouse. 

Scrid, 1?. to descend partly by 
sliding, partly by climbing. 

Sorif-scra^ Scrof, Scrnf; odds 

and ends, rubbish. 

Scriff, Soruf, v, to shrink to- 
gether ; to crouch. ** I'm scrufftd 
with the oold." Scrifed up in a 

Scrimp, Scrimpy, scant. « She 
gov* me scrimpy meayer " (mea- 

Scrink, Scrinkle, v. to screw up. 

" He scrinkt up his eyes.'* 

Scroach, v. to scorch. 

Scroaching, pm-t, scorching. 

Scrolls, pieces of hard fat left 
after melting down lard. 

Scrome up, v, to arrange roughly. 
" I scromed up my hair." 

Screw (pron, like how), v, to 
scratch; to graze. "The cat 
will scrow you." ** I screwed all 
the skin off my arm." 

Scruff; the skin. " Take the dog 
out by the scruff of the neck." 

Scruff, to fight; to wrestle. 
* * We pitched to scruff. " « ' Then 
we scruffed.** 

Scrump, V, to shrink or draw 
together with cold. 

Scry, the report of the approach 
of a peat body of fish ; formerly 
apphed to wild fowl 

Scud, the hardened crust on a 

Scud, Skid, Upscud, Upgkid, r. 

to spill ; to run over. " If you 
throw tiie petcher on the floor 
won't the water scud.'* "She 
broke the petcher and upscud 
the water." 

Scumbered, spoken of a bird 

discharging excrement. St Just., 
T. C 

Scute, an iron with which the toe 
and heel of a shoe are protected 



(Bee One); the iron point of a 
wooden plough. 

Scute, a small piece of leather 
put on the sole of a shoe; the 
outside piece sawed off a balk of 

Sontter, v. to throw a flat stone 
so as to slide on the ton of the 
water; to make dudu and 
drakes. Skitter, F. C. 

Sen-adder, a pipe-fish. 

Sea-hedgehoff, a kind of shell- 

Sea-holm, sea holly (angelica). 

Seam, a measure ; a cartload of 

Sean, Seine, a pilchard net. A 
net not less than 160 fitthoms in 

Seaner, Seiner, a man employed 
on the pilchard fishery. 

Seedi imp. saw. 

*'I 9eed his picter on the slat 
Haf an anyuU (angel)^ haf a 
cat"— Tr«yrf/a«. 

Seed-lip, a wooden basket to cany 
seed when sowing. 

Servy-day, the day after a feast 
when all the scraps are served 
up. See St. Aubyn-day. 

Set again, v. to reopen a business. 

Set, a mining licence to work a 
piece of ground. The piece of 
ground is also called & set. As 
a good Hi. 

Shab-of^ V. to sneak off in a 
shabby way. "He wanted to 
^hah'Off wiuiout paying." 

Shaddooks, a slate axe. 

Shag, a cormorant '' As sick as 
a shag.*' 

Shaker, 'Hwo good ones amd a 


Shakes. '' No great ahdke^ " (not 
worth much). *' He^s no great 
9hake$ of a character." 

Shale, a scale of a 6ah ; a flake. 

Shale, V. to come off in thin 
slices; to peel; aheUpeas. 

Shaly, adj. rich and flaky. ** This 
cake is Tery $haUf. *' " As Bhdly 
as a rusty iron hoop." 

Shale-stone, Shilftone, slate. 

Shallal, a serenade on tin kettles 
and pans, given to notorious 
persons on &eir wedding-night. 
*'A great noise is said to be a 
regular $hiillaiy 

Shank, the spoke of a wheel. 

Shape (jpron, shaape), a great 
mess; a dirty state. *'What a 
•hofe youVe got here.' * ' ' What 
a 9%ape$ you are." J. W. ** To 
make a Bhape is to make a dirty 

Sharps, the shafts of a carriage. 
Shear, a good shear of hay. 
Shed your hair ont of yonr eyes, 

phr. put your hair, fta 

Shee-yo, a distorbanoe; a row. 
<« There was such a grand 

Shenagnim, Shenadhmm, a drink 

made with hot beer, rum, sugar, 
and lemon. 

Shig, v. to cheat 

Shigged out, cheated out of eveiy 
thing. '* They $higged me of sIL 
my marbles." 

Shigged, cheated in a mean 
manner. '* I was shigged out of 
that money." T. 0. 

Shiner, a sweetheart 

Shiyereens, small pieces or shreds. 
'* Tom or broken into shiveremsJ* 

Shoady loose stones of tin mixed 
with earth. 

Shoading - heaps, heaps from 
pits sunk in search of Teins of 

Shooky, a small fish (goby). 
F. 0. 



ShoeJifky a shoe-horn. 

Shong, a broken mesh. W. F. P., 
B. V. 

Shoot, water led to a point by a 
pipe or drain, and then bursting 
oat. In Cornwall they often 
took the place of pumpa. 

Skote, a small kind of trout. 

Showl, a sboTeL 

Shriin, a cold shiver. Shrim, v. 
toshiTer. Sbrimmed, chilled. "I 
feeled sich a shrim" ' *■ Shrimmed 
to death with the cold.'' 

Shnffer. " When I'm shuffer 1*11 
pay." Mousehole. **A ahuff 
old woman." St. Just. "A 
•huffed man." St.Levan. ''Full, 
stout, welL" T. 0. 

Bigger, Sigore, v. to leak. '' It 
Mggers through the wall.'' Zig-ar. 

Sim-mee, v. it seems to me. 
" 8im~mee it's bra* and nonsical " 
(seemine to me it*s yery non- 

Sii-tling, moving uneasily in 
sleep. Qarland. 

Siyes, a species of small onion 

Skal, calling out. '^Yon great 
skal ; " teim of abuse. Newlyn, 
T, C. 

Skate, a rent or tear. 

Skate, V, to rend. 

Skatereens, small pieces. 

Skedgwith, privet. Sometimes 

Skeeny, sharp ; gusty. Couch. 

Skeer, v, to graze. ''The stone 
fJceered my head.** 

Skeer, v. to skim a stone on the 
sur&ce of the water. 

Skeese, Skeyze, v. to frisk about ; 

to walk quickly. ** Skeuiiia 
about like a pisky (pixie). 
Unde Jan Trenoodle, fiksouse, 

Skeet, Skeeter, a syringe. 

Skeet, to wash windows with a 
syringe. ** Skeet the windows.** 

Skeet, r. to eject saliva through 
the teeth. W. F. P. Skit, F. 
W.P.J. M.B. 

Skew, a sudden gusty shower of 
thick drizzling rain. 

Skewy, adj, gusty, showery. 

Skibbet, a small covered com- 
partment in a large chest, always 
near the top. 

Skimper, a person who slurs his 
work. *' This bed is not weeded 
dean; John is a skimper .'^ 
Skemper, H. R C. 

Skimping, the smallest fragment 
of stone thrown out of a mine. 
Sometimes, as an adjective, ap- 
plied to a miserly person. " He*8 
a skimping oiild fellow.** 

Skip akop night In Padstow, 
on one night in November, the 
boys go about with a stone in a 
sling, with which they strike 
the doom ; they then slily throw 
in winkle-shells, dirt^ &c. Couch 
says, "They strike violently 
against the doors of the houses, 
and ask for money to make a 

Skirt, adJ, scanty ; short " Her 
coats were very skirt, ^^ " Skirt 
measure.** Also Bkeerty. 

Skit, a jest or witticism. ^* A 
lectioneering skit " (or an3rthing 
else aimed at one). J. W, 

Skitter, v. to slide; to scatter. 
*' The things go skittering about.** 

Skittery, slippery, like ice or 
smootix stones. F. W. P. J., M. B. 

Skiver, a skewer. 

Skivered down, skewered down. 
*' She walks about with her 
aims skivered down to her sides." 

Sknat, Sknte, a legacy or wind- 
fall. '*A skuat of money is a 




phrase I haye heard*" F. W. 
P. J., M. B. 

Skubmaw, pieces or fragments. 
A ship is said to have gone ** all 
to skuomaw" when she is wrecked 
and broken in pieces. Another 
use of the word«*is, ** 111 knack 
thee to Skubmaw" W. F. P. 

Slab, a kitchen range ; a cooking 

Slack, impertinent talk. *' Come, 
none of your ticKk" "Loose 
talk.'' Garland. 

Slack, Slacket, adj. slight ; thin* 
" You're looking but slack,'' 

Slag, tin dross; misty rain; 

Slaggy, Shlaggy, adj. wet; 

drizzling ; miry. ** The weather 
is yery slaggy to-day," ** What 
a slaggy mess the streets are in." 

Slam, V. to trump, **TU. slam 
that card." 

Slamming, part, tramping. 

Slam, V. to beat. 

Slammed, beat. Slamming, a 

beating. **He slammed to un 
wi' a stick. 

Slams, Scrams, broken meat. 

Slatter-cum-drash, a great noise. 

Bleep, V. starched, but not ironed 
linen, nut by wet, and allowed 
to mildew, is said "to go to 

Bligerin, Slaggering (ff soft^. 

"There was a sligerin outside 
the door," i. e. a great row, and 
fighting and tumbling about. 
Penzance. T. C. 

Slight, adj. ill. "He's but 

Slights, half clad. ^'He was 
. walking about in his slights." 

Slim, V. to slim the teeth of pigs 
by giving them their meat too 
hot. Polwhele. 

Sling, a dram. Slingers, un* 

invited guests. Garland. 

Slintrim, an incline. 

Slip, a young pig. 

Sliyar, a large slice; v. to cut 
into slices. Slice {pron. slish). 

Slock, V. entice. ''He slocked 
away my dog." Polwhele says, 
to pilfer ; to give privately. 

Sloeking-fltone, is a rich, enticing 
stone of ore, tempting one. 

Slocking-boxie, spoken of the hip 

Slone, a sloe. " Eyes as black as 
a slone," 

Slosh, to spill or splash about 

Slotter, V. to make a mess. 

Slotter, filth. 

Slotterer, a slovenly woman. 

Slottery, adj. dirty. " The roads 
are slottery." Sometimes applied 
to the weather. 

Slow cripple, a blind worm. 

Slummock, a dirty, sluttish 

Slnmmockin, Slammakin, adj. 

careless; untidy. 
Slump, a careless work-woman. 

Slvdom, subs, cunning. "They 
have too much of slydom to yen* 
ture on that." — Uncle Jan Tre- 

Small deer, vermin. F. C. 

Small men, fairies. 

Smeech, Smitch, the smell or 
smoke arising from anything 
burnt in frymg. 

Smellers, cat's whiskers. 

Smnlk, a dirty, drinking wonuuu 

Snag-tooth, Snaggle, an irregular 
tooth. " What «na^<72e« the cheeld 



Sneivy, adj. low; mean; cunning. 
"He's a 9ne%vy fellow." 

Snippet, a small piece. F.W. P., 
J., M. B. 

Snite, a snipe. 

Banff, " to be «im/," L e. to be 
affronted. Polwliele. 

Soace, Soas, friend ; companion ; 
love. " Ess, «MM." " Hond your 
tongue, 9009,''^ "Come along, 


Soak, V, to bake thoroughly. 
" This bread is not 9oaked:' 

Society, phr. a member of society 
(a Wesleyan). 

Sog, a slt-ep. " She is in a sweet 

•ogr." Sogrh, Polwhele. 
Sog, V, to sleep. 
Sogging, part, sleeping. 

Soile, a seal. "And coming 
nearer home, here was a sentence 
spoken last year by a person 
hving at Crowan Qiurcntown, 
which to very many even in 
Cornwall, would be as unintel- 
ligible as a foreign tongue : ' Ef 
a soile es en a zawn he do troach 
about the paace that a man ken 
jaale.' This was spoken of seals 
at Hell's Mouth in Gwithian 
Cliff. *SoiU' was 'seal/ as 
* moile ' was * mule,' and * zawn ' 
was a sandy cove in a cliff. 
Pedlars were called troachers, 
and hence the verb, to troach — 
to go along as if with a load on 
one's back; and to 'jaale' was 
to walk at a £Ast pace, which 
one could keep up for some time. 
With this explanation, it would 
be seen that the sentence very 
well expressed the manner and 
speed of a seal's movements. — 

SoUar, a temporary floor at the 
bottom of a mine level, through 
which the air passes for ventila- 

Boons, amulets ; charms. Mystic 

words given by " white- witches " 
to their customers* See White- 

Sound, a swoon* '' She fell down 
in a 90fund.^^ 

Sonnd-aleeper, a red and black 
moth, sometimes called " a seven 

Sonr-sops, sour-dock, or common 
sorrel. Boursabs, F. C. 

Souse, adj. heavily; clumsily. 
"He sat down 9<m8e*^ Down 
souse, down right. 8(yu8e is 
sometimes used as a verb. * * She 
9ou9ed down in her chair." 

Sowdling, adj. burly; ungainly. 

Sows, Orammar-sows, Old sows, 

woodlice; millipedes. 

Spadiards, the labourers or mine 
workers in the Stannaries of 
Cornwall are so called from their 
spades. Elenuet, M G. Halli- 
well. Polwhele calls them 

Spal, V. to break stones. ''He 
was set to »pal stones." " I seed 
un 9palling stoanes on the road." 

SpalOy a fine. v. to mulct or fine ; 
to make anything last a long. 
time. To spare, J. W. 

Span, V. to tether. 

Spanjar, Span, a tether. 

Spanking, adj. large; big; a 
9panking woman. 

Spanyer, Spangar, a Spaniard. 

The Spaniards were formerly dis- 
liked for having landed in W. 
Cornwall and burnt a church. 

Sparables, small hobnails. 

Spare-work, Sparey-work, work 

that takes a long time doing. 
" Fine sewing is sparey-work," 

Spar - stone, quartz ; Cornish 

" A man of penetration he, 
For through a 9par'9tone he 
could see." 



Spars, Sparrows, viUow rods used 
for thatdiing. 

Spell, a turn of work, "Fll 
taake a Bpdl at et.'* 

Spell, a long time; often used 
with the adjectives bra', pure. 
"A bra' ipell of fine weather." 
"You've bin a pure spell on 
your arrant." 

Spenoe, a pentry or larder, 
usually joining the kitchen; a 
cupboard for keeping provisions. 

Spend, V. to break ground. 

Spickaty, culj. speckled; mottled. 
** A spickaty cow." 

Spiller, a fishing-line with several 
' hooks attached (for salt water 
fishiufi^) left for some hours and 
then drawn. 

Spinning-drone, a cockchafer. 

Spise, V, to exude. Couch. 

SpiteouB, adj\ spiteful. "She 
was looking so apittotu,^^ 

Splat, a spot; a piece. ''A 
purty splat of taturs." "A 
garden splai" 

Splatty, adj\ covered with spots 
or pimples." " A aplaUy face." 

Spooty, V. to dispute. "Not 

foing to spooty with you." St. 
ust. T. C. 

Spi^S»luV pattern, a large, gay 
sti*aggling pattern. 

Sprawl, a disease incident to 

. young ducks. They are said to 

have the sprawh when they have 

not strength to stand on their 


Sprawl, Sproil, energy. " I am 
so weak that I have no sprawl 
to move." 

Spray, Spre, v. to chap, or crack 
witti the cold. 

Sprayed, Spreed, p. p. as cu^'- 

** My lips are spray ed,'^ 

J, Spreeing, adj. cold; 
cutting. " A ^proyinj/ east wind.'' 

Spriggaa, a fairy ; a sprite. 

Springle, a springe ; a bird snare. 

Sprit, V. to split. ** Sprii open 
the fish." 

Sproosen, an untidy, ungartered 
woman. " She's a regular sproo- 
sen about the heels." 

Spud, a garden tool for cutting 
out the roots of weeds. Also 
potatoes, H. B. 0. 

Spud, a brat. "Be quiet joii 
young spud." 

Spudder, a fuss, or bother. ^ I 
don't want to ha' no spudder 
about et." 

Spxur, a short job. "Fll do a 
spur arter my day's work." A 
bra' spur, a long time. "She 
has been gone a hra' spurj** 

Spur, a glass of spirits. 

'*A spur in the head is worth 
two in the heeL 
Gi' me a class and I'll shew 
'ee my skeel," 

Squab, v. to push ; to squeeze. 

Squab-pie, a pie made of well 
seasoned fat mutton, with layers 
of apples and an onion or two. 

Squabbed, Squadged, p.p, 

squeezed. "I were squabbed 
agen the walL" 

Squard, a rent. 

Squard, v. to rend or tear. 

Squarded. "And tiiro' hen 
squarded hat hes heer appear'd." 

Squeer, a pane of glass. "I 
erased (cracked) a squeer.** 

Squin^e-grub, a small, shrrvelled 
pippin. *' She's a regidar old 
squinge-grub." Newquay. 

Squinny, v. to look or peer about 
with the eyelids half dosed. 



" Then Snuckey rabVd his liat 
' all round.' 
And squinnied on the floor.** 
Unde Jan Trenoodle* 

Squinny-eyed, acff. ehoit-eighted. 
Squitch, a sudden jerk; a twitch. 

Sqnitch, v. to twitch ; to jerk out 
of one's hand. 

SquitchenUy gas is said to have 
the squiich&rM when water has 
got into the pipes. 

Si Aubyn't diiiy, the d y after a 
feast ; a second day's feast giyen 
to inferior guests to eat up what 
may be left from the first 

Staoy-JETy a quart stone bottle. 

Stag, Stog, V. to stick in the 
mud; to coyer oneself with mud. 

Stagged, Stogged, i?. J), stuck in 
the mud ; covered with mud. 

Stain, an. earthen pot shaped like 
an urn. 

Standards, a term in wrestling 
for a man who has thrown two 
opponents, and thereby secured 
a chance of trying for a prize. 

Stand witness. "Considered a 
sure sign of being sweethearts, 
if a young man and woman 
Hand witness together, t. e. be- 
come godfather and godmother 
of the same child. T. C. Towed- 
nack, 1868." Not in all parts; 
for I remember once hearmg in 
Penzance a couple r^Pdse to do 
so, saying that it was unlucky, 
'* first at the font, never at the 
altar.*' . M. A. 0. 

Standings,* stalls erected in the 
streets for the sale of fruit, 
small wares, &c. 

Stank, a fuss; a disagreeable 
situation. " I am in a dank.^^ 

Stank, f>, to tread; to step; to 
Walk fast. ** Stank on that 
spider.* * * He's stanking along." 
Sometimes '*«(inA»ny along." H. 


8tare» a starling. 

Stany-gaiy-pie, a pie made of 
pilchards and lee^; the heads 
Drought up through a hole in 
the crust. HalliwelL 

Stave, V. to move quickly and 
noiealy. Btaver, a fUssy, noisy 
person. " She's a regular stover ; 
she staves about from morning to 

Stave, V. to knock down. '' And 
snatched up a showl for to stave 
ma owt rite." Unde Jan TrS" 

Steaded, p. p. supplied. ''Are 

you steaded f '* 
Steeve, v, to stave in. " Shall I 
steeve in the head o' the cask, 
Steeve, v. to stow away ; p. p. 

^'Yet I've some little cohshans 
I've steeved at Oak-faxm." 
Unde Jan Trenoodle, 

Steeved, p, p. frozen. "I'm 
steeved to deatibi with the could." 

Stem of a fork, the handle. 

Stem, a job ; work not paid by 

Stemming, a turn ; in rotation. 
Formerly when people were 
obliged to fetch their water from 
a common pump (or "shute'') 
they were obliged to take their 

Stent, the limits of a bargain in 
tutwork. Garland. See Tut- 

Stieldngs, the last of a cow's 

Stickler, an umpire in a wrestling 

Stiddle, Stoodle, the upright pole 

to which an ox is tied in a staU. 

Stile, a fiat iron. 

Stinkard, a disagreeable person. 



Stinks -aloud, phr. to smell 

Btrongly. **This book 9tiiik$ 
aloud of tobacco." 

Stur-a-coose, a bustling woman; 
a busy-body. 

Stirrage, a stir. ''What a 
stitToge ^sometimes $turra^e) 
there was in a few minutes." 

Stodge, porridge. '* As thick as 
atodge, ' ' A fog is sometimes said 
to be " as thick as stodge.*^ 

Stoiting, the leaping of fish ; or 
the colour they impart to 'the 

Stompses, Stamps (always plural), 
perpendicular wood or iron bars 
for ci'ushing tin ore to powder. 
They beat alternately, and are 
worked either by water or 
steam. ''Working away like 
a Btompsea" 

Stope-a-back, a mining operation. 
A stepform in a rock. Tregellas. 

Stonnd, a fit, v. (p, p.) stunned 
by a blow or fall. 

Strake, Straky, v. to steal 

Stram, v. to slam. " Don't sfrnm 
the doors so.'* To run yiolently 
against a person ; to strike. "I 
ran stram up agen un." "Told 
*im if he didn't let go, I would 
Btram to un with a norse-whip, 
and I strammed to him.'' Illogan, 
T. C. 

Stram-bang, Slam-bang, adv. 


Stramming, aclj\ big ; monstrou.'«. 
"A Btramming big lie." A 
notorious falsehooa is some- 
times called a stram mer, * ' Thaf s 
a strammer if ever there was 

Straw-mot, a straw. 

Stream works {pron. strame), tin 
works in valleys. The tin pebbles 
being placed in heaps, a stream 
of water is turned on to carry oft 

the refuse. '* A $trame o* rain,'* 
heavy rain. 

Stream, v. to dip clothes in blue- 
ing water. 

Streaming pot, a watering pot 

Strike, a Winchester bushel ; the 
third of a Cornish one, whic^ 
contained 24 gallons. 

Strike, v. to anoint as with 

Stroil, long roots of weeds; 
oouch grass; twitch grtsa H. 

Stroil, strength; ability. '<He 
has no more siroU than a child.*' 

Strop, a piece of twine or rope. 

Stroth (like both), a hurry or 
fuss. <* What's all the strath 
about ? " 

Strother, a person always in a 
fuss or hurry. 

Strothing, part, hurrying. " She 
went strothing down the street*' 
Stroping, said he did it all, and 
he was stroping about; but, in 
&ct, he did very little. St Just 
T. 0. 

Strove. ** He strove me down to 
a He." 

Strow, Strawl, a confusion ; a 
litter. "The ketehen war in 
such a strow." ** Terribly strow 
over there," meaning a row or 
disturbance. Ludgvan. " There 
was a bit of a strow (row, noise, 
fight) outside the door." Sennea. 
T. 0. (Strow pron. like how.) 

Strub, v. to rob birds' nests ; to 
strip. " The boys quite slruhbed 
the trees." 

Strnnty, adj. misty; foggy. 
** Warm strunty weather." 

St. Tibb's-Eve, a day neither 
before nor after Christmas. ** 111 
do et next St TiWs eve,'' 

Stnbberd, Stnbbet, an apple 
peculiar to Cornwall. 



Stuff, ore. " Tin shiff'' (tin oie). 

Stag along, v. to walk with short, 
quick steps. 

Stuggy, Sturgy, adj. short; 

Stall, timber placed at the back 
of levels (mine galleries) to pre* 
Tent the fidling of rubbish. 

Start, a run of luck ; more than 
the usual gain ; a mining term. 
"He had a bra' stutt last 

Bo, r. to go dry : as a cow that 
has stopped giving milk. *' The 
cow has gone to «i«, the milk has 
gone into her horn." 

Soant, adv, smoothly. "My 
cotton doesn't work «uan^." 

SabsiBt, Sist, an advance on 
account of wages. 

8agary-4|aartz, friable quartz 
resembhng loaf sugar. 

Samp, the bottom of a shaft. 

Sampmen, men employed in sink- 
ing mine shafts. 

Sunbeams, the long, light cobwebs 
which float in the air. 

Survey, a public auction. 

Barvey-day, the day on which 
the under-ground workings of a 
mine are let. 

SoM, a great fat woman. ''I 
never seed such a atiM in my 

Swabbers, certain cards at whist, 
by which the holder was en- 
titled to pai't of the stakes. *' I 
never cared for whisk since 
9wah% went out of fashion.'* Said 
bv an old lady at Penzance 
aoout ten years since. Still 
played in some parte of Com- 
waU. The %wQhi are ace and 
deuce of trumps, ace of hearts, 
knave of clubs. Each player 
before beginning to play puts in 
the pool a fixea sum for woohB, 

The four cards are of equal 
value, but should hearts be 
trumps the ace would count 

Swab-stlck, a mining tool. 

Siiroil, Sweel, to scorch ; to 
singe. " A twtdtd cat," a singed 

Swaising, part, swinging. ^' He 
went down street swaxsiitg his 
arms." Sometimes whazing. 

Swap, a gadfly. 

Swellack, a red-wing. A person 
whose self-esteem has been 
snuffed out, is called **a poor 
noeUack." H. R 0. See Whin- 

Swike, a twig of heath. ''A 
stvike broom," a broom made of 
heath twigs. 

Sy, a scythe. 

Tab, dried roots and grass raked 
up and burnt ; a cow-dimg dried 
for huming. Sometimes a turf. 

Table-board, a table. 

Tabn, food. Garland. 

Tack, a slap. v. to slap with the 
open hand. Tackliands is to 
slap hands by way of approval. 

Tacking, a thrashing or flogging. 

Tadago-pie, a pie made from 
abortive pigs. 

Taer, a rage. ^'She got into a 
pretty taer" ** He's in a pretty 
temper" would mean a bad 

Tag, the tail end of a rump of 

Tail-corn, refuse com. 

Tailings, the poorest tin; the 
sweepings ; the refuse. 

Tail-on-end, adj. full of expecta- 

Take a heave, t;. to lose the 



trace of a yein of metal by the 
a^ifiang of tilie earth. 

Take-horte» phr, when a rein of 
metal is split into two hj a wed^ 
of a different earth, it is said 
<*to take hone:' The wedge is 
called the hoT$e. 

Taking, a sad condition. ''I 
neyer saw a woman in such a 

Talikt, a raised alcore to contain 

Tallet, a loft oyer a stable. 

Tally-ho, a wide covered passage 
between two houses. 

Tamlyn, a miner's tooL 

Tammy, a sieve; a cloth for 

Tamping, material used in blast- 

Tamping-iron, a tool to beat 
down the earthy matter in a 
charge used for taming. 

'T 'Andrew's dance, 8t. Vitus' 

Tantnim-bobn«, Ta&tra-bobn«, 

applied to a noisily playful 
chud» often used thus — '*0h, 
you taniera-hohm:' P. W. P. J. 
There's a proverb, " Like tawtra- 
hohWf liv^ till he died." Some- 
times, like TanJtrarhohm^ cat M. 

Tap, the sole of a shoe. '' The tap 
of your shoe is wearing ; it wants 

Tap, V. to sole a shoe. 

'* Tap a tap shoe, that would I do. 
If I had but a little more 
leather,'' &a 

Old Nttraery Rhyme* 

Tarve, Tarvy, v. to struggle ; to 

Tarving, straggling ; raging. 

Tarvied, p» p. struggled ; raged ; 
convulsed. ** And when he had 

tarvied about"— r/ticZe Jan Tr0- 

Tatea, potatoes. 

Taunt, adj. pert ^'A tamd 
piece of goods." 

Teat, a draught of wind. 

Teating, a whistling of the wind. 

Teel, r. to till or set 

Teeled, p, p, buried. '' The owM 
mon was teded to-day." 

Teem-out, to pour. '' Teem oui 
the liquor." 

Teen, v. to close. ''I haven't 
teened my eye." 

Teen, v. to light **Te6H the 

Teening-time, the time to light 
the candles ; twilight 

Teeth-haler, a dentist 

Tell, V. to say. " Can yon Mi 
your lessons P " 

TeU-tale-tit, a tell tale. 

" Tdl'tcUe, pick a nail; hang to 
the bull's tail." 

Temper. '* There's no temper in 
the ground" (no moist heat). 

Tend, v. to wait 

Tendar, a waiter at an inn ; the 
guard of a train. 

Tenn of a time, phr, a long time. 
** She's bin a term of a time over 
her work.'* 

Tern, a bittern. ** Crying like a 

Tetty rattle, Cornish stew. P.W. 
P. J., M. B. 

Thioky, Thaoky (pran. this; 

Thirl, adj, hnk ; thin. " Our 
horse is very thirl." 

Thiit-eyed, squint-eyed. '^I 
never seed sich a thirt^eyed 

Thoft, V. imp. thought ''I 
thoft it was you." 



Throy-tiiigy t, part, oatting chips 
from sticks. 

TbLumb-beang, straw ropes twisted 
around labourer's legs to keep 
off the wet. 

Thumper, a large person. << That's 
a thumper ! " a great £Edsehood. 

Thumping, adj. very large. *^ A 
thumping woman." 

Tie-tac-moUardy a game; ducks 
and drakes. 

Tichingy v. part, setting np turves 
to dry, to prepare for fuel" 

Tidden, adj, tender; painful. 
"It came somewhat tidden to 
him, that bad helped to maintain 
his mother all alone," i, e. hard ; 
he felt it a bardahip. GulyaL 
T. 0. 

Tiddly, v, to do the better or 
lighter household work. These 
three words, used long a^ to 
the mother of an old friend, 
thus: "What can you do?" 
said the mistress. " I can louster 
and fouster, but I oaan*t tiddly, ^^ 
. said the Cornish servant. See 
Louster. F. W. P. J., M. B. 

Tiddy, a teat; mother's milk. 
Titty, a B. 0. 

Tiddy bity a tiny bit. 

Tidy, adj, decent; clever. ''A 
tidy little fellow," well-made; 
plump. '' A tidy little pig." 

Tie, a large wooden trough, 
through which a stream of 
water runs for the purpose of 
separating the ore from the 

Tifle, Tiffle, or Tifling, a ravel- 
ling; an xm woven thread from a 
piece of doth. 

Tifle-out, Tiffle-out, to unravel 
cloth; to unweave. " This cloth 
does not wear well ; it tiJU^ out" 

Tight slap, a sharp, sudden slap. 
'* I gov' her a mce tight slop on 
the cnacksi" 

Tioibal, a mining tooL 

Timbering (pron. temberin), made 
of timber. " To go up the fom- 
herin hill " is to go upstairs. 

Tember-maa, a mine carpenter. 

Timdo^d'e, a stupid. 

Timersome, adj, nervous; timor- 

Tin-dresser, a man who prepares 
tin ore for the smelting furnace. 

Ting, V. to tie together. 

Tinged up, vnp. tied up. " She's 
alius going about with that man 
tinged up to her aipemt string." 

Tink, a chaffinch. J. W. 

Tinker arter, v, to go courting. 

Tinner, a tin miner. " A water 
wagtaiL" BottrelL 

Toad-in-the-hole, a piece of meat 
with batter pudding baked roimd 

Teat, the whole lot. « The toat 
of them were there." 

Toatlish, adj. foolish; weak. 
''He's getting owld and toai- 
li$h:' Totling, J. W. 

Toit, Toitish, adj. curt; saucy. 
'* She's bra' and toit." 

Token, v, to betroth; to point 
out. " He tokened me the way.'' 

Toller, a man who collects the 
tolls or revenues of the mine. 

Tom-hoUa, a noisy, bragging man. 

Tom-horry, a sea-bird. ''The 
common name of two or three 
species of Skua." Couch. 

Tom-toddy, a young frog ; a tad- 
pole. ** Tom-toddy f all head and 
no body." 

Tom-toddy y a game in which each 
person in succession has to drink 
a glass of beer or spirits, on the 
top of which a piece of lighted 
candle has been put, whilst the 
others sing, 



*' Tom-ioddy es opom hoam, coom 
Tom^toddy es ooom hoam ; 
With his eyes burnt, and his 
nawse burnt, 
And his eyelids burnt also. 
Tom-toddy es/^ &c. 

Unde Jan TrenoodU, 

Tom-trot, haid-bake; toffee. 

Tom Twibt and Harry Dingle I 


Tongne Tavas, Tongue Tab, a 


Tootle dnm pattiok, a foolish 

Top-dresi, t;. to manure land. 

Top-dressing, manure. 

Tor, prop, noun, a rugged hill, as 
£ough-for {pron. Bow-tor). 

Tose, V. to pull wool. 

Tosin^, part, cleaning wool by 

Tosh, a large bunch. " She'd a 
tosh of yellow ribbon in her hat.'' 
** A tosh of flowers." 

Touch-pipe (pron. tich-pipe), a 
rest from work to smoke a pipe. 
** A change of work is as good as 
a touch'pipe.^^ 

TouMO, a fuss or hurry. " What's 
all the totksse f " 

Toussing, part, hurrying; fuss- 
ing. *'What are you toussing 
about now ? ** 

Tonsser, a large, coarse, round 
apron, worn by serrants to keep 
their dresses dean when doing 
dirty work: it often has a 
" mocket " (bib). 

Towans, prop, noun, sand-hills 

Town-place, a farm-yard. 

Towze, V. to pull about rouglily. 

Towzing, part, pulling about 
roughly; whirling round. **I 
want something to stand rowsing 
and Unvsing," 

Tose, V. to walk quickly. 

Tosing, part, walking quickly. 
" I saw him tojting down street." 

Trade (pro7i. tra-ade), a mean 
thing. Doctor's trade, medi- 
cine. Sweet trade, sweetmeata 
Spoken of with contempt '* I 
wouldn't take sich (roeufe.** 

Train-oil, expressed fish-oil, most 
commonly pilchard. . 

Trapes, v, to walk ; to saunter. 
Trapesing, part, walking. ** IVe 

been trapesing the streets all day 
to try and find my man " (hus- 

Trawy, a trough. T. C. 

Treesing, part, idling. " Treesing 
away your time." 

Trestrem, bait cut up to put on 
hooks. Mousehole fishermen, F, 

Tribut {pron. trib-ut), tribute; 
a percentage paid on ores raised. 

Trib-nt-ers, tributers; miners 
who work for a percentage. 

Trickster, Tricker, an adept. 

" He's a trickster for dancing." 

"Triddling, part, trifling; talk- 
ing nonsense." Garland. 

Trig, V. to support ; to set up ; 
to put a stone under a wheel to 
stop it. 

Tri^-meat, any kind of shell-fish 
picked up at low water. Large 
quantities of limpets and peri- 
winkles are gatherod in Penzance 
on Shroye Tuesday ; this is called 
going a trigging. It was formerly 
the custom for boys and women 
to stand at the comers of the 
streets on that day, with black- 
ened hands, which they rubbed 
oyer people's faces. After dusk 
the men and boys went about, 
throwing handfiiis of shells, bot- 
tles of fifth, &c., in at open doors, 
taking down signs, and unhang- 
ing gates. 




Troaeh, v. to hawk smuggled 
goods ; now sometimes applied 
to hawking vegetables, &c. 

Troach, 9. to trample. ''The 
pigs are troaching on the flower- 
bSs." J. W. 

Troaoher, a hawker of smuggled 

Troil, a short row on the sea, 
when paid for called a '*pennord 
o' say." Trail is old Cornish for 

Troll-foot, a crooked foot; a 

Troll-footed, adj, club-footed. 

Trone, the depression between 

Trool, v. to turn round like a 
wheeL To roll a ball is to 
tnxl it. 

Troy towiiy a maze ; a labyrinth 
of streets. ** I lost my way ; 
*twas a regular Troy town,** 

Troy town, a litter. '' She had 
quite a Troy toum round her.'' 
A hard- working man is said ** to 
work like a Trojan." 

Tmfl^ a trout. ''Ab fat as a 

Tmg (g hard), used for trudge. 
Towednaok, T. C. 

Trunk, a mining tooL 

Trnnking, one of the processes 
of tin-£essing. 

Tab, a red gurnard. 

Tubbal, a minei^s tooL 

Tnbban, Tab, a turf. ''She 
thi*awed a tuliban at me." " He 
was cutting tuhhans." 

Tuok, V. to chuck under the chin. 

Tucker, a fuller. . 

Tucking mill, a fulling meal 

Tucking, a term used in seine 
pilchard fishing. 

Tuck-net, a net used in tucking. 

Tolky, Tulgy, a slovenly woman. 
*' As black as a tulky." 

Tummals, a heap; a quantity. 
•« TurmnaU of letters." 

Tontree, Tnntry, the pole by 
which oxen draw a wain. 

Tnrf-tye, Tye. See Bed-tye. 
Turmuts, turnips. 
Turpentine-soap, yellow soap. 
Tut, a footstool ; a stupid person. 
Tut-work, job-work in mining. 
Twingle, v. to wriggle; to writhe. 

TTgly, adj, cross. "She's fine 
(very) and ugly to-day." " I 
never knawed sich an ugly-teTR- 
pered wretch." 

Unbeknown, not known. " 'Twas 
quite unbtknoum to me." 

TTncle, a term of respect applied 
to old men. 

** Uncle Jan Duff, had money 
enough," &c. 

- Old Nursery Rhyme, 

XTnfrooze, t;., p, /?., thawed. 

TTnkid, adj, solitary, dull. 

TTnlnsty, adj. unwieldy. Couch. 

TTnopen, v. to opeo. 

TTnream, v, to take the cream off 

XTnreamed, p. p. "Have you 

unreamed the milk P " 

TTurip, V, to rip. 

Unripped, p, p. "My dress is 
unripped in the seams." 

XTpping - stock. See Hepping- 

TTprise, XTpraise, v, to church 

TTprose, p, p, " She was uprose 
last Sunday." 

TTpscud, TTpskid. See Scud. 
TTrge, v, to retch. 



Vsile {pran. oozle), the throat 
Vsile-pipe, the wind-pipe. 

Vady, acfi- damp ; muaty. 

Tan, a kind of omnibus entered 
from the front pari 

Van, a rude process of trying tin 
ores by oruahing and washing on 
a shoveL 

Targood, a spar about 23ft. long 
used as a bowline to the foresail 
of our fishing boats. W. F. P. 

Teak, Veaoh, an inflammation 
near a finger-nail ; a whitlow. 

Vean (Old Cornish), adj\ little. 
BtLU occasionally used, but more 
as a term of endearment. 

Teor (Old Cornish), great. Used 
in proper nouns, as Younder- 
veor, great lane, 

Yeer, a sucking pig. 

Tenom, a gathering in the finger, 
not near the top ; a whitlow. 

Teakiny a protection for a sore 
finger ; a gloye. 

Yestry, the smiling of infants in 
their sleep. 

Yietor - nnta, hazel - nuts. See 

Yinnied, adj, mouldy. Blue ripe 
cheese is called vinnied cheese. 

Yiigie, an agricultural imple- 
ment, in shape between a xnat- 
tock and a hammer, for beating 
down hedges. 

Yisnan, Yidnan, a sand lance or 
sand eeL 


', razzery, vozery, vem, 
Tizzery, tasszery, tozery, tem, 
Hiram, jiram, cockrem, spirem, 

Poplar, roUin, sem. 
There stands a preny maid in a 
black cap. 

If you want a pretty maid in a 

Please to take she." 

Salf, Tfie Queen, Aug. 23, 1879. 

Said by children in R Cornwall 

when they want to know who 

shall hide, &c. See Ene, Kenfi, 


Yla, Flaw, the colic in cattle 
produced by their eating too 
much green food. 

Yoach, V, to tread on heavily. 

Yolyer. See Folyer. 

Yore, a furrow. 

Yoryer, a horse-way; a border 
round a field. 

Yoyder, a clothes basket ; a large 
basket for holding unmended 
linen sold by gipsy women. 

Vng, Yngh, Hugo. See Fogo. 

Wagel, a grey gulL 
Waiter, a tea-tray. 

Walk {pron, waalk), v. to make a 
journey or yisit, not a walk. 

Walk, a journey. "Have you 
had a nice waalk 9 " asked on a 
return from France. 

Waive, V. to wallow. "Fm 
waiving in riches." 

Wambling, a rumbling. " I have 
a wambling in my innerds." 

Want, a mole. " What's that ! " 
"TVhat you rich people never 
have in your house, a wanV^ 

Want-hill, a mole-hill. 

Wanting, phr, " How long have 
YOU been wanting / ** = how lone 
have you been away from home r 

Warsail, a corruption of wassaiL 
About New Year's Day four or 
six men join together; after 
dark, carrying with them a little 
bowl, they go from house to 
house, opening the doors, and 
calling out ** Warsmk'* Thoy 



then eang some do^grel rhymes, 
asking people to giye something 

*' These poor jolly Wanail boys, 
Come trayelling through the 

This custom has long been con- 
fined to the Tillages (pron. 

Watty* a name for the hare in 
use amongst poachers. Oouoh. 

Way, reason. *' The way I said 
so." " The toay I did it* 

Wayst, Wvit, ways. «* Go thee 
ftnui home," go thy way. A 
woman taking a pig home, not 
bein^ able to get it aiong, at last 
let it go, saying, '* Go thee 
wayst ; I waan*t have anything 
moore to do wi' 'ee.** 

Wee's nest, a mare's nest. 
" They haye found a wee^9 nest, 
and are laughing oyer the egg^** 

WeelySy wicker pots or traps for 
catching crabs. Also Oimner- 

Weeredf imp. of wear. "She 
toeered her blue gownd.** 

Weet, Weel, v. to pull. "Ill 

fpeet thy loggers (ears) for thee," 

Weeting, a flogging. 

Weetli, prop, noun, a field. 

Wecthaiis, prop, noun, small 

Wae-wow, acy^ bent ; crooked. 
*' My needle is all wee^wow,** 

Well -near, adv. well nigh. 
"There were weU-^iear a hun- 
dred people in the field." 

Werret, v. to worry ; to tease by 
oyer-talkin^. " She werrits me 
out of my hfe." 

Whap, a knock. « O.C. whaf, a 
blow.* Untie Jan TrenoocUe, 

Wheal, a mine. "O.C. hueV 
" Wheal Mary." 

Whelk, Whilk, a stye on the eye. 

Wham, Whim, a part of the 
machmery of a mine worked bv 
horse-power. •* I druy* a whem, 

Whimseyi, whims. "She's full 

of her whimseye,' 

Whinard, a redwing. " As cold 
and staryed as a whinard/' See 

Whip-up, V. to raise ; to hoist. 

Whip and while, adv. now and 
then*. ''Eyeij whip and while 
he goes away. 

Whipeidery , a machine for raising 

WhistereufE^ a box on the ear. 

Whit' - neek, a white-throated 
weasel. ** Screeching like a 

Whif-^ot, a dish made of cream 
or milk, flour, sugar, and nut- 
meg ; a kind of ciLBtard. 

White -rent, a duty formerly 
annually paid by tinners 

White-witoh, a person (either 
male or female) supposed to be 
able to charm tootnache, stop 
bleeding at the nose, Ac. ; also 
to be able to giye aseistanoe in 
recovering lost or stolen pro- 
perty, to cure ill-wished (be- 
witched) persons: often con- 
sulted by the ignorant. See 

Whis, a fussy, troublesome per- 
son. ** A dreadful old whiz. 

Whiz, r. to bustle about fussily. 

Whimni^, pari, bustling. " He's 
always whiming about the 

Whifl-agig, a whirligig. 

Whixzy, adn. confused. "My 
head feels but whisay/* 

Widdershins, from N. to S., 

through E. 



Widdle» WUddle, a ivhim ; non- 
sensical idea. " Nothing more 
than an old woman's whiddle," 
*• Pshaw ! go middle:* 

Widdy, widdy, way, a boys' 


" Widdy f widdy t way, is a yery 
pretty play ; 
Once, twice, three times, and all 
run away." 

Widow-man^ a widower. ''He 
was left a widow" Towednack 
and Sennen Cove. T. C. 

WifE^ a small pelerine. 

Wildfire, erysipelas. 

Wilyer, a baker or pot under 
which bread is baked. Couch. 

Wimmick, v. to cheat ; to beggar. 

Winoe-along, v. to swagger; to 
walk with a swing. 

Windaa - sheet, a winnowing- 

Windmow, a rick of com put up 
in a field where it has been cut. 

Wingerly, adj, thin; miserable. 
** A poor, wlute wingerJy fellow.** 

Wingery, adj, oozing ; shin^^ as 
tainted meat. **'Th» mait is 

Wiadspiur - broach, a crooked 
stick thrust into each end of a 
thatch to secure the wind^ur 
rope. H. B. G. 

Windspur-rope, a rope fastened 
oyer a hay-stack to preyent its 
being blown about by the wind. 

Winky-eye, a game. An egg is 
put on the groimd some distance 
off, the number of paces beins 
preyiously decided on. Each 
player in turn is blindfolded, and 
with a stick tries to hit and 
break it. 

Winze, a small shaft with a 

Wishti adj. sick ; ill ; white ; 
melancholy. "You're looking 

Eure (yery) and wishV^ " Funny, 
ut wishtr " If s m»W, but it's 
quiet" J.W. 

Wonders. See Gwenders. 

Worms (pron. warms), poor old 
people. "Poor auld worms," 
spoKen of an old man and his 
wife, both near ninety and dis- 
abled. Moryah, T. C. 

Wranny, a wren. F. C. 

Wriggle out the ashes, pkr. 

dear the bars of the grate. 
Sometimes Riddle out. 

Wrinkles, periwinktes. 

Wrozle, V. to walk unsteadily; 
to stagger. 

Wustn't, v. wilt not •*Thou 
wustnH do et." 

YaflTer, a heifer. 
Yaffle. See Jaffle. 
Yap, V, to yelp. 
Yowl, t, to howl 

Zacky. See Cousin Jacky. 

Zang, Sang, a small sheaf of 
com such as leasers (gleaners) 
make. Couch. 

Zeer, adj, " worn-out : generally 
used in regard to clothing, but 
applied also metaphoricafiy to 
persons. * She's yery ««r.*" 

Zew, V. '' to work alongside of a 
lode before breaking it down." 

Znkky, v, " to smart ' I wish I 
had un here, I'd make un 
zukkyj " Camborne, Comitih 

Zwele, V, to singe. ''A zwded 
cat,*' a singed cat 



Cmm, cramped with the cold. 
See Cnuu. 

Flap, a flash of bghtning. 

Hnacen, scolded. T. W. 8. 

Parrick, a little jng. T. W. S., 
Gwinear, Carnisliman, Feb, 16, 

Peasen {pron. patsen) Monday, 

the Monday before Shrove Tues- 
day. So called in E. Cornwall 
from the custom of eating pea- 
soup on that day. 

Sharp Tuesday, Shrove Tuesday. 
Illustrated News, Feb. 14, 1880. 

TTdjiack, a small moveable block 
of wood used by builders in 
fitting the planks of a boat» 

Words kivdlff amtrihuted hy Mr. W. Capeland Borlase, Laregan, Penmncs, 
too late for insertion in the Glossary. The two last are from an, old 
Tithe-book for the parish of St. Just, rune in his possession. 


Coot, a beating. 

Oraow, gravel. See ChrowaiL 

Kenaek, a term applied to 
weakly child. 

Keaaek, a worm. 

Kip, a small net used to hang 

Morgye, an ill-looking wench; 
a dog-fish. See Murgy. 

Posac, a pilchard with a broken 
back Pezzac is a Comidh sur- 

Ti|^, 'Rggj^ a game played by 

boys in which they touch and 
run. See Stig. 

Willen, a beetle. 


Vannte, Yann-stone, of doubt- 
ful interpretation, possibly the 

Whitesoolde, cheese. Carew says 
of the Oomishmen, ** their meat 
was • Whitsui; as they call it, 
namely milke, sowre milke, 
cheese and butter," 






DiTBixG a long and intimate acquaintance with the folk of East 
Cornwall, it has been my habit to make note of such words as are 
in common use among them, but which have now dropped, or are 
dropping, out of the talk of cultured society. Many of these good 
Words, obsolete or obsolescent in polite English, hardly deserve their 
fate, but should be retained as brief, apt, and vivid expressions of 
thought, only to be represented otherwise by verbose and often 
clumsy periphrase. Our greatest authors were glad to use them, and 
their persistent survival, both in sound and sense, in the rustic talk, 
should be a plea for their restoration to modem English speech. 

In the' presence of the English Dialect Society, I have shrunk 
from giving many etymological remarks, and those I have ventured 
on may be taken as mere surplusage, to be accepted or rejected* I 
have given such instances of their use by our Middle English and 
earlier Modem English writers as my memory and scant shelves 
supply me with* 

A few of the peculiarities of our speech, common in many parti* 
culars to the south-western dialects generally, but differing from the 
spoken English of to-day, are here given :— ^ 

A. The past participle of verbs has often the affix a (the Anglo^ 
Saxon ge), as a-zeed^ aheerd. There are many, but ill-defined, 
irregularities in the accentuation of this vowel, as sidi for slate, 
idkle for tackle. 

D is commonly elided from the termination of words, as bans, 
bands ; groun^ ground j e, g. " I owed 'n vorty pouns." 

E. en. This old English mode of ending the adjective is retained 


by us to a larger extent than in our common tongue : elmen tree, 
eloamen diBh, &c. 

F is sounded as v before vowels and liquids. 

G, This letter is elided in the present participle, as cUnn for 

/ has often the sound of e, as e?iSld, child ; kenly, kindly, &a 

0/ loses its / before a consonant ; " the nap o' the hilL" 

E is often transposed, as girts, groats; afeard, afraid; apem, 

S, at the beginmng of words and when followed by a Yowel or 
liquid, is replaced by its softer kin-letter, z, 

Th \b pronounced d: dresh for thresh^ datch for thatch. 

V and u are interchangeable in a most erratic way. We have 
hdve for bellow, waive for wallow, hauen for haven, etial for eval (see 
glossary, sub voce). The ancient and knightly family of Beville 
bore a passant bull in their canting arms. 

Y is occasionally substituted for h, but not so frequently as in the 
other south-western dialects. We have yaffel for armful, yefer for 
heifer; and the semi-consonantal e in ewe is with us yaws. 

In most instances the past tense of verbs is weak, as '' I knowed 
it " for '' I knew it ; " and in a few cases where it is weak in national 
English it is strong with us, as " I gove," for " I gave." 

The infinitive mood has y often added in termination, as to 
mowy, to reapy, to milky. 

Words ending in a mute consonant undergo metathesis, as haps 
for hasp, crips for crisp. 

There is a marked difference between the speech of East and 
West Cornwall, not only in structure and vocabulary, but in the 
intonation of sentences. . We have none of that indescribable 
cadence, a sort of sing-song, which marks the patois of the West, 
and which I judge to be as truly Keltic as the Comu-British words 
which remain to it At the beginning of the present century mining 
adventure, especially in the search for copper, became a furor in 
East Cornwall, and a passionate enthusiasm brought hither the 
skilled miners of the West, who flocked to the banks of Ty ward- 
lej^h Bay; and further east to the central granite ridge about the tors 


of Caiadon. These inunigrante brouglit with them and have left au 
infusion of their lang^uage, especially its technical portion, but I 
xemember when it waa a great mimetic feat) and productive of much 
mirth amongst us, to be able to imitate the talk of Cousin Jacky 
from Redruth or St. Just. This intermixture of tribes, increased 
still later bj facilities of travel, traffic, telegraphy, &c., has rendered 
it almost impossible to draw any but a very broad and blurred line 
between the dialects. The comparison can only be made by such 
glossaries as that furnished by Miss Courtney from the extreme 
west, and mine from the easternmost parts of the shire. If asked to 
define roughly a boundary, I know none better than the Parlia- 
mentary line from Crantock Bay, on St Greorge's Channel, to Yeryan 
Bay, on the English Channel, which bisects the county. The late 
John T. Tregellasy who more than any other had the faculty of 
seizing and vocally representing with minute accuracy the subtlest 
distinctions of word and tone, even between neighbouring parishes, 
thought he could plainly trace the limits of the two dialects. The 
opinion of so well-known an expert may be here given : — 

'^ To any one who may be disposed to jeer at the idea as falla* 
cioQB or ridiculous, I should be desirous of placing such a one at 
Mousehole or any village in the neighbourhood of Penzance, and for 
an hour to enter into easy conversation with its rustic inhabitants, 
and having well rivetted their sing-song (chant) on his ear, to per* 
ceive the lessening and altering of the intonation of the inhabitants 
as he proceeds eastward, through Towednack, St. Ives, Hayle, and 
Camborne. Eastward of Camborne, even at Bedruth, the natural 
chant has died away ; nor is it again heard from the more guttural 
speakers of Bedruth, Gwennap, and St. Agnes. But be it known to 
the curious in these matters, the miner of Perranzabuloe expressed 
himself uniformly in a full note higher than his adjoining parish- 
ioners of Si Agnes, and no sooner have you passed Crantock and 
Cuhert and entered the St. Columb's, than you find the people's con* 
versation partake, in a very small on to a very large degree, of the 
peculiar " zalt" for salt, ^'yefier" for heifer, &c., of St Gennys and 
the whole neighbourhood of Camelford and Boscastle, until you hear 
in its fullest form the ' I zim' for I think, 'spewn' for spoon^ .&c., of 


Bideford, "wliere the peculiarity of Deyon is so manifeBL" ^ The 
popular tongue of East Cornwall, indeed, resembles that of Devon* 
shire and of those counties generally which formed the ancient 
kingdom of Wessez. 

Carew (temp, Elizabeth), whose loved dwelling-place Anthony, 
the home of many ancestors, was where the Biver Lyner " winneth 
fellowship with the Tamer/' gives ns in his Survey some account of 
the language of his time. In those days of difficult travel and 
intercourse, his knowledge of the tongue generally spoken over the 
county was probably slight, and chiefly drawn from East Cornwall 
In his book, admirable for its keenness of observation and felicity of 
description, often in vernacular phrase, we learn that '' moat of the 
inhabitants, can speak no word of Cornish, but very few are ignorant 
of the English.** A few did yet so still '^ affect their own '* tliat to 
an inquiring stranger they would answer, ''Meea nauidua'cowzasa- 
wzneck," s= I can speak no Sazonage. However, he says of the old 
Keltic. speech, "The English doth still encroache upon it, and hath 
driven the same into the uttermost skirts of the shire ; " the fate also 
of the old Kymric on the opposite shores of Wales and Brittany, 
llie English which the East Cornish speak '' is good and pure, as 
receyuing it from the best hands of their owne gentry, and the 
Easteme Merchants/' There was still, our historian says, '' a broad 
and rude accent, eclipsing" after the manner of the Somersetshire 

Considering that the Cornish branch of the Keltic was in usq 
down to a late date, it is remarkable how few and unimportant are 
its remains. Those grand and almost changeless objects of nature^ 
mountains, valleys, headlands, bays, rivers, submarine hills, and dells, 
with the more mutable territorial divisions into towns, villages, 
hamlets, farms, and even fields, still keep their old and very descrip- 
tive names untouched by changeful time. Here and there we meet 
with a few of the old designations of animals, trees, and herbsL 
These are the last to part with the old language. *^ Mountains and 
rivers,*' remarks Sir Francis Palgrave, ^' still murmur the voice of 

^ Ifomes and EautUs qf the Bural Poptdcaian of Cormffall, p. 2, by J. T. 


nations long denationalized or extirpated ; '* and, says Canon Farrar, 
*^ though the gloBsaries of Gael and Cymiy should utterly pass away, 
the names they gave to the grandest features of many a landscape 
inll still stand upon the map." 

Many of our ancient names are most happily descriptive of the 
natural peculiarities of the scenes as they still exist : others lead us 
back in fancy to the pre-historic condition of the spots, so changed, 
hut still keeping their old designations. Lostwithiel, a town on the 
banks of the Biver Fowey, long connected with the earls and dukes 
of Cornwall, by its name alone takes us far into the past, when it 
was the place or residence of woodmen, the simple and sylvan 
habitation of a people leading a wild and venatic life. The Cymro* 
Keltic tongue, to which, the Comish being dead, we are fain to 
appeal, tells us that the word is derived from lAos^ Llys, or Les^ a 
place, and Gwddd, of the woods. In the near neighbourhood we 
have a large parish called WUhiel, and Cuddle and other variations 
or corruptions are to be traced to the same root. Maen, a stone, is 
nearly as common a prefix as the Tre^ Poly and Pen, " by which you 
shall know the Comishmen," Mennear, maen-hir, is still a common 
patronymic, the first bearers of it being dwellers by the long stone. 
As names of places we have our Menadu, Menacuddle, Menabilly, 
Menhenniot, and a host of others. In our topographical nomencla- 
ture here and there occur designations which mark the steps of the 
intruder, as Tresawsen, the residence of the Saxon. The only traces 
of the Homan domination remaining to us are on a few sepulchral 
stones by moor or wayside, where the old name is disguised by a 
Latin termination. A typical instance is found on the road to 
Fowey, near the ancient camp at Castle<lore, and not far from 
PdUcenrUy where a monolith bears an inscription which is read thus : 


The similarity between Cirusius and Kerris is fairly evident. 

Later on, our Teutonic invaders made deeper changes in our 
language, driving the Keltic into the extreme west, and leaving the 
speech of East Cornwall essentially English, with just a sparse 
sprinkling of Gorman words. This neo-Latin influence is chiefly 
noticeable on the scutcheons of our ancient gentry, armigers. The 


Tremaynes, dwellers by the rock, when French was fashionable took 
for arms the three hands ; the Trewinnaids, their three winnards or 
redwings ; and the Trefusises, their three fusils. The Canninows 
held to their Cornish motto, Cola Rag Whethlow ; and the Polwheles 
to their Karenza tchelas Karenza. 

In the compilation of my list I have gleaned from the collection 
of Jonathan Coach, who, as '* Video,'* contributed it to Notes and 
Queries (toL x.. First Series, 1854). The glossary in the History of 
FoIperrOf commonly attributed to my father, is, with the chapter on 
folk-lore, entirely my own. I have also had assistance from the 
Verbal Provincialisms of South-Western Devonshire^ by W. Pengelly, 
F.R.S. In this pamphlet, reprinted from the Transactions of the 
Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science and Art, are 
many words contributed by Mr. Pengelly from Looe in East Corn- 
wall, and they are so identical in sound and meaning with those in 
use at Polperro, that I much doubt the accuracy of Mr. Bond's 
informant when he -says : — 

'' I have been informed that about a century ago the people of 
Polperro had such a dialect among them, that even the inhabitants 
of Looe could scarce understand what they said. Of late years, 
however, from associating more with strangers, they have nothing 
particularly striking in their mode of speech, except a few of the old 
people.'* ^ 

Many words have been taken from the comic and burlesque verse 
of Henry Daniel, a native of Lostwithiel, who has with exquisite 
humour and true poetic faculty made free use of our vernacular ; and 
also I am indebted to an interesting series of articles contributed by 
Dr. F. W. P. Jago, of Plymouth, to the pages of The Comishmaitt 
a Penzance weekly paper. 

I have been much guided in the proper rendering of the words 
by Mr. Ellis's Pronunciation of English Dialects, and have striven 
to give them as phonetically as I could in ordinary spelling. 

> Topographical and Historical Sketches of E, and W. Looe. 




Abroad, Abrawd, open. '' The door is all dbrawd.** 

Adder. The Eev. J. L. Stackhouse, Curate of St. Mellion, says, that 
in his neighhourhood this name which generally means the yiper, 
Pdius Bents, is applied to the newt, LiasotriUm pundatus. 

Afeardy afraid. 

Agate, ** all agate,** descriptive of earnest attention. 

Agen» against ; untiL 

Agg, V, to incite; set on; provoke. A.S. eggian. 

All, used frequently as an augmentative, as " all abroad." 

Alley, the Alli« shad, Alosa vulgaris. From its bony nature some- 
times locally called chuok-childem. 

AUsanders, the herb, Smymium olusatrum, 

f, Ampassy, the &c. (et cetera) at the end of the alphabet. 

Anan. This interjection, used within remembrance, is now nearly 
extinct. It seemed to imply a wish to have the question repeated, and 
* to mean, " what did you say ? *' 

Anend, on end ; straight. " Tail anend,** 

Angelmaine, the Monk fish, Squatina angeltis (Mevagissey). 

Angle-twitoh, Angle-touoh, the earth-worm. 

Tagwormes which the Cornish English terme angle-touchss. — Cahew. 
Your bayte shaU be a grete angyll-twytch or a menow. — Treatise of 
Fysshynge ty Juliana Berners. 

Anist, Anert, near to ; nigh. '' I wan't go ani^ en." 

Anker, a keg or small cask of handy size for carrying by hand, or 
slung on horse-back. Used by smugglers. 

Aj^ple-drane, the wasp. 

Apaentree, the aspen, Paptduf tremtUa. 


Axg, to argue. 

Arrant, errand. 

Gk> soul the body's guest 
Upon a thankless arrant. 
The Xt>, by Sir W. Baleigh, (a Devonshire man). 

Arrish PIaa Srith 

Ary mouse, hairy mouse ; the bat. A.S. hrere mits. 

To war with rere^mke for their leathern wings. 

Mt<U, N, Dreamt H- ii- ^• 
The Tillage boys at Folperro address the bat as it flits above them in 
this song : — 

Ary-mouse, ary-moute ! fly over my head, 
And you shall ha' a crust o' bread, 
And when I brew and when I bake, 
Tou shall ha' a piece o' my wedding cake. 

Ascrode, astride. 

Attle, rubbish ; refuse. The Cornish tinner, in Carew's time, called 
the heaps of abandoned tin works, Attal Sarazin, which he translates^ 
"The Jewes offcast" {Survey of Cornwall ed. 1769, p. 8). The 
word is spelt by Pryce {MineraJogia Comubiensia), attal, attle, adall, * 
addle, and said to mean corrupt, impure, off-casts, deads. A.3» 
aicUian, Whatever the root, there are many branches, as addle, 
idle, &C. 

Avore, before* 

Az, to ask. 

Azew. A cow is said to be 02^717 when drained of milk before 
calving. In some parts, when milking is discontinued, the cow is 
"gone to a«u^." 

Bal, a mine. 

Ball, (1) to beat. 

(2) to ball, or as noun, a bawl. " Hold thy hall,** hold your noise. 
Balch, a stout cord used for the head-line of a fishing net. 

Balk, in some places bidh To balk pilchards is to pile them tcall" 
likey in layers of pilchards and salt. Balk seems to mean a hedge, 
ridge, and meta^orioally, an obstacle. Shakspere used this word 
as we do. Sir Walter Bloimt brings news of the discomfiture of 
Douglas, and describing the field, speaks of — 

Ten thousand bold Scots, two and twenty kni^ts. 
Ballad in their own blood. — Henry jTF., Pt 1, I. L 

That like a hoik with his cross builded wall. 

Pho^eas Fletchee's Purple Island, Canto iv. Stanza 11. 

Ballywrag, to scold or abase. Barnes, in the Glossary appended to 
his Poems of Rural lAfe in the Dorset dialect, suggests a derivation 
from AS. healu, evil, and wregan, to accuse. 


Sankrout, bankrupt. In the first folio edition of Shakspere, 1623, 
the form banhrout is generally used. See Mer. of Venice, III. i. 47 ; 
lY. i. 122. In Lovt^a Labour Lost, I. i. 27, the form is ** bankerout." 
Marston in Antonic^s Revenge, H. ii. has — 

Bich hope : think not thy fisice a hanhrorU though. 

Bannel, the broom {Gytisus acoparius). From the Cornish banal, 
Williams (Lexicon Comu Brit.) says, ** this is a late form. In the 
Cornish vocabulary it is written banathel, genista. It enters into the 
name of many places in Cornwall, as Bannel, Banathlek, £ennathlick, 
Bennalack." He giyes instances £rom cognate dialects. 

Barm, yeast. There is in some parts a trill on the r, as harrum, 

Baasom, Bassomy, blush red, with inclination to purple, as in con- 
gestion of the cutaneous circulation. 

Beaa, a withy band. 

Beat, burnt turf. 

Beat-burrows, a heap of burnt taiTes. In Carew's time, as now, 
formers ''a little before ploughing time scatter abroad their beat" 
boroughs** {Survey of Cornwall, ed. 1769, p. 20). 

Becker, a species of bream, Sparus pagrua, 

Bedman, sexton. A word going out of use. 

Bee-but, bee-hive. 

Belk, V, to belch. 

Till I might bdk revenge. 

Mabston, Antonio* s Revenge, L i. Ibid, I. iii. 

Belong. A curious employment of this word is observed here, e. g, 
** I belong working to Wheal Jane." 

Belye, to bellow. 

Bettermoft, much the best. 

Beyer, to shiver. 

Biddicks, a mattock : perhaps from heat^ burnt earth, and axe. 

Bilder, the herb Heraclevm gphondylium. In some parts called 
eoiaflop. The bUder in many districts is that hurtful herb the hem-r 
lock water-drop wort, (EnantJie crocata. 

Bishop, the fish. Coitus scorpius. 

Black-head, a boil or furuncle. 

Blacky-month, November. The mia diu of the old Cornish. 

Blaek-worm, the cock-roach. 

Blame, a word of objurgation. " I'm blamed if I don't." 

BUnch, to catch a glimpse of. E. g, ** I just blinched en gain round 
the caunder." 

Blindbuck-a-Dayy, the game of blind-man's buff. 


Bloody warrior, the wall-flower, Ckeiranthua cheirL 

Blooth, Blowfhy blossom. 

No fruit I promise from the tree 
Which for this hloGth hath brought. 

Cabew's Survey of O. Protopopeia, 

Blue-poll, a species, or more probably a variety of salmon remarkable 
for the steel blue colour of its head, and for ascending our rivers 
(e. g, the Camel), about Candlemas ; hence, when occurring in numbers 
they are called "the Candlemas schull." The great majority are 
observed to be males or kippers; 

Bobble, a pebble. 

BoldaeiouB, audacious ; bold ; impudent 

Bon-orab, the female of the edible crab, Platyearcinus pagurus. 

Boostis, fat ; well conditioned. 

Boots and Shoes, the columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris. 

Bowerly, stately and comely. " A howerly woman." 

Boy's love, southernwood, 

Brage, to scold violently. 

Braggaty, spotted ; mottled. In an old manuscript account book 
which belong^ed to a white witch or charmer of East Cornwall, I 
find a charm in which this adjective is applied to the adder. 

''A charam for the bit of an ader. ^Bradgty, bradgty, bradgty, 
under the ashing leaf,' to be repeated three times, and strike your 
hand with the growing of the hare. 'Bradgty, bradgty, bradgty,' to 
be repeated three times, nine before eight, eisht bemre seven, seven 
before six, six before five, five before four, mur before three, three 
before two, two before one, and one before every one. Three times 
for the bit of an ader.'' 

Brandys, a tripod or trivet used in cooking. 

Brath, broth. Here chiefly noticed for a curious idiom we have, 
** a few hraih,^* a dish of broth with a few cubes of bread soaked 
in it 

Brave, fairly good ; tolerably well. It is sometimes used without 
any well-defined meaning to qualify a noun, implying that the thing 
is moderately good of its sort. E,g, ** 'Tis hrave weather." " How be 
youP" "Bravish." Pepys writes (September 19, 1662), "that he 
walked to Bedrifle by hrave moonshine." 

Breek, a rent or hole in a garment. Qy. break. E, g. '* There isn't 
a hreek in it." 

Briming. The name given to those scintillations of light in the s^a 
waves at night, produced by several species of entomostraca, medusce, 
&c., when excited. Carew calls it briny. 

Bronse, thicket. 


Brown-worty the figwort, Serophularia nodosa. The leaves are 
much used as an aj^lication to ulcers. 

Browthy. Light and spongy bread is hrowthy. 

Buck. The Imck in the dairy is a change in the milk and cream, 
prodnoed by some unknown influence, perhaps electrical, or more 
probably some fungoid or other growth by which they acquire a 
disagreeable taste and smelL It is very difficult to eradicate from the 
dairy when once in. 

Buokhom, whiting, salted and dried. Once a considerable article 
of export frx>m Pol})erro and other fishing towns : but in these days 
when we cannot wait for fish to be salted the tradfe is discontinued. 

Buffle-headf thick-head ; dunder-head« 

But my Lord Mayor, a talking, bragging, huffU'headed fellow. — 
Pq>tf8, March 17, 1663. 

BnUard, buUward 1 Li the cow, maris appetens, 

Bullnm, the froit of the Prunus interstitiay or bollace tree. 

Bnltys, Boulter, a term applied by fishermen to an apparatus for 
catching conger, pollack, &c. It consists of a long line, haying at 
intervak hanging from it snoods of a fiathom length armed with 
tinned hooks. The snoods have many separate cords to prevent the 
fish liberating themselves by gnawing, ^e whole is moored, and its 
position marked by a buoy. Carew calls it a Icvlter* 

Bnmfire^ bonfire. 

Bunt, the concavity or bellying of a net or sail. 

Burrow, a mound or heap; a sepulchral tumulus. See Beat- 

Buss, a yearling calf still sucking. 

Bnssy-milky the first milk after calving. 

Bnts, bots, a disease of the horse. Shakspere uses the word. Tusser 
bids the farmer beware of giving his cattle *' green peason for breed- 
ing of 5oto." — Five Hund, PoinU : December Husb., V. 17. 

Butt, (1) a heavy two-wheeled cart. 

(2) a hive; "abee-but." 
Butter and 'Eggs, the flower Nardsms poeiicus. 

Butterdock, the herb burdock, Arctium majus. The fruit are called 

Gaby a dirty mess ; a slovenly, untidy thing. 
Cabby, adj. dirty. 

Caff, refuse ; especially refuse or unsaleable fish. 
Cannis, to toss about carelessly. 


Caper-longer, the ehell-fisb. Pinna ingens, 

Capronte, a tumult, or row. '' He keck'd up zich a caprouse,*' 

Care, the mountain ash, Pyrus aueuparia. 

Cats and doge, the catkins of the willow. 

Cat^-ball, a ball used in play. 

Caueh, a mess. 

Cauehy, sloppy ; miry. ** The roads be eauchy" 

Caudle, entanglement; mess. 

Cawed, a disease in sheep, &c., produced by the liver fluke, Disioma 
hepcUicum, A sheep affected by that disease, elsewhere known as rot, 
is cawed. In Dorset it is a-ct^Md. Barnes {op, eit,) auotes the Ang^lo- 
SeuLon Chronicle: **swile wth com on mannum : such a disease 
came on men. 

Chacting, half famished* "Fm ehacking with hunger." See 

Chak, cheek. '< Til scat the' eJiaks:' 

Chakky eheese, the fruit of the common mallow, much liked by 

Ohall, the building where kine are housed. 

Chap, a young fellow. 

Cheeld, child. 

Cheens, the loins. 

Cheese, the cake of alternate pounded apple and straw from which 
the dder is pressed. • 

Chien or Cheen, to germinate. Potatoes in a dark cellar cheen^ in 
some parts cJieem. 

Chitterlings, the small guts and mesentery. Chitter means thin ; a 
furrowed-faced person is called ** ohitter-fieiced." 

Chop, to barter. 

As for the chopping of bargains.— Bacok, EMay of Riches, 
Chopping and changing. — GossON, School of Abuse, 

Chow, to chew. 

Chuck, choke. 

Chack-children, the Allis Shad, Alosa vulgaris. So called from the 
bony nature of the fish, and its inelegibiHty as an article of infant diet. 

ChnfE^ sulky ; sullen. 

Chnrch-hay, churchyard. Hcezy an inclosure. This word is dropping 
out of use, but is often heard in the adage, 

A hot May 

Makes a fat Church-hay, 

Chnrch-town, the church yillage. 


Churer, a char-vomaiL 

Clam, the starfish, Asteriaa glacialis, 

dan, a rude wooden foot-hridge oyer a stream. 

Clib, to stick or adhere. 

Clibby, sticky ; adhesive. 

Cliok-handed, Cliok-pawed, left-handed. Cornish, dom-gliken: 
dom, hand ; gliken, left. 

diderSy the herb, rough bed-straw, Oalium aparine, 

Clidgey, cidj. descriptive of a gelatinoos, sticky consistence in bread 
confectioneTy, &o. 

domey earthenware, distinct from the more pellucid china-ware. 
Clop, to limp. Cornish dof, lame ; Moppiky a cripple. 

Cloat, a napkin for infants. 

When clothes are taken from a chest of sweets 
To swaddle infants, whose yonng breath 
Scarce knows the way ; 
Those dovU axe little winding-sheets 
Which do consign and send them nnto death. 

Hebbebt, Church MoriificaUon. 

Cluek, to cronch ; stoop. E. g, " Cludcy down." 

Cluck, the sitting csdrum in hens. 

Cljoaif benumbed. " My hands are dum with the cold." 

Clunk, to swallow. That action by which food passes from the 
tongue into the pharynx. 

Clunker, the uvula. 

Cludl, to lie close on the ground. 

Clusty, a dose, heavy consistence in bread, potatoes, &c. 

Cookabell, Cocklebell, icicle. 

Collybrand, smut in com. 

Composants, the meteor Castor and Pollux, known to sailors as 
ominous of storm. Qy. Spanish cuerpo mnto, 

Condiddle, to take away clandestinely ; to filch. 

Conger doust or Conger douce, 1 sweet conger. The fish. Conger 
vtdgarU, was within the memory of our oldest, and for reasons which 
might well be inc^uired into, immensely more abundant than now. 
Up to the beginnmg of the present century, a large trade existed 
between Cornwall and Catholic countries in Conger-douce. For further 
information as to the mode of its preparation, see Couch's FisheSy 
Vol. iv. p. 345. 

Coomb, a narrow valley. 



Corraty pert; impudent; saucy; sharp in rejoinder. "As eorr<d 
as Crocker's mare." E. C. proverb. 

Corwioh, the crab, Maia squinado» 

Cow-flop, the herb, cow parsnip, Heracleum SphondyliunL, 


Cowshern, cow-dung. 

Cowshemy, acff. applied to the sea when it assumes an olive green, 
turbid appearance, as if coloured with cow-dung. This appearance 
is probaDiy owine to the presence of animalcules, such as entomos- 
tracsB, medusse, &c. 

Crabbit, crabbed ; sharp and contradictory. 

Creem, to sqtieeze. It is metaphorically used to describe that sensa- 
tion of rigor or creeping of the flesh, known as goose flesh, ctUU 
atiserincu ** I felt a creem go over me." ** Creemed wi' the cold." 

Creen, to wail, or moan. " The cheeld best been creening all day." 

Crib, a crust of bread. 

Cribbage-faced, small and pinched in face. 

Cricket, or Creoket, a low stool. Qy. A.S. erie^ a crutch, or propu 

Crickle, to break down through feebleness. 

Crim, a morsel ; a small quantity of anything. Allied to the word 
cTumh, Often applied to time. E,g, " After a crim" in a very short 

Crowdy, to fiddle. Crowd, a fiddle. Crowder, a fiddler. <<So 
long as you'll crowdy they'll dance." E. G. proverb. Crowdero had 
his name from this word, said to be Kdtic. Crwth is Welsh for a 

O sweet consent between a crowd and a Jew's harp. 

John Lilly, Campaspe, II. L 

Crow-sheaf, the terminal sheaf on the gable of a mow. 

Cmddle, v, to curdle. 

See how thy blood cruddles at this. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, A King and no King, L i. 

Cruel, in common use to qualify almost any noun, and has nothing 
of the meaniog usually conveyed. Cruel dow^ very slow ; crud hard, 
very hard (Qy. slang). 

Crumpling, a stunted apple. 

Cry out, travail ; parturition. Shakspere makes King Henry VTIL 
(Y. i.) say to LoveU concerning his discarded Queen Catherine : — 

What sav'st thou P ha ! 
To pray for her ? What is she crying ofU f 

Lovell. So said her woman ; and that her sufferance made 
Almost each pang a death. 

Cuckle-dook, the herb burdock, Arctium ma jus. 


Cuekoo-cpit, the frotli of the insecty Cicadia spumaria. In that 
exquisitely dainty feast vhioh Herrick spreads for Oberon is — 

Of that we call the cuckoo BpitUe, — ffesperides. 

Cue, an ox shoe. Theie are two on each division of the hoof, some- 
what resembling a Q, from which the name may be derived. 

Cnleh, oyster spat. 

Cnllen, the same as Hollibubber (Delabole). 

CnlTer-hoiind, the lesser spotted dogfish, 8qualu8 cattdus. 

Cnstis, a smart blow on the open palm. A common school ponish- 
ment ; also the name of the instrument inflicting it. 

Cuttity sharp in reply ; pert ; impndent. 

Dafter, sometimes Darter, daughter. 

Dap«y likeness ; image. *' He's the very daps o' es vather.'^ 

Batch, thatch. 

Dayer, to fade or soil. 

Daveredy faded ; soiled. 

Dayberry, the wild gooseberry. 

Deaye, or Deeye, barren ; empty. A nut without a kernel is deeve, 

Delbord, the fish, nurse hound, Sqwdus eanicula, N.E. C. 

Denis, the wooden frame in which a door swings. The dead and 
dry stock of an apple-tree is apple-dem. 

Dew-mail, the slug, Limax agredis. 

Diah, (1) a toll of tin ; a gallon, according to Carew. Vide Ftyce, 
Mmeralogia Gomub. 
(2) to be suddenly downcast or dismayed. 

Diahwasher, the bird, water wagtail 

Disle, the thistle. Hilky ditlei Sonchua oleraceus, 

Dogga, the picked dog-fish, Acanthiua vulgaris. 

Dole, confusedly stupid. 

Doll, %. Toll, a tribute by the Lord of a tin-sett, tollers, 

Dory-monae, the dormouse. 

Dosfity, spirit ; activity. 

Dousty chaff; dust. 

Down-danted, cast down ; depressed in spirits ; daunted. 

DowiOy to throw on the ground. 



Drang, a nairow passage or alley. A.8. throng^ thringen^ to press, 
squeeze, or thrust. 

Draah, to thrash. 

Braahel, aflaiL 

Drazel, the threshold. 

Dredge-com, a mixed crop of barley, oats, and wheat. 

Driff, a small quantity. A word now not commonly used. 

Dringed, or Sringed up, crowded. 

Dnih, Drythy dryness. 

Sroyer, a fishing boat employed in driving or fishing with drift or 
floating nets. 

Drug, to drag. *' Drug the wheel" Chaucer says : — 

And at the gate he profred his servyse 

To drugge and drawe what so men wold devyse. 

Knighte$ Tale, 

Dmle, to drivel. 

Dnunble-drane, the humble bee. 

Dnbbut, short ; dumpy. 

Dnggle, to walk about with effort and care, like a very young child 

DnmUedory, the cockchafer. 

Dnmmet, the dusk. 

Dwalder, to speak tediously and confusedly. 

Ear-bnsannui, the tonsils. 

Easy, idiotic. 

Eayer, in some parts pronounced Hayrer. The grass, Lciium 

Eglet, or Aglet, the fruit of the white thorn, haw. 

Ellecky a species of gurnard, Trigla cuculus. Carew in his enumera- 
tion of Gk>mish fishes mentions tiie *' Illek.*' 

Elran, probably a purely Cornish term applied to intrusive dykes of 
porphyritio felsite, but sometimes locally and ignorantly to coarse 
sandy beds of killas. 

Enuners, embers. 

En. The old plural termination still kept by some English nouns, 
as ox, oxen ; chick, chicken, is retained by us in pea, peosen ; house, 
housen, &c 

Eppingstook, the step from which a horse is mounted by women. 
A common convenience in most farm-yards. Qy. vpping^aioclL. 


Errishy someiimes Arriflh, stubble. 

Errish-y or Arrisli-mow, field stacklets of wheat or barley. 

Eval, a dung fork. In the Easternmost parts of Cornwall it is, ' yule,* 

Eve, to become moist. A stone floor is said to eve before wet weather. 
A good hygrometrio mark among country folk. 

Erett, sometimes Ebbet, the newt 

May never ewA nor the toad 
Within thy banks make their abode. 

Bbowbte's Britannia PastcrdU, Book L Song 2. 

Byle, the eeL 

Faggot, a feminine term of reproach. Also used to designate a 
secret and unworthj compromise. A man who, in the wrestling ring^ 
sella his back, is said U> faggot, I presume it has some relationship 
to the word in use among ^ectioneering people, faggot vote. 

Fairy, a weaseL 

Fang, more commonly pronounced YaBg^ to take ; collect ; handle, 
or receive. A. 8. fengan. 

And Christendon of priests handes /on^e. 

Chaucer, Man of Lawea Tale» 

Fare-nut, Vare-nut, the earth-nut or tuberous root of the Bunium 

Feather bow, fever few, Matricaria parthehium. 

Fellon, inflammation. Culpepper says that the berries of the bitter- 
sweet (Solanum dulcamara) are applied with benefit to fdoni. Vide 
Ajnara dulcis, 

Fellon-herb, the mouse-ear hawk-weed, Hteraceum pUosella. 

Fern-web, a coleopterous insect, MelorontJia horticola, 

Fetterlook, fetlock. 

Fit, to prepare or arrange. " Shall Ifitdk cup o' tay for 'ee 1 " 

Fitdhett, a polecat. 

Fitty, fitting j proper. 

Flaygerry, a froKc ; spre^ 

Fleet, V, to float. 

Ere my sweet Oaveston shall part from me 
This i^e shall jleet upon the ocean. 

Majllowe^ TroubUpome Reign of King Edw, 11^ 

Flikkete, flashes; sudden or rapid change of colour. 
Floz, to agitate water in a closed vesseL 

^-mare, a peculiar and dangerous hitch or grip in wrestling. 


Por, during. " Once /or the day." 

Forthy, officious ; forward. 

Fonte, to soil or crumple. 

Trape, to bind. 

Freafh, w Treaih, a wattle. 

FumadCi a pilchard prepared by the process of balking, perhaps 
formerly smoked. 

Fomigg, to deceive ; desert, or fail in a promise, Qy. From the 
Cornish **fad%c^" a runaway. "Fenigy," Video. 

(htd, a chisel for splitting laminated rocks. A.S. ga^ goad, goad, 

Oaddle, to drink greedily. 

Oale, an impotent bulL 

Oambrel, the hock of an animaL 

Chuige. To gange a hook is to arm it and the snood with a fine 
brass or copper wire twisted round them to prevent their being bitten 
off by the nsh. 

Oawky, stupid ; foolish. C. gog^ a cuckoo. A.S. gaec, geac^ goBCj a 

Oeese, a girth of a saddle. 

Oerrick, the garfish, Belone vidgarU. 

Oiglety an over merry, romping girl. 

Away with those gigleU too. — Mefunre/or MeoBure, Y. 352. 

CMng, the whip employed to spin a top, 

Oladdy, the yellow hammer. 

Olawer, the fish, power, MorrhiM minuta^ N.K C. 

Olaie, to stare. 

Olinty to catch a glimpse of. 

Ooad. Land in small' quantities is measured by the goad or staff 
with which oxen are driven. It represents nine feet, and two goad^ 
square is called a yard of ground. 

Oo^-g^ding. On the day before Christmas day poor women go 
round to their richer neighbours asking alms. This is called going-a- 

Gtoody. To goody is to thrive or fatten. 

Gtoogy or Oiig, a seaside cavern. N.E. G. 

Ooosey-daace. Burlesque sport on Christmas Eve. Yide Higt, of 
Folperro, p. 161. 

Gore. " A gore of blood. " 


QoTrjf a wicker flasket with two long handled, carried in the mode 
of a sedan chair. 

GoM, the reed, Arundo phragmites. 

Grab, to grasp ; seize. 

Orainy, proud ; haughty. 

Orange, to grind the teeth. 

Oreen-aance, the herb, Rumex acetosa. 

Greet, earth ; soil. 

Greet-board, the earth-board of a plough. 

Grey-bird, the thrush, Turdtta musicus. 

Gribble, the young stock of a tree on which a graft is to be inserted. 

Gripe, a ditch. Hedgy-gripe, the ditch by the hedge of a field. 

Griste, grist. Com sent to the mill to be ground. 

Griaole, to grin ; to laugh. 

Oufl^ stuff; refuse. 

Gulge, to drink gluttonously. 

Gumption, sense ; shrewdness ; aptitude of understanding. 

Onr, the fish, shanny, Blennius pholis, S.E. C. 

Hack, to dig lightly. " To hack tetties '' (potatoes). 

Hallihoe, the skipper fish, Scomheresox eaurus. 

Hall-Monday, Collop, or Shrove Monday, probably Hallow-monday. 
Vide Nicky-nan night. 

Hall nut, the hazel 

Hame, a circle of straw rope ; a horse-collar. A hame is used to 
fasten the fore leg of a sheep to his neck to prevent straying, or 
breaking fence. 

Handsel, to use or handle for the first time. 

Hange, the heart, lungs, and liver of an animal on a butcher's stall. 
" Head and JiangeJ* 

Hapse, a hasp. 

Hardah, elvan rock. 

Hard-head, the herb, black knapweed, Centaurea nigra 

Hares-meat, the wood-sorrel, Oxalis acetosella. 

Harve, a harrow. 

Hastis, hasty ; sudden. " Hastia news." 

Hauen, haven ; harbour. 


Havage, lineage ; extiactioa. The chfldien of a family of ill repute 
are said to be *' o' bad havage,** 

Hayne, v. to withdraw cattle from a field with a view to a crop 
of hay. 

Hayriflh. See Erridt 

Hayung, poachisg. 

Heal, or Hail, to hide or- conceal A.S. hdan,. ''The haile/s 

as bad's the stailer." Local proyerb. 

Hedgyboar, the hedgehog. 

Hedgygripe, a ditch at the foot of a hedge. 

Heel-tap, n. the heel-piece of a shoe. Metaphorically, the remainder 
of an ill-drained glass of liquor. 

Hekkymal, the blue tit (Parus eceruleua). 

Helling, in some parts Hailing, roofing stone ; flat slate. 

His bowses were unhilid 

And full i yvel dight. — Cokes Tale of Oamdyn, 

Herringbaim, the fish, sprat, Clupea sprattus, 

Hile, the beard of barley. 

Hoase, hoarse. 

Hobbin, a countryman's pasty which he takes to his work for a mid- 
day meaL 

Hog, Hogget, a sheep after six months of age. 

Hollick, an alliaceous plant, common in cottage gardens. 

Holm-buBh, the holly. 

Holmsoritoli, the missel-thrush, Turdtu mscivorus* 

Holt, hold ; place of retreat. ? Yrom helan. 

Home, pronounced Tiom, near to ; nigh ; close. '' Make hmn the door." 

Homer, homeward. 

Homey-wink, the lapwing plover. 

Hone, a fault in a rock. A portion of dead ground splitting a lode, 
named a rider or rither in Yorkshire. Pryce. 

Houte-warming, a wedding gift; or present on first keeping house. 

Howsomeyer, however. 
Hudd, the husk of hard fruit 

Huer, a man on shore who directs by signs the movements of the 
seine fishermen. 

Hull, the empty and rejected shell of nuts, peas, &c. 


Hulster J a Hold ; place of retreat, «r concealment, like Holl E. g. 
'* This rdblnsh es only a Mister for snails." 

Hnrrisome, hasty ; passionate. 

Hurry-akuiryy confusion ; intemperate haste. 

Hurts, whortleberry. 

He, the liver fluke, distoma hepatica, productive of rot in sheep. 
Ill-wished, bewitched. 

Inkle, tape ; narrow webbing. '' As thick as inkle-weskYeiB" 
Inwards, intestines. 

Jack o' Lantern, Ignis fatuua, the pisky Fuck. 

Jack o' -Lent, a figure made up of straw and cast-off clothes, carried 
round and burnt at the beginning of Lent, supposed to represent 
Judas Iscaiiot — Hist, of Folperro, p. 125. 

Jakes, a state of dirty untidiness. 

Jam, to squeeze forcibly ; to crush. 

Janders, jaundice. 

Jenny-qniek, an Italian iron. 

Jew's ears, some species of fungi. 

Joan the Wad, the name of an elf or pisky. 

Joice, juice. 

Jowter, a travelling fishmonger. Garew says of Folperro, that there 
" plenty of fish is vented to the fishdrivers, whom we caHjawteraJ'* 

Keenly, deftly, as, "he does it keenly." Also kindly; favourable. 
" Brave keenly gossan." 

Keeve, a large tub. 

Kenning, an ulcer on the eye. 

" What is called a kerming, kerning, or a homy white speck on the 
eye, we have several old women wno profess to cure by a charm. 
Possibly kenning may imply a defect in the ken or sight. The old 
word ken is used for sight m Cornwall as weU as in Scotland. I should 
not omit to state that the application of some plant to the part affected 
accompanies the mnttered mcantation. In the present case it is the 
plant or herb here yclept the kenning harb." — Folwhele's TrcuLitiona 
and RecoUecHons, vol. ii. p. 607. 

The plant I have seen most commonly used for dealing opacities of 
the cornea is the celandine, cJielidonitim majm, 

Kerla, swollen and hard glands. Same loot as kernels. 


Xem, to harden, as com does after blossoming. A word with large 

Kib. To kib a gap, is to mend a hedge with thorns^ and pat tctbs or 
tarres to keep them down. 

Kibble, a mine backet. 

Kiddylwinky a beer-house. Vide Tiddlywink. 

Killas, KellaSy a local name in Cornwall and Devon for every kind 
of day slate. It includes, in different districts, soft clay slate, roofing 
slate, fine-grained cleavable sandstone, &c. It may be said to include 
all fine-grained sedimentary rocks of silidous nature and schistose in 

KiUiok, a stone set in a firame of wood, used by fishermen to anchor 
a boat in rough ^und, instead of a grapnel. *' The word ktUidc^ as 
I am informed, minifies a circle in Welsh ; and it is probable that the 
circle of wood which holds the stone is the foundation of the name." 
— Video, 

Kimbly. " The name of a thing, commonly a piece of bread, which 
is given under peculiar circiunstances at weddmgs and christeninga. 
It refers to a curious custom which probably at some time was 
general, but now exists only at Polperro, as far as I know. When 
the parties set out from the house to go to the Church, or on their 
business, one person is sent before them with this selected piece of 
bread in his or her hand (a woman is commonly nreferred for this 
office), and the piece is given to the first individual that is met, whose 
attention has been drawn to the principal parties. I interpret it to 
have some reference to the idea of the evil eye, and its influence from 
envy which might fall on the married persons or on the child, and 
which IB sought to be averted by this unexpected eift It is also 
observed at births in order that by this gift env^ may be turned away 
from the infant or happy parents. This kimUy is commonly ^ven to 
persons bringing the first news to persons interested in the birth." — 
Jonathan Couch, Polperro. 

Kink, a twist in a rope ; entanglement. 
Kipper, a male salmon. 

Hit, (1) kith. 

(2) the buzzard, Buieo vtdgaris. Perhaps applied to the kite, 
MUwM regalist before the bird became so exceedingly rare. 

Klip» to strike or cufil " I klipped 'en under the ear." 

Knagging, inclined to be contentious, and ill-tempered. 

Knap, the top or brow of a hill. 

Hark ! on the hnnp of yonder hill 

Some sweet shepherd times his quilL — ^Bbowne. 

As you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap of ground. — 
Baoon*8 Essays. 

Knap-kneedy knock-kneed. 

Ko ! an exclamation of entreaty. Video says Coh is an exclamation 


of no Tory decided meaning ; but it signifies io put off, as much as 
to say, "You don't mean what you sav," "GK> along with you." 
GenenJly in E. 0. it is used as supplementary to any earnest request, 
and is yery expressiye of eager entreaty. 

Lairy, Leery, adj. descriptive of emptiness or sinking at the stomach. 

Lake, a small stream of running water. Sometimes a space in the 
open sea where a particular current runs, as the kike off Polperro. 
Gwayas lake, 

LampeTy the lamprey. 

Lamjiered, mottled. " Lampered all over," like the sea lamprey. 

Lank, the flank, or groin. 

Lapftene, the stone on which a shoemaker heats his leather. 

Lask, a slice taken off the tail of a mackerel ; a favourite bait in 
whiffing for mackerel or pollack. 

Latten, tin. 

Launder, a shute running under the eaves of a house. 

Lawrence, Larrenoe, the rural god of idleness. '' He's as lazy as 
Zarence," " One wad think that Larence had got hold o^n." A most 
humorous illustration of the dialect of Somersetshire, hj Mr. James 
Jennings, printed in Brayley's Oraphic and Historical fUiutratorf p. 
42, shows that Larence is there held in the same repute. 

Leasing, gleaning. 

Leat, a mill stream. 

r, the daffodil, Narctssiis pseudo-Narcissus, 

% expressive of unusual size. A slang term like " whopping." 

Let, to hinder or stop. Still in common use among boys at play : 
" as you Ui my marble." 

IffVBTB^ the flBJot, Iris pseudacorus. From /^^, leaves; thinlaminaB, 
very descriptive of the flag or marsh iris. 

Lew, sheltered. A common word in the Wessex dialect, signifying 
a sunny aspect, but protected from the wind, eminently descriptive of 
our towns, the Looes. 

Lewih, shelter. 

Lidden, a monotonous song or tale. Carew says it means a "by- 

Lide, the month of March. 

Liggan, or Lig. The manure composed of autumnal leaves washed 
down by a s&eam, and deposited by side eddies (Powey). A species 
of sea-weed* See Worgan'a General View of Agriculture in ComwalL 
p. 120. ^ :/ • 


lAggff sloppy ; drizzly, applied to weather. 

lighiMf the lungs. The rising of the ligJUs is the name given to the 
globus hysiericuBy a prominoit symptom in the disease hyderiom 

Linhay, a shed consisting of a roof resting on a wall at the back, and 
supported by pillars in front 

Idntem, a linteL 

Loader, a double apple. 

Lob, a stone tied to the end of a fishing-line to keep it fast when 
thrown from the rock. 

Loons, toffy ; sugar-stick. 

Loitch, refuse. 

Longcripple, the lizard. In some parts of E. C. it is the name of 
the snake and yiper. 

Long-nose, the fish Belone vulgaris. 

Loon, the bird, the northern diver, Colymbus glacialis. 

Lords and Ladies, the wake-robin. Arum maculatum, 

Lonning, lank ; thin ; meagie. 

Louster, to work hard* " He that can't schemy must lousier,** Local 

Lugg, (1) the beach-worm, Arenicola, 

(2) the undergrowth of weed in a field of com. 

Maa, the maw or stomach. The a pronounced as in the next word^ 

Hale, the fish shanny, Blennius pholis, 

Halkin, a mop of rags fastened to a long pole, and used to sweep 
out an oven. Metaphorically, a dirty slut. 

Manchent, a small loaf. 

No manchet can so well the courtly palate please 
As that made of the meal fetch'd from my rertil leaze. 

Dbatton, Pdyolbion, 

Mar6 crab, the harbour crab, Carcinus Mmias. Also applicvl to the 
velvet crab, Portunus puber^ and other harbour crabs. 

Mash, marsh. 

Haur, Moor, a root, or fastening. Hence, perhaps, " to raaor a vessel." 
*' Maur and mule," is a common expression, meaning, root and moti/d 

MaWnge, to chew ; masticate ; munch. ~ 

Hay, the flowering whitethorn. 

Mased, bewildered. Expressive of confused madness. 


% a wild, thonghilesSy giddy fellow. Yeij possibly the 
doim of a rustic play. 6htarS, Huarty are old Cormsli for play or 
8|>ort. "The Oomisii people," says Garew, *'haye their Guary 
miraoleey'' or mirade plays. Vide Flaygerry. 

a black cheny. 

ICeader, a mower. This word appears in the following verse of an 
old, and I suppose, an unpubHahed song : — 

Sammer now comes, which makes all thin^ bolder ; 

The fields are all deck'd with hay and with com ; 
The meader walks forth with his scythe on his shonlder, 

His firkin in hand, so early in the mom. 

Kermaids Purses, the egg-cases of some Chondropteigious fishes, 
often drifted to the beach with oreweed. 

dancers, the flickering Aurora horedlis. 

lOehe, to play truant. 

To miche, to lurk, with a slight deviation from Fr. muur,—^ 


In our older writers the word used to mean an idle pilferer. 

Shall the blessed sun of heaven prove a micher, 

Shaxbpebx, First Henry IV., IL iv. 450. 

!nie moon in the wane, gather fruit for to last, 
But winter fruit gather when Michel is past ; 
Though micher$ that love not to buy or to crave 
Make some gather sooner, else few for to have. 

TussEB, September Husbandrie. 

Xiohing, idling; skulking. 

I never looked for better of that rascal 
Since he came miching first into our house. 

Heywood, a Woman killed with kindness^ 

IClcy, adj, descriptive of bread or flour made from com which has 
germinated. The loaf has a sweet taste and dose consistency. 

Mimsey, the minnow, Leuciscvs phoxinus, 

Kimnaice, bewilderment. 

Hook, Hot, a log of wood. The Christmas viock or mot is the yula 

Moil, the mule, hybrid between stallion and female ass. Vide Mute. 

Mole, the fish, rock goby, Gobius niger^ N.E. C. 

Molly-caudle, a man who intrudes into women's household aflairs. 
Such a character was down to late date known as a eotquean, Addison 
usee this latter word. 

Mood, the vegetable sap. 

Koody-hearted, easily disposed to tears. 

Moor-stone, granite. 


Mor, ihe guillemot 

Moid, lard ; pig's grease. 

Mother Carey's chioken, stormy petrels, ProceUaria pelagicc^ 

Mowliay, the inclosure where stacks and mows are made. 

Muffles, freckles in the skin. 

Mnf^gets, the small entrails, chitterlings. In a MS. cookery-book 
of XDB tune of Queen Elizaheth, in my possession, and prohably Oomiah, 
there are directions how *' to boyle oalyes muggetU" 

Mole, to beplaster with mad. '' He was muled in mud." The same 
as moiled or bemoiled. 

Mule, to knead or make dough. In Biley's Munimenta QUdkaUm 
LancUnenM, voL iii., a story is given in Latin of a rofi;iii8h baker who 
used to cheat his customers by haying a hole in nis table, "^um 
vocatur inMing bordej' A.D. 1327. 

Mur, the sea bird Guillemot ( Vria). 

Mute, the hybrid between male ass and mare. 

Vaekisr, the wheatear, Saxieola csnatUJie. 

Vaert, night 

Vail, a needle. 

Vatey, adj, applied to fat when fairly composed of fat and lean. 

Vattlings, the small gute. Qy. from G. enederen, 

leat, adj, simple; undiluted. This word has wide distribution 
with many variations among the North-western branches of the 
Aryan laneuages. With us its use is fast dying out, and is 
chiefly appued to spirituous drinks. E. g. '' I'll ha* it neatf'' i. e. 
wilhout water. Christopher Marlowe in his Hero and Leander 
uses it in our sense. 

Wild savages that drink of running springs 
Think water fax excells all earthly things ; 
But they that drink neat wine despise it 

Veok, a miniature sheaf of wheat with four plaited arms, intertwined 
with everlastings, and the more durable of flowers. The stalks of 
wheat brought down by the last sweep of the scythe are brought home 
in thankful triumph, and woven as described. In the evening the 
sheaf or zang is taken into the mowhay, where are assembled afi the 
harvest party. A stout-lunged reaper proclaims — 

^'IhaVenl IhaVenl IhaVen!" 
Another loud voice questions : — 

«*Whathav'ee? WhathaVeeP Whathav'eeP" 
**AneckI Aneck! Aneck!" 

is the reply ; and the crowd take up, in their lustiest tones, a chorus 
of * ' Wurrah. " General merriment follows, and the draughts of ale or 


oider are often deep. The neck may be seen hanginff to fhe beam of 
many of our flEurm-lioiises between harvest and Christmas eve, on 
"which night it is given to the master bullook in the chcdl, << Hollaing 
the neck *^ is still heard in East Cornwall, and is one of the cheerfuUefft 
of mral soimds. 

HeggUTi the ass. 

Hessel, a snood of twisted twine, home-made, to which the hook is 
fiEtstened in fishing for smaller fish, whiting, pollack, &c. 

Hewel-bird, the smallest of a brood. 

Hessel-taker, the little engine for making nessde, fixed to the beams 
of the fishermen's dwelling. 

Sew-fiuigy Sew-Tangy something newly got; new fangled. Vide 

Sibby-gibby, narrowly escaped or missed. 

Vicky-naa-night, the night of Shrove Monday. For an account of 
the curious customs wluch distinguish this day, vide Rep. B. Inst, of 
Com., 1842, and Couch's Hist, ofrolperroy p. 161. 

Hiddick^ occiput, or nape of the neck. 

Hiffy a slight offence ; a tiff. 

Himpingale, a whitlow. 

Hut-bally the hazel, CoryJus avellana. 

Oak- web, the cockchaffer, Mdolontlia vulgaris. 

Oile, the awn or kile of barley. 

Ood, wood. 

OoBt, a disease of cattle, a symptom or cause of which is the presence 
of worms in the windpipe and bronchial tubes. 

Open-asses, the medlar, MespUus germanica. A vulgar and ill- 
savoured story is told here as well as in Chaucer's Prologue of the 
Reeve, where it is said of the open-ers, ** Till we be roten, can we not be 

Orestone, the name of some large single rocks in the sea, not far from 
land. Some fish are said to taste ory, some things to smell ory, that 
is, like oreweed or seaweed. 

Oreweed, seaweed. 

Orrel, a porch or balcony. The ground-floor of a fisherman's house 
is often a fish-cellar, and the first fioor serves him for kitchen and 
parlour, which is reached by a fiight of stone steps ending in an orrel 
or porch (Polperro). 

Orts, scraps or leavings, especially of food. J. 
Ovees, eaves of a house. 


(hrarlooky to bewitch ; to have under spell ; to cast an eyil eye on. 

Beahrew your eyes 
They haye <ferloc3^d me. — Shakspese, Merchani of Venice, 

OwA, the windpipe. 

a small pitcher. 

Palace, a cellar for the bulking and storing of pilchards. This cellar 
is nsnally a square building with a pent-house roof, endowing an open 
area or court. Has our word any connection with that applied to a 
r^gal mansion which had a court (area circa OBdee% for giving audience ? 

Palehed, patched. A confirmed invalid is said to be a palched, 0£ 
patched up man. 

Panger, a pannier. 

Pank, to pant. 

Pay, to lay on a coat of pitoh or tar. 

Peendy, tainted (applied to flesh). The peculiar taste or smell just 
short of decomposition. 

Peiie, to weigh ; to poise. 

I speak too long, but tis to peizt the time 

To eke it, and to draw it oui in length. — Shaksfsrb. 

Tho* soft, yet lasting, with just balance paired, — ^Flbtghsb's Purple 
'Norden also uses it, 1684. 

Pead| to shut in. In English we retain the participle past, pent, 

Penny-eake, the herb navel-wort, Cotyledon umbilicus, 

Penny-Iiggy, penniless. 

PUch, a warm, flannel outer garment for children. 

PiU, a pool in a creek. 

Even as a sturgeon or a pike doth scour 
The creeks and pilU in rivers where they lie. 

SiLYESTEB^s Du BorUu. 

Pillui, the oat grass, Avena (Worgan op. cit.). 

Pilm, Pillem, dust. ** The dust which riseth.** Carew, who says 
that this was one of the rude terms with which Devon or Cormshmen 
were often twitted. 

Pimpey, the after^sider made by throwing water on the nearly 
euaujBted cheese or alternate layer of apple and straw. It is some- 
times called heveragCf and is only fit for mmiediate use. 

Pinnildn, puny. 

Pisky, an elf or &iry. 

Pittis, pale and wan. Qy. piteous. 


Planchin, a wooden or planked floor. 

And to that vineyard wad a plauched gate. 

ShaK8PEB£, Measure for Measure. 

Plashet, a moist place where a brook begins. Carew says of wood- 
cocks, that they arrive in Cornwall " on the north coast, where almost 
every hedge serveth for a road, and every plashshoot for springles to 
take tliem." 

Flufl^ soft ; light and spongy ; out of condition. An old turnip is 
said to be pluff. **How are 'e to-day P" is often answered, ''rather 
fluff J* Th» for of a hare or rabbit is also called its pluff. 

Plum, soft; light and spongy; soft and yielding. Flummmg ia 
raising dough with yeast or harm, 

Pookf Puke, a small heap of hay or turves. 

Pooi, to strike about with the feet, as children do when uneasy. 

Popdock, the fox-glove. 

Porr, Purr, hurry ; fluster ; pother. 

Poitens, a butcher's term : probably appurtenances. 

"Bower, the fish, Gadus minuius. 

Prease, Prize, to force a lock by means of a lever. 

Preedy, evenly balanced. The beam of a scale nicely adjusted is 

Progue, to probe. 

Proud-flesll, exuberant granulations of a healing wound. 

Pulty the pulse. 

Punkm-end, Pnnion-end, the gable-end of a house. 

Pnrgy, thickset ; stout. 

Pnrt, a sharp displeasure or resentment. *' He has taken Kptni.** 

Qnailaway, a stye on the eyelid. 

ftnairel, a pane of glass ; probably at first a small square of glass. 

Some ask'd how pearls did grow, and where ; 

Then spoke 1 to my girl 
To part her lips and show me there 

The quarrelels of pearl. 

Herbick, Amatory Odes, I. i. 

Qoat, so squat, or stoop down, as a hare sometimes does when 

Quilter, to flutter. " I veel'd sich a quilterin* com over my heart." 

Q'lUnted, over filled ; stuffed to repletion, applied to animals. 



Babble-fUh, unsaleable fish, shared by the fishermen. Video^ N. ^ d, 
YoL z. No. 265. Vide Baffle. 

Baoe, a string. E, g. Of onions. 

Baffle, refuse. The lees saleable fish which are not sold, but dirided 
among the boaf s crew, are called rafflt fish. 

Bag, a large roofing stone. 

Bany, a ridge of low rocks in the sea covered and uncovered by 
the tide. 

Bare, raw. 

Banning, ravening; voracious. That voracious fish, Merlangui 
CorhanariuBy is called the rauning pollack. 

Beam, (1) v. to stretch. A.S. rymauy to extend. 

(2) n. the rim or surface. Cold cream is called " raw ream.'^ 

Baese, v. Ck>m is said to reese when from ripeness it falls out of 
the ear. 

Bheem, to stretch or extend, as india-rubber will do. 

Biding, Bam-riding. A rude method, once common in our villages, 
but now suppressed, of marking disapproval of» or holding up to 
in&my, any oreach of connubial fidelity. A cart, in which were seated 
burlesque representatives of the erring pair, was drawn through the 
village, attended by a procession of men and boys, on donkeys, blowing 
horns. This custom was often the occasion of much riotous behaviour. 

Big, fun ; frolic. 

He little thought when he set out 
Of running such a rig. 

CoWPEB, John OUpin, 

Bish, the rush ; a list. Our people, instead of '* turning over a new 
leaf," begin "a new ri$h" I have thought that this may have been 
derived nrom a primitive way of keeping a tally by stnuging some 
sort of counters on a rush. 

Bode, skill ; aptitude. '* He hasn't the rode to do et" 

Not rode in mad-brain's hand is that can help. 
But gentle skill doth make the proper whelp. — ^TuaaEE. 

Bodelesa^ without rode or akiU. 

Boddling, helpless ; tottering ; wandering in mind. 

Boper's news, news told as new, but heard before. ** That's Roper's 
newB,'^ E. C. adage. 

Bonoh, Boohe, rough. 

<4* Bonnd-robin, the angler fish, Lophiui piscatorivs. 

Boving, severe pain. 

Bow, rough, as in row-hound, the fish Squalus canicylOf and in the 
Oomish hill, BeuHor, 


Bad, red. 
Enmmeti dandriff. 

^8f a guigling or rattling noise in the windpipe. 

Sabby, soft, moist, pasty. 

Sam, Zam, half or imperfectly done. ''A zam oven/' is one half 
heated. ** 2am-zodden," means half sodden or parhoHed. To leave 
the door ** a zam " is to half dose it. 

Sample, soft and flexible. 

Sang, or Zang, a small sheaf such as leasers (gleaners) make. 

Scam. To seam a shoe is to twist it out of shape by wearing it 

Scan tie, small irregular slate, too small to make ''size slate" 

Scat^ to split or burst ; to bankrupt. 

School, Sehnle, a body of fish. Carew spells it schosU. Variously 

My silyer scaled $hdU about my streams do sweep. 

Dbayton, Polyolbion, Song xxvi. 

In 8ctdh that oft 
Bank the mid-sea. — Milton. 

Sdow, to scratch. 

Selnm, to scratch violently. 

Sooad, to scatter ; to spilL *' To scoad dressing " (manure). 

Scoce, to exchange or barter. 

ScoUopB, the dry residuum after lard is melted out ; an article of food. 

Scollncks, blocks of refuse or indifferent slate (Delabole). 
Sconce, brains ; wit. 
Scoyey, spotted; mottled. 
Scranny, a scramble. 

Scrawed, scorched in the sun, as fish are frequently prepared. '' A 
Mrawed pilchard." Scrowhd, at St. Ivea TregdUu, 

Screw, the shrew or field-mouse, Sarex araneus. 

Scritch, a crutch. 

Scry, a report of the appearance of a body of fish, such as pilchards 

on the coasts of East Cornwall. Dame Juliana Bemers, in her 

Treatise of Fyeshynge vnth an Angle, says, '*the noyse of houndys, 

the blastes of homys, and the scry of foules." 

*' lliey hering the $cry cam and out of echo of the spere yn hym." — 


II 2 


Scry U probably connected with the old practice of crying out, or 
Yociiferating on the approach of a schule of nah. 

Soud, the hardened cni»t on a sore. 

Sondder, Skitter, to slide ; sknte. 

Sonte, an iron plate with which the toe or heel of a ahoe is armed. 
Fr. escMson, Lat. Bcutum. 

Sea-adden, the rulgar generic name for pipc-fiBh. 

Beam, or Zeam, a load of hay ; manure, &c. It means with us no 
de^iite quantity, but a cart-load, wa^eon-load, &c. Tuflser in 
Rpeaking of the good crops of barley which he raised at Brentham, 
says (October* $ Husbandrie)^ — 

Five team of an acre I truly was paid. 

Again, in November's Husbandries he says — 

Th' encrease of a seam is a bushel for store. 

Baa-yeni, sea fern ; the coral, Gorgonia verrucosa. 

Seech. The rush of sea waves inundating the streets at high tides. 
Bond's Hist, of Looes. 

Seedlip, the wooden basket in which the sower carries his seed. 

Sense, stop. An exclamation used by boys at marbles, when they 
want to stop for a moment. (Polperro.) 

Shammick, a contemptuous epithet applied to a man. 

Shanny, the fish, Blenniua pholis. 

Shenakmin, a drink composed of boiled beer, a little rum, moist 
sugar, and slices of lemon. (Qy. Snack o' rum.) 

Shiye, to shy, as a horse does. 
Shiyer, a bar of a gate. 
Shoal, adj, shallow. 

Shortahfl, masses of loose rubbish in slate quarries which haTe &lleu 
in, and filled up cracks and rents. 

Shot, the trout. Carew makes a distinction between the trout and 
shot, **The latter," he says, **i8 in a maner peculiar to Devon and 
Cornwall. In shape and colour he resembleth the Trowts : howbeit 
in biggnesse commeth farre behind him." 
The shoates with which is Tavy fraught. — ^Beownb's Brit, Past. 

Shonell, shovcll. 

Shute, a conduit, or fountain oi falling water. 

Biff, to sigh. 

Sives, a small pot-herb of the alliaceous kind. 

Bkease, to run along very swiftly. 

Skeeny, sharp and gusty. " A akeeny wind." 


Skerret, a aafe drawer in a box. In some jilaces it is nkivety or 

Skenikh, the privet, Ligwstrum vtUgare, 

SkeWt a driving mist. 

Skity a lampoon. 

Skitter t to slide. 

Skiver, a skewer. 

Skiver-wood, dogwood, Cornus sanguinea. 

Sladdocks, a short clearer used by masons for splitting and shaping 
slate. Probably a corruption of slate axe. 

Slat, slate. 

Slew, to twist or bend aslant. 

Slip, a yonng weaned pig. 

Sloan, the sloe, Prunus apinosa. 

The meagpre shan. — Bbownb's BriU Pasior<il$, 

Slook, to entice ; allure. Slocking stones are temptingy'selected stones 
shown, to induce strangers to adventure in a mine. 

Slotter, to draggle in the dirt. 

Snead, tho handle of a scythe. 

Sneg, a small snail. 

Suite, the snipe. 

Sooe, an interjection of doubtful meaning. Qy. C, Suas, alas ! 
Arm., Sioas, alas, 

Sogg, or Zogg, to dose or sleep interruptedly or lightly. 

Sound, or Zoimd, to swoon, or go into a fainting fit. 

** Did your brother tell you," says Bosalind, " how I counterfeitwil 
to 9<mnd when he showed me your handkerchief?" — Shaksfeee, 
As Ton Like It, 

Sound-sleeper, a moth. 

Bowl, or Zowly to serve roughly ; to soiL 

Sow-pig, the wood-louse. 

Spale, Spal, to deduct an amerciement or forfeiture from wages when 
not at work in good time ; a fine. 

SparroWy Sparra, a double wooden skewer used in thatching. 

Spell, a turn of work. 

Bpenoe, a cupboard or pantry under the stairs. 

Spicoaty, speckled. 

Spiller, a ground-line for fish. 

Spiie, exude. 


Splaty a 8]K)t. 

SplAtty, spotty. 

Pye lost my 9plaUy oow. — Old 8ong» 

Sprayed, chapped by the wind. 

Springle, a snare for birds. 

Sproil, strength ; energy. Most commonly used n^atively, as, ** He's 
no sproil.** 

Spndder, bother. ** I don't want to ha' no epudder about et." 

Squab-pie, a pie made of meat, apples, and onions. 

Squinty, to squint. 

Stag, a cock. 

Standards, a term used in wrestling for a man who has thrown Iwo 
opponents, and thereby secured a chance of trying for a prize. 

Stare, the starling. 

Stean, an earthenware pot such as meat or fish is cured in. 

Stemniingf a turn in succession, as when in dry seasons people have 
to take their regular turn for water at the common schute or pump. 

Stingdum, the fish Cottua seorpius. 

Stint, to impregnate. 

Stogg, to stick in anything tenacious. " Stogged in the mud." 

Stoiting, the leaping of fish in schull. At a distance this impartR 
colour to the sea, and is a valuable guide in seine-fishing. 

Stomach, v. generally used negatively. To feed against inclination. 
** I cud*nt stomach it." In some of our Elizabethan dramatists it w 
used not as expressive of appetite^ but rather of loathing, as with 

Eldtr Morion, Doth no man take exception at the slave. 
Lancaster. All stomach him, but none dare speak a word. 

Ma&lowe, Edward the Second. 

Stool-crab, the male of the edible crab, Platycarcinua pcigurus. 

Strata to drop. A mare aborting is said *^ to strat voal." 

Straw-mot, a straw stalk. 

Strike, to anoint, or rub gently. 

Stroil, weed, especially the couch-grass, Triticum rejxms, 

Stmb, to rob, or despoil. " To strut a bird's nest.^ 

Stub, to grub. " Stubbing vuz." 

Stiib roots so tough 

For breaking of plough.— TussEit. 

Stubbard, the name of an early variety of appit*. 
StuiBe, to stifle. 


Btnggy, stout ; thickset. 

Style, steel. 

Suent, smooth ; equable ; even. 

Snmmermgy store cattle turned wild in summer for pasturage on tlie 
wild, unenclosed moors, are sent summering under the care of the 
moorland herdsmen. 

Bnrveyy an auction. 

Swail, or Zwail, to scorch ; singe. 

Swarr, a swathe, or row of mown com or hay. 

Swop, to barter. 

Syeli, the edge or foaming border of a wave as it runs up a harbour 
or on the land. Vide Seech. 

Tab, a turf. 

Tack, to clap ; to slap sharply. " He tacked his hand&" 

Tail, Teel, to till or set. " To tail com," or " to tail a trap." 

With us it is usual for a pera m who has gone through mud or 
water to say that it teeled hun up so high as he was immersed or 
covered.— Tideo, N, & Q., vol x. No. 266. 

Tailden, or Tailor's Heedlai, the herb Scandixpectm Veneris. 

Tale, measure. A tale lobster is one eleven inches from snout to 
tail; all that fSedl short of this the master of a lobster smack will only 
give half-i»ice for. 

Tallet^ a loft. " Hay talletr 

Tiua, short; dwarf. The dwarl furze, Ulex nanus, is here called 
** tarn YMz" 
Furze of which the shrubby sort is called tame. — Cabbw. 

Tang, an abiding taste. 

Tap, the sole of a shoe. Used also as a verb, ** tap a shoe." 

Teary, soft, like dough. 

Teen, to close. " I haven^t teen*d my eye." 

Tdl, to count or enumerate. 

Why should he think I tell my apricots. 

Every man in his humour, I. i. 

Tend, to kindle ; to set a light to. (Tinder, here pronounced tender.) 

Wash your hands, or else the fire 
Will not tend to your desire. 

Herrick, Hesperides, Ixxii. 

Thekky, Thekka, that one ; that person, or thing. 

Syn thilke day. — Chattcbr, Kntghtes Tah. 


Thirl, thin ; lean. 

Tho, then ; at that time. In common use among the older poeto. 
E. g. ;— 

And to the ladies he restored ageyn 
The bodies of hir housbondes that were slain, 
To don the obsequies as was tho the guise. 

Ohauceb, KnighJtes Tale, 

Thumb beend, thumb band. The band for a bundle of hay. 

Tiddljrwinkt sometimes Kiddlywink, a small inn only licensed to 
sell beer and cider. 

Tiddy, the breast or teat ; sometimes the milk. 

Tiflingy the frayed-out threads of a woven &bric. 

Tig, a child's game ; a game of touch. 

Timberin, made of wood. 

Tine, the tooth of a harrow. Qy. from dyns, teeth, C. L. dens, 

Tink, the chaffinch. Onomatopceitic from its call-note. 

TittiTEte, to make neat ; dress up. 

Tom-horry, a sea-bird. The common name of two or three species 
oi skua. 

Tor, Tarr, the rocky top of a hilL The word is chiefly used in the 
central granite ridges of Cornwall and Deyon. 

Toteling, silly ; demented. 

Town, Town-plaoe, appliedPto the smallest hamlet, and even to a 
fiarm-yard. Here is an instance of the retention of the primitive use 
of a word. ** The town or toum-plaee, farm or homestead inclosnre, 
is derived from tynauy to inclose, denoting its primary sense,** says 
Sir F. Palgrave, ** the inclosure which surrotmded the mere dwelling 
or homest^d of the lord." — English Commonwealth, p. 65. 

Trade, stuff ; material. Medecine is ** doctor's irade,^* 

Train-oil, expressed fish oil. 

Trapse, to walk slovenly ; to slouch. 

Tribute. A consideration or share of the produce of a mine, either 
in money or kind, the latter being first made merchantable, and 
then paid by the takers or tribtUors to the adventurers or owners for 
the liberty granted of enjoying the mine or a part thereof called a 
pitchf for a mnited time. — Fkyce. 

Trig, to set up j to support. " To (rig the wheel." " To put a trig " 
on the sole of a shoe worn on one side. 

TroU-foot, club-foot. 

Trone, a groove or furrow ; a trench. Qy. a line. In describing 
heavy rain a countryman said the streams were '' like trones from the 
tids of a cow." 


Tmokle, to trundle. 

Tmff, the sea-trout or bull-trout. 

Tub, the sappharine gurnet £sh, Trigla hirundo. 

Tubbnt, short and thick. The tub-fish is the shortest and thickest 
of its kind. 

Tuek, an operation in seine fishing described in Couch's Fishes of 
Brit IslandSy iy. 91. 

Tnrf-tiey the bed on which the turf-rick is piled (hed4ie). 

Tnflh, a tooth. 

Tut work. " By the lump : as when they undertake to perform a 
certain work at a fixed price, proye how it may." — ^P^yoe. 

TSn, aunt. An address of familiar respect to an old woman, not im- 
plying relationahip : *' £7n Jinny." 

TTnele, an address of familiar respect to an old man, not implying 
relationship : '* Unde Jan." 

TTnlnsty, unwieldy. 

Trnvamped, not added to or embellished. It is used in this sense in 
Ford's play, T?ie Lady's Trials I. i.— ** The newest news unvamped." 

Uprose, a woman churched is uprosed. 

Tady, damp. "Bishop Berkely, in his Farther Thoughts on Tar 
Water, p. 9, uses what appears to be the same word, fade, in the 
same sense.**— Video, N. ik Q., VoL x. No. 266. 

Tamp, a short stocking ; the foot of a stocking. 

Tang. Vide Fang. 

Tare, Teer, a suckling pig. 

Teak, a whitlow. 

Carew says, in his account of John Size, the uncouth creature in 
the household of Bir William Beyille : "In this sort he continued for 
diners yeeres, untill, (upon I know not what veake or unkindnesse), 
away ne gets and abroad he rogues.*' — Survey of C, 

Tenoook, fencock, the bird, water-rail. 

Tester, a feather stripped of its vane, all except the point, and used 
by children at a dame's school, to point out the letter or word they 
are studying. A corruption of feacue. 

Tinnied, mouldy (Fynig). Qy. past participle of Fynigeauj to spoil ; 
corrupt; decay. 

Tisgy, a mattock. 
Tist, fist. 


Tittjy fitting ; proper ; appropriate. 

Voaohy to tread heavily. 

Toggot, to hop on one leg. 

Voider, a small wicker hasket of the finer sort. In the stage 
directions to Heywood's Woman Killed with Kindness is this : — *' Enter 
three or four serying men, one with a voider, and a wooden knifa." 

Toki, folk; people. 

Tolyer, the second hoat in a pilchard seine. Qy. a corruption of 

Tore, a furrow of a plough. 

Wad, a bundle. ** A wad o* straw.'' " Joan the wad " is the folk- 
name of a pisky. 

Jack the lantern, Joan the tvad, 

That tickled the maid and made her mad, 

Light me home, the weather's had. — ^PoLFE&no. 

Wadge, to bet or lay a wager. 

Waive, to wallow. 

Wang, to hang about in a tiresome manner. 

Want, the mole, Talpa Europma, 

Waps, wasp. 

Warn, warrant. ** I'll warn 'ee." 

Wateroase, the herb Helosciadum nodiflorunif often made into pies 
in the neighbonrhood of Polperro. 

Watty, the hare. A name in common use among poachers. Shak- 
spere, in a beautiful description of the hare and its many shifts to 
elude pursuit, uses the abbreviation, WcU. 

By this poor Wat, far off upon a hill 
Stands on bis hinder legs with listening ear. 

Venus and Adonis, 

Well-a-fyne, a common interjection, meaning ** it's all very well." 
Wei afyn, — Chaucek, Rom, of the Rose, also Cok^s Tale of GameU/n, 

Wettel, a child's clout. Can this be a corruption of swaddle t 
Whelye, Whilve, to turn any hollow vessel upside down (Polperro). 
Whiff, to fish with a towing-line under a breeze. 

Whip-tree, the spreader by which the chains of iron traces are k*»pt 
asunder (Whippletree). 

Whitneck, the weasel. 

Whole, to heal. A.S. kalian. 

Widdow-man, widower. 


Widow-woman, a widow. 

Wilky Welky sometimes Welt, a ridgy hump or tumour. 

Little low hedges round like weltB.^'BAOOlx^B Euay of Oardening. 

Wilky, a tood or frog. C. quiUceny or quiUcin. In some parts the 
immature reptile. 

Wilvery a baker or pot under which bread is baked by being buried 
in burning embers. N.E. C. 

Winnardy the red-wing, Mervla Uiaca, 

Winder, window. 

Wink, the wheel by which straw rope is made. 
Wimiick, to circumvent ; to cheat. 

Wiflbt, melancholy; forlorn. This word is so expressive that we 
have no EInglish synonym fully descriptive of its meanioff. Browne, 
a DoYonshire man, uses it in his Brittania PtutoraU, Bk. L Song 2 : — 

His late wi$ht had-I-wists, remorseful bitings. 

In Latimer s Sermons it is apparently used as a noun : — 

And when they perceived uiat Solomon, by the advice of his fiither, 

was anointed king, by and by there was all whisht, all their goo<l 

cheer was done. — Parker's Edit, p. 116. 

Far from the town where aU is wisht and still. — Mablowb, Hero 

and Leander, 

WoodwBll, the green woodpecker, Picas viridis. Some doubt exists 
as to the bird originally designated the woodwall. With us it is 
undoubtedly the green woodpecker. In the glossaries commonly 
appended to Chaucer's works it is said to mean the golden oriole. 
The green finch has also been set down as the bird intended. 

The woodwde sung and would not cecise 

Sitting upon the spra^e, 
So loud ne waken'd Bobin Hood 

In the greenwood where he lay. 

RoUn Hood (Bitson). 

In many places Nightingales, 

And Alpes, and Finches and Woodwcdes, 

Rom, of the Rose, 

The note of the green woodpecker is very unmelodious, far from a 
song. The extreme rarity of the golden oriole is conclusive against 
its being the bird intended. The greenfinch has been suggested, but 
its song is hardly loud enough to have stirred the slumbers of the 
freebooter. Although the voice of the green woodpecker can scarcely 
by any poetic licence be called a song, I incline to think it the bird 
meant. Tarrel (voL ii. p. 137) gives some interesting information on 
the elr^molog^ of this word. Brockett, in his glossary of North- 
CountiT words, considers it derived from the Saxon * whvtdy a knife. 
In Yorkshire and in North America a whittle is a clasp-knife, and to 
whettle is to cut or hack wood. The oriein and meaning of the wood- 
pecker's name are therefore sufficiently obvious, whytel, whittle, 
whytele, Ac. 


Wornalf the lump produccil by the larva of the gadfly iu the skin of 

Wrath, the generic name of the fishes, Lahri, 

WrinUe, the periwinkle shell, Turbo littoreiuf. 

Warraw I hoorah ! 

Taffer, heifer. 

Taftal, arms full. 

Tapf to yelp. 

Taw, ewe. 

Tewl, a three-pronged agricultural tool for turning manure. 

Took, Terk, Tolk, filth, especially the greasy and yellow impuriij of 

Zaoky, imbecile. 

ZanL Vide Sam. 

Zang. Vide Sang. 

Zeer, adj. worn out ; generally used with regard to clothing, &c, but 
applied also metapliorically to persons. E.g. *' She is yery zetr," 

Zog, (1) a doze ; nap. 

(2) V, to doze. 
ZwaiL Vide SwaiL 
Zye, scythe. 



Barker, a whetstone. 

Barton, the demesne land or home farm^ often the residence of the 
lord of the manor. 

Clavel, the impost on a square-headed window, door, or chimney. 
Ooil, the cuttle-fish, Sefda officinalis. 

\y the diaphragm of an animal. 
Spoke, a roller put in a pig's snout to prevent gruhhing. 

TJgly, applied not so much to faults of visage as of temper. " My 
husband's terrible vgfy.** He is a well-favoured man, but cross- 














^ 1880. 

/ t- 


— i 


In the earlier part of the lelgn of Elizabeth the Irish language was 
generally spoken by the people in the North-east of Ireland, the 
exceptione being in some few centres of English occupation, such as 
Carrickfergus, Belfast, the shores of Strangford Lough, the neighbour- 
hood of Ardglass, and that of Carlingford. 

Daring Elizabeth's reign considerable numbers of English, and of 
Lowland Scots, came over and settled in the thinly-populated terri- 
tories of Antrim and Down ; their leaders got grants of lands, and 
the native inhabitants moved away to less accessible districts of the 
country, or, to some extent, took service with the new-comers. This 
influx of Enghsh and Scotch settlers marks the introducticm of 
English as a generally-spoken language into Antrim and Down. In 
the succeeding reign the number of EngliBh-speaking settlers was 
lai^ly augmented, for as the forests were cut down the space 
available for colonization increased, and after the flight of the Earls 
of Tyrone and Tyrconnell in 1607, many Scotch settlers came into 
the district, along with Welsh and English. Still later, after the 
quelling of the rebellion of 1641, by the Parliamentary armies the 
number of English-Bpeaking settlers was further increased, and for a 
considerable time afterwards a slow and gradual immigration went 
on, chiefly of Scots. 

Bichard Dobbs, Esq., writes thus in May, 1683, while speaking of 

the traffic between Scotland and the North of Ireland : — " Only 

people (with all their goods upon their backs) land here from 

Scotland. Take in from Glenarm to Donaghadee and the ports 

a 2 


between : [/. e. Belfast Lough, and a short distance to the noith 
and south of it] there are more than 1000 of this sort that land 
every summer without returning." Centuries before this time, large 
numbers of Scots had passed over into the county of Antrim, but 
they were Gaelic-speaking Highlanders; they spread themselYes 
oyer the district known as the * Glens of Antrim,' and kept up for a 
long time a close connection with their mother country, passing to 
and fro continually, and causing great trouble to the English rulera 
in Ireland. Their descendants, having amalgamated with the native 
Irish, still occupy the Glens, and Gaelic is spoken among them to 
this day. 

The spread of these turbulent Scots in Ulster is thus noticed by 
Mr. Hill in his Macdonnells of Antrim: — "In the year 1533 the 
council in Dublin forwarded this gloomy announcement on the 
subject to the council in London. * The Scottes also inhabithe now 
buyselly a greate parte of Ulster which is the kingis inheritance ; 
and it is greatly to be feared, oonless that in short tyme they be 
diyven from the same, that they bringinge in more nombre daily, 
woU by lyttle and lyttle soe far encroche in accquyring and wynning 
the possessions there, with the aide of the kingis disobeysant Irishe 
rebelles, who doo nowe ayde them therein, after siche manner, that 
at lengthe they will put and expel the king from his hole seignoiy 
there.' " 

Canon Hume, in an interesting paper on the Irish Dialects of the 
English language, reprinted from the Transactions of the Histoiic 
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, thus speaks of the tide of 
immigration from Great Britain into the north of Ireland : — " About 
the year 1607, when much of Ulster required to be planted or 
resettled, immigration, instead of being, as previously, a mere rivulet — 
or largely dependent on the condition of the regiments serving in the 
country — became a flood, and strangers settled not by tens, but by 
thousands. A large nimiber of these were from the apple distiicts of 
Warwickshire, Worcester, and Gloucester ; several were from Chester, 
through which the adventurers passed to take shipping at the mouth 
of the Dee ; a few were from the adjoining county of Lancaster ; and 
some from London. The great English settlement commenced on 


the two aides of Belfast Lough. It included the town of Belfast, 
which was at first English, but, like Londonderry, became Scotti- 
cised, owing to the preponderance of North Britons in the rural 
districts on both sides. Pressing on by Lisbnm and to the east 
bank of Lough Neagh, the English settlers cover eleven parishes 
in Antrim alone, all of which preserve to this hour their English 
characteristics; and crossing still further, over Down to Armagh, 
they stopped only at the base of the Fomeroy mountains in 
Tyrone. Thus, from the tides of the channel to beyond the 
centre of Ulster, there was an unbroken Une of English settlers, 
as distinct from Scotch; and the district which they inhabit is 
still that of the apple, the elm, and the sycamore — of large farms 
and two-storied slated houses. The Scotch settlers entered at the 
two points which lie opposite to their own country — namely, at the 
Giant's Causeway, which is opposed to the MuU of Cantyre on one 
side, and at Donaghadee which is opposed to the Mull of Galloway 
on the other. Two centuries and a half ago Ireland was to them 
what Canada, Australia, and the United States have been to the 
redundant population of our own times.'' In another paper Canon 
Hume particularizes still further the lines of Scottish immigration : — 
" The Scotch entered Down by Bangor and Donaghadee, and pushed 
inland by Comber, Saintfield, and Ballynahinch, to Dromara and 
Dromore ; while in Antrim they proceeded by Islandmagee, Bally- 
dare, Antrim, and Ballymena, surrounding the highlands and 
reaching the sea again by BushmiUs and the Causeway. In 1 633 and 
1634 the emigrants from Scotland by way of Ayrshire, walked in 
companies of a hundred or more from Aberdeen or Inverness-shires, 
and were about 500 per annum, mostly males, and many of them 
discontented farm-servants." 

Canon Hume thus describes how the native inhabitants of the 
forfeited lands met this tide of immigration : — " The Irish or natives, 
broken and conquered, reduced also in number by war, famine^ and 
disease, occupied when possible strong positions. They still regarded 
as specially their own the land which was least accessible, or least 
desirable^ and fled to the hiUs and morasses. It is curious to see 
how popular language has embodied these facts in such expressions 


as ' Mountainy people/ ' Back of the hill folk,' * Bog-trotfeers/ etc* 
There they still lemain, though many of the humbler classes have 
found permanent homes in the towns/' In Down, the extensive 
Baronies of Moume and Locale, and tlie Lordship of Newry, changed 
the lords of the soil, but retained the population* As bearing upon 
the dialect of the district it is interesting to enquire as to the 
numbers and the proportions in which these various nationalitieB of 
English, Scotch, and Lrish now occupy the district. 

A valuable series, of articles from the pen of the Bev. Canon 
Hume on these subjects was published in the UUter JourtuU of 
ArchoBology. The following papers were some of those which 
appeared : — 

Origin and Characteristics of the People of Down and Antrim, in 
nine chapters, Ulster Journal, i. 9 ; i. 1 20 ; i. 246, Topo- 
graphical Map, Physical Map, and Speed's Map of 1610. 

Ethnology of the Two Counties, iv. 154. Ethnological Map. 

The Elements of Population, Illustrated by the Statistics of Heligions 
Belief, in six chapters, viL 116. Ecclesiastical Map, constructed 
from the Creed Census of 1834. 

Surnames in the County of Antrim, in five sections, v. 323. Unique 
Coloured Map. 

Surnames in the County of Down, in five sections, vi. T7. . Unique 
Coloured Map. 

The Irish Dialect of the English Language, vi. 47. 

A Dialogue in the Ulster Dialect, vi 40. 

The county eleictoral rolls afford a convenient way of ascertaining 
the leading names, and hence, pretty closely, the nationalities of the 
inhabitants. With this view the roll of the Co. of Antrim has been 
examined by the Eev. Edmund McClure, A.M., and the results made 
known in a paper read before the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club in 
January, 1874. The title of the paper is, 'The Surnames of the 
Inhabitants of the Co. of Antrim and their Indications.' The 
following extract sums up one branch of the subject : — 


"In the 1357 names of the Boll I find that 565 are Lowland 
Scotch, 18 of which are Norman name& There are 234 Highland 


names. There are in all 181 Irish names, and 16 AngloNorman of 
the time of the Conquest. The English names amount to 251, the 
Welsh to seven, the Hugaenots to six. The remaining names, about 
100, are those of a few foreigners, and those which I have left as 
undetermined. This shows simply the relative position of the names 
on the SolL The number of Lowland Scotch I find represented by 
the 56& names amounts to 5682, or about 55*80 per cent, of the 
entire EolL Of Scotch of foreign origin there is a per-centage of 

*' The Scottish Colts represented by the 234 names exhibit a pro- 
portion of 23*68 per cent of the Roll. The number of Irish names 
(181) represents only 824 of a native population, or about 8*09 per 
cent. Here the results, from an examination of the Electoral Boll, 
seem to vary from those obtained from other sources. To represent 
the proportion of the native Irish in the county we should have to 
add 3 per cent., or even a little more, to this per-<2entage of 8*09. 
For I find that the native population, as a rule, are much poorer than 
their neighbours, so that a far less proportion of them have the 
qualifications of county voters, that is, holdings valued at jS12 per 

'' By private enquiry in the districts in which the native popula- 
tion is large I find this to be the case, and that many of their names 
do not figure on the Eoll at alL I think, however, that the per- 
centage over the entire county is not over 12 per cent. The English 
represented by the 251 names amount to 783. Those of long settle- 
ment in the county — i. e. who came centuries before the Plantation — 
number 40 in addition. The Welsh names represent 28. All these 
taken together make 851, or show a per-K^ntage of 8*35 of the entire 
Boll. Foreigners, Huguenots, and Germans are represented by 21 
people on the list. The undetermined names represent 243 on. the 
list, or about 2*38 per cent, of the Eoll. The native population is 
descended in the main from well-known Irish tribes who dwelt in 
this part of the country before the wars of Essex (Queen Elizabeth's 

The words and phrases in the accompanying Glossary will be 
iound in the main to be of Scottish origin, and many of them have 


already found a place in Jamieson's dictionary, and in the vaiioiis 
glossaries already printed by the English Dialect Society. The forms 
of the words may vary somewhat, because they naturally underwent 
changes consequent upon the lapse of time since their introduction to 
an alien soil. In many cases it was a difiGlculty how to spell the words, 
because I only had them as sounded, and the difficulty was increased 
when I frequently found that the same word was pronounced in two 
or more ways by different persons, either natives of different districts, 
or persons whose mode of speaking had been influenced by different 
surroundings or by more or less of education. In some districts in 
the east of the two counties the people still talk a Scotch dialect, but 
with a modified Scotch accent ; the old people talk more ' broadly ' 
than the young. Owing to the spread of well-managed schools the 
Scotch accent and the dialect words are passing away. Some of the 
words in the accompanying Glossary are now obsolete, and doubtless 
in a few years a much greater number will bave become so. I have 
not attempted to collect the proverbs that are in use here, but so far 
as I know they are much the same as those used in other parts of 
these countries. There are in use many phrases of comparison, of 
which the following are examples : — 

' As big as I don't know what/ a vague comparison. 

* As black as Toal's cloak.' 

< As black as Toby.' 

' As blunt as a beetle ' (t. e, a wooden pounder). 

* As broad as a griddle.* 

< As busy as a nailor.' 

* As dean as a new pin.' 

' As close as a wilk ' (i*. e. a periwinkle) : applied to a very reticent 

* As coarse as bean-straw.' 

* As coarse as praity-oaten.' 

* As common as dish water,' very common : applied to a person of 

very low extraction. 

* As common as potatoes.' 
' As could as charity.' 

* As crooked as a ram's horn.' 

' As crooked as the hind leg of a dog.' 

* As cross as two sticks.' 
' As dry as a bone.' 


' As easy as kiss.' 

* As fnish as a bennel ' (the withered stalk of fennel). 

* As frash (brittle) as a pipe stapple ' (stem). 
' As grave as a mustard pot.' 

* As great (intimate) as inkle weayers.' 

* As hungry as a grew ' (greyhound). 

' As ill to herd as a stockin' full o' fleas,' yery difficult to mind. 
' As many times as I've fingers and toes/ a comparison for having 

done something often. 
' As mean as get out.' 

* As plain as a pike-staff,' quite evident. 
' As sick as a dog,' dck in the stomach. 

'As stiff as a proker' (poker), very stiff: applied to a person. 

'Assure as a gun.' 

' As sure as the hearth money.' 

* As tall as a May-pole.' 

' As thick as bog butter.^ Wooden vessels filled with butter, the 
manufacture of long ago, are occasionally dug out of the peat- 
bogs ; the butter has been converted into a hard, waxy substance. 

' As thick as three in a bed,' much crowded, 

' As thin as a lat ' (lathX 

' As true as truth has been this long time,' of doubtful truth. 

* As yellow as a duck's foot * (applied to the complexion). 

Aa well as the publications by Canon Hume already enumerated, 
T should mention one which gives many most characteristic examples 
of the Belfast dialect It is an almanac for the years 1861, 1862, 
and 1863, published anonymously, but written entirely by the learned 
Canon, whose authority I have for making this statement. The full 
title of the work is Poor Ralhin^s Ollminickfor the toun o* BUfawst^ 
containing varrioua different things ''at ivvery body ought fbe acqueiitit 
Vfithf wrote dowri^ pretitetf an* put out, jist the way the people apak&f, 
hy BiUy McCart of the County Dotvn side thai uset to he : hut now 
of the Entherim road, toarst the Cave hilL Canon Hume has also 
collected the materials for a most comprehensive dictionary or glossary 
of Hibemicisms. It would be most desirable that this should be 
published. IFor a description of the scope and aim of this work I 
would refer to his pamphlet, Revnarlcs on the Irish Dialect of the 
English Language. Liverpool : 1878. 

In connection with our local dialect, I should also refer to a little 



work by Mr. David Patterson, The FromncitHisnu of Belfast pointed 
Old and corrected. Belfast; 1860. In this work the writer calls 
attention to the various classes of words that are wrongly pronounced, 
and gives long lists of these words. He also gives a list of ** words 
not to be met with in our ordinary English dictionaries." In my 
Glossary I have got some words from Mr. D. Patterson's lists, some 
from the Ollminick, and a few, principally obsolete, from local his- 
tories, such as Karria^a History of Dotpn (1744), Dobourdieu's Survey 
of Down (1802), and McSkimin's History of Carrickf^rgug (1823). 
But most of the words and phrases have been collected orally either 
by myself or by friends in different country districts, who have kindly 
sent me in lists, and whom I would now thank for the help they 
have given. 

Although not necessarily a part of this work, I have thought it 
well to add a word on the subject of the Irish language as still spoken 
in Antrim and Down. It has lately been said that there is no county 
in Ireland in which some Irish is not still spoken, not rovived Irish, 
but in continuity from the ancient inhabitants of the country^ In 
1802 the Eev. John Dubourdieu, in his Survey of Down, thus writes: 
** The English language is so general that every person speaks it ; 
buty notwithstanding, the Irish language is much used in the moun- 
tainous parts, which in this, as in most other countries, seem' to have 
been the rotreat of the ancient inhabitants." 

I have made enquiry this year (1880), and a correspondent sends 
me the following note from the mountainous district in the south of 
Down : — " There are a good many Irish-speaking people in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hilltown, but I think nearly all of them can speak 
English ; when, however, they frequent fairs in the upper parts of 
the Co. Armagh, for instance at Newtownhamilton or Crossmaglen, 
they meet numbers of people who speak English very imperfectly, 
and with these people the Down men converse altogether in Irish." 
In the Co. of Antrim the district known as ' the Glens,' in the N.E. 
of the county, with the adjacent-lying island of Sathlin, has remained 
to some extent an Irish or Graelic-speaking district In the course of 
some years, about 1850, Mr. Robert MacAdam, the accomplished 
editor of The Ulster Journal of Arckceology, made a collection chiefly 


in Antrim of 600 Gaelic proverbs, which were printed^ with English 
translationsy in his Journal. These were picked up from the 
peasantry amoi^ their homes and at markets. A short note from 
the pen of Mr. MacAdam in Dr. J. A. H. Murray's work on The 
Dialeci of the SotUhem Counties of Scotland (London : 1873), is so 
much to the point that I must quote it : 

" The people are evidently the same as those of Argyll, as indi- 
cated by their names, and for centuries a constant intercourse has 
been kept up between them. Even yet the Glensmen of Antrim go 
regularly to the Highland fairs, and communicate, without the 
slightest difficulty, with the Highlanders. Having myself conversed 
with both Glensmen and Arran men I can testify to the absolute 
identity of their speech." Dr. Murray adds : " But there is not the 
slightest reason to deduce the Glensmen from Scotland ; they are a 
relic of the ancient continuity of the population of Ulster and 
Western Scotland." 

I wrote this year to a friend whose home is in the Glens for 
information as to the present use of Gaelic there. He writes : — " I 
have ascertained from one of our medical men, who is long resident 
here, that in one of the principal glens there are about sixty persons 
vho speak Irish, and who prefer its use to that of English, among 
themselves, but who all know and speak English. Some of the 
children also understand Irish, but will not speak it, or let you know 
that they understand you if you speak to them in it." 

"W. H. Patterson. 

Strandtovm. Belfast , 
June, isSO. 





A, pro, I. M will' *il*w sayinV 
Aan, «5. the hair or heard in harley. 

AaSy tib, ashes. 

A-back. *Light-a-6a<;A;.' *Heavy-a-6acA;/ Whun a cart is 
loaded, the lotd can be arranged so as to press very lightly on the 
horse, this is having it ' \i^i-arhcuik ; ' when me chief weight is towards 
tiie front of the Cfm;, and therefore presses on the horse, the cart is 
* heayy-a-dacA;.' 

Abin, or Aboon, adv, above. 

Able. * Can you spell able / ' = are you sure yon can do what 
you are bragging about P 

Abreard, adj. the condition of a field when the crop appears. 

Ae^naot, or Acqnent^ v. acquainted. ' I'm well aeguant with all 
bis people/ 

Aftardy adv, afraid. 

Affront. 'He didn't ajfront her/ i.e. it vrsa not a shabby 
present he made her. 

Afleety adj, afloat. 
Aftre, prep, before. 
Again, Agin, adv. against 
Agee, adj. crooked ; to one side. 
Udsi^prep. behind. 
Aiblins, adv. perhaps. 
Ailia-cook, sb, the puffin. 




Ain, adj, own. 

Airle^ Erie, v, to give earnest money. 

Airles, or^Arles, eh, earnest money given on engaging a servant. 

Aim, sh, iron. 

Aims, or Plough Aims, sh, the coulter, sock, &c. of a plough. 

AiwaL When an animal faUs on its back* and cannot recover 
itself, it is said to have fallen ' aitoal.^ 

Aixins, 8b. the eaves of the thatch of a house or stack. Same as 

Aisle-tree, sb, an azle-tiee. 

Allan -hawk, 8b, the great northern diver, and the red-throated 
diver. The skua was also so called in Moume, co. of Down {Harris, 
1744). See HoUand-hawk. 

All gab and gats like a young orow, a comparison* 

All my bom days, all my life. 'A niver seen sich a sight in all 
ma horn days.* 

All my lone. A' my lane, or All his lone, v, alone. 

Allow, to advise. ' Doctor ! A wouldn't aUow you to be takin' off 
that blister yet/ means * I wouldn't advise it* 

Allowance, sb, permission. 'There's no allowance for people in 

All sorts, (1) a great scolding. 'She gave me all sorts for not 
doin' it.' 

(2) very much. ' She was oryin' aU 8orU.' * It was raining ail 


All the one, the only one. ' Is this all the one you have.' 
All there, ac^. wise ; sane. ' ITot oZZ there ' = not quite wise. 
All together like Brown's oows, or Like Brown's cows all in a 

lump, a comparison. 

All to one side like the handle of a jug, saying. 

Alowe, V. lit j kindled ; on fire. 

Amftng hans. ' He'll daet amang hansj* t. e, he will get it done 
somdiow, by dividing the labour, and finding spare time for it 

Among ye be it, blind harpers, t. e. settle it among yourselves : 
said to persons quarrelling. 

Amos. ' A blirton amos,* a big soft f eUow who weeps for a slight 

Angle-berries, sb. large hanging warts on a horse, sometimes about 
its mouth. • 


Ankl^ty sh, the ankle. 

Anneienty Enoient, adj. cmming; knowing. 'A sea gall's a very 
anneient bird.' 

Annmidher, ctdv. nndeineatlL Same as Tnnnndher. 

Antic, adj, funny ; droll * He's very aritic,* Antickest = most 

Anything, used as a comparison. 'He was running away as hanl 
as anytkingj* * Pm as mad as anything with him.' 

Apem, sh. an apron. 

Appear, r. to haunt places after death. 

Argay, to argue. *You would argay the black crow white/ 

Arm. To arm a person, is to lead or support a person along by 
the arms. 

Arr, 8b, a scar, such a pock-mark, or the scar left by a wound. 

Arraa, Em, sb, an errand. 

Arred, adj. scarred ; pock-marked. 

ArriSy sh. the sharp edge of a freshly-planed piece of wood, or of 
cement, or stone work. 

Arr-nnt^ sb, the pig nut^ Bunium flexuosum. 

Art, Airty sb. point of the compass. ' AVliat art is the win in the 
day ? ' A piuticular part of the country, as — ' It's a bare art o' the 

Art or part, participation. 'I had neither art nor part in the 

As^ than. ' I'd rather sell as buy.' 

An. * He would steal the cross off ati ass:* said of a very mean 
and greedy fellow. 

At himseUl ' He's no at himselj* L e, he's not well. 

Athout, without. 

Attereap, sb, a cross-grained, ill-natured person. * Ya cross atfer- 
cap, ya.' 

Atween, prep, between. 

Auld-fiurrand, or Anl-farran, adj. knowing ; cunning. 

Aumlaeh, sb. a small quantity. 

Aya, at alL ' A dinna ken ava.* * A'll hae nane o' that ava,* 

AtIb, Aves, adv. perhaps; may be; but. * Avis a'U gang there on 
the Sabbath.' 

Ayout, unless ; without. ' 1 could not tell avout 1 saw it.' 

B 2 


Away and divart the hunger aff ye : said to children who aro 
troubling and crying for a meal before it is ready. 

Away and throw monl' on yourself: said in scolding matches, 
probably means ' go and bury yourself.' 

Away in the mind, adj, mad. 
Away to the hills, gone mad. 
Ax, V, to ask. 

Ay ? Eh ? what 1 what do you say ? 
Ayontf pi'ep, beyond. 

Baek. ' I'm never off his back,' i, e, I'm always watching and 
correcting him. 

Baek door work, sh. underhand work. 

Back spang, «5. a trick; something underhand. 'He's a decent 
man, there*s no back 9pang» about Imn.' 

Baek-stone, sh, a stone not less than two feet high, a foot and a 
half broad, and one foot thick, placed at the back of a turf fire, 
between the fire and the gable. 

Baek talk, saucy replies from a child or an inferior. 

Baoon. 'Could you eat bacon that fatl' is the remark that 
accompanies the gesture known as ' taking a sight.' * He made bd^fm 
at me, t. e. he took a sight at me. 

Bad, adj\ sick. * He has been bad this month and more.' 

Bad cess to yon, bad luck to you. 

Bad oonsoience, 9b, It is said of people who go out to walk in 
the rain that they have a *bad conscience,* and therefore cannot 
abide at home. 

Bad man, the, sb. the devil. 

Bad place, the, sb. helL 

Bad scran, ab, bad luck. ' Bad scran to you.' 

Baghely Boghel, sb, a clumsy performer. 

Bailer, sb, a vessel used for * bailing out ' a boat. 

Bairn, sb, a child. 

Baiverage, beverage. When a young woman appears weaiiug 
something new for the first time, she gives her acquaintances the 
' baiverage of it,' this is a kiss. 

Bake, v, to knead bread, as well as to bake it in an oven. 

Ball, sb, a large and compact shoal of herrings is called by fisher- 
men ' a baiV 

Balling, v. Sea birds pouncing on a ball of fry are said to be 


Balloar, Billour, or Billyor, v, to holloa ; to shout out. 
Bankrope, sb, a bankrupt 

Banuocky Boxmoek, sb, a cake baked on a griddle. 

Banter^ r. to taunt a person to fight. ^He bantered me to fight 

Bantjy sK a bantam fowL 

Banyan, sb, a flannel jacket worn by Carlingford oystermen and 

Bapy sb. a lozenge-shaped bun, whitened with flour. 

Bar-drake, Bar-dack, sb. the red-breasted merganser. 
Bardng^h, «6, a donkey's pannier with falling bottom. 
Bare pelt, sb. the bare skin. 'He ran out on the street in his 

bare peitj 
Barge, (1) sb, some kind of bird (Harris, Hist co, Down, 1744). 

(2) sb, a scolding woman. 

(3) V. to scold in a loud abusive way. 

Barked, v, encrusted. ' Your skin is barked with dirt.' 

Barley-bnggle, sb. a scarecrow. 

Barley-play, sK a call for truce in boy's games. 

Barn-brack, sb. a large sweetened bun containing currants, in 
seafion at all times, but especially so at Hallow-eye, when it contains 
a ring ; the person who gets the ring will of coiurse be first married 
(Irish breac, speckled). 

Barney bridge, sb, a children's game. In playing it the following 
rhyming dialogue is used : — 

* How many miles to Barney bridge f * 

* Three score and ten.' 

' WiU I be there by candle light P' 
' Yes, if your legs be long.' 

* A curtsy to you.' 
'Another to you/ 

' K you please will you let the king's horses go through P ' 
' Yes, but take care of your hindmost man.' 

Barroni^hed, Borronghed, adj. a cow with her hind legs tied to keep 
her still while being milked is barroughed. 

Barrow-ooat, sb. a long flannel petticoat, open in front, worn by 

Baste, sb. any animal except a human being. A zealous individual 
asked a servant-girl, ' Are you a Christian P ' She replied, < Do you 
think Pm a hostel* See a. v. Ohristen. 

Baste the bear, sb. a boy's game. 

Basty, adj. tough and hard, applied to stiff heavy clay or earth. 


Baty (1) sb. a blow. ' He geed me a hat on the heed.* 
(2) sb, a moth. A 5a< is called ' a leather-winged M.' 

Bats and bands, a description of rude hinges, consisting of a hook 
which is driven into the door-frame, and a strap with an eye which is 
' nailed to the door, so that the door can at any time be lifted off its 

Battery, ah, a sloping sea wall. 

Battle, bottle, 8h, a small bundle of hay or straw. 

Bavin, 8b. a sea fish, the ballan wrasse, family Lahrus. Fishermen 
esteem it of yery little^ account, and generally use it to bait their 
lobster-pots with. It is also called 'Morrian,' ' Murran-roe,' and 
' Gregah.' 

Bay, sb, one of the divisions or apartments in a oottage. 

Beal, V. to suppurate. 

Baaldin, Bealin, sb. matter from a sore. 

Bealin, sb, a suppurating sore. 

Beat all, v. to surpass alL ' Well, now, that beat aU that ever I 

*' The day beat M for beauty."— W. Cableton. 

Beauty sleep, sb, the sleep had before twelve o'clock. 

Becker-dog, sb, the grampus. 

Becomes, v, ' She becomes her bonnet,' means the bonnet becomes 
her. * Shure the creathur becomes his new shuit' 

Beddy, adj. interfering ; meddling. ^ Tou're very beddy^ saucy at 
one's food, also greedy, covetous. 

Bedrill, sb, a bed-ridden person ; same as BethereL 

Beece, sb, cattle ; beasts. 

Beeslings, sb. beestings — the milk got from a cow at the three first 
milkings after she has calved 

Beet, sb. a small sheaf, or bunch of flax. 
Beets, sb, pi. the medullary rays in wood. 

Beetle, sb. a round wooden maUet or pounder for kitchen use ; a 
wooden block as used in a ' beetling mill.' 

Beetling-mill, sb. a mill fitted with large wooden ' beetles,^ raised 
perpendicularly by machinery and fiJling with their own weight, for 
finishing linen. 

Beggar's stab, sb. a coarse sewing-needle. 

Begoud, Begood, v, begun. 

Begunked, adj. disappointed. Same as Onnked. 

Behang, an exclamation. ' behang t' ye for a fool.' 


Behind Gh>d speed, an out-of-the-way place ; quite out of the woild. 
Same as At the back of God speed* 

BeliopeSy sb. hope ; expectation. ^ I saw him to-day, and he has no 
hehopea of beia' any better.' *I had great beTiopea the day would 
1>e mia' 

Bein', sb, (being), any wretched or unfortunate person. 

Belly-bajid, sb. the girth, in cart or car harness ; the piece of cord 
attached to the front of a boy's kite to which the string is fastened. 

Bendard, sb, the bent stick or bow in the frame of a boy's kite ; the 
upright stick is called the ' standard.' 

Ben-weed, Bend-weed, sb, the rag-weed, Senecio Jacobcea, 

Berries, sb, pi, gooeeberries. 

Betherel, sb, a bed-ridden person ; a helpless cripple. 

Be to be» must be. ' There be to be another man got to help.' 

Be to do, must do. ^IBiQbeto do it,' i, e, he muat do it. 

Better, (1) adv, more. ' He gave me better nor a dozen.' 

(2) adj, well. ' He's not better, but he's not so bad as he was yester- 
day.' The moment a child is bom, the mother is said to be heUer, 

Better again, still better. 

Beyond the beyonds, adJ, something very wonderfol or unexpected. 

Beyont the beyons, some very out of the way place. 

Bide, V, to wait. 

Bid the time o' day, v. to say good-morning, or any similar salutation. 

Big, V. to build. ^ Come and see Billy biggin,^ 

Biggin, sb, a building. 

Bike (a bee's bike), sb, a wild bee's nest. 

Bill, sb, a bull. 

Biller, sb, water-cress (in Irish biorar [birrer]). 

Bindherer, Binntherer, sb, anything very large and good of its kind. 

Binff, sb. a heap ; a heap of potatoes in a field covered with earth ; 
a heap of gram in a bam. 

Binged up, v. heaped up. 

Binner, v, to go very quickly. 

Birl, V, to twirl round; to go rapidly, as a vehicle ; to run fast. 

Birse, sb, bristles. 

Birsy, adv. bristly. 

Birthy, adJ, numerous, or thick in the ground, applied to potatoes ; 
prohlic, or productive. * Them beans is very birthy.' 


Biicake, sb. a biscuit. 

Biseuit, ah, the root of PotentUla tormentiUa^ called also ^toimentizig 

Bisna, v, is not * If it hisna the right thing, we canny woik wf it/ 

BiMent, is not. ^ I can cany it, if it bieeent too weighty.* 

Bit, (1) sb. The bit of a key is the part that is cut to pass the wards 
of the lock« 

(2) $h, to ' come to the bit,* is to come to the point ; to arrive at the 
lasfc stage of a bargain. 

Biting Billy, sb, a very hot description of sugar-stick. 

Bits of things, sb, pi. household furniture. 

Bix, bees, t;. is or are, * If you bin goin' I'll go too.* ' When that 
work bees finished ye may go.* 

Bill, V. to buzz. 

** And sweetly you hizzed wee happy bee." — Flecheb. 

Blab, sb, (1) a raised blister; (2) a tell-tale; (3) a bee*s blab, the 
little bag of honey within the body of a bee. 

Blaok-a-yized, adj. dark-complexioned. 

Blaok-back, sb, a fish, the flounder or fluke, Platessa flestis. 

Black-head, sb, the reed bunting. 

Black lumps, sb, pi, a favourite sweetmeat made up in balls, and 
flavoured with doves. 

Black out, acij, * The fire's black ovJt^ i, e, quite out. 
Black scart, sb, a cormorant. 

Blad, (1) sb. a useless thing. 

(2) $b, a slap or blow. 

(3) V. to slap. 

(4) V, to blow or flap about in the wind, as clothes do when drying 
on a line. * The wind would Had the young trees about.' Bladdii^ = 
flapping about. 

Blade, sb. Strawberries, raspberries, and currants, are sold by the 
blade ; i, e. a cabbage-leaf into which a pint or quart, as the case may 
be, of the £ruit, has been put. 

Blade mangles, to, v. to take the outside leaves off* growing 

Blae, adj. livid; blueish. 'Bias with cold.* 

Blae-berry, sb, the whortle-berry, Vaccinum myrtiUus, Same as 

Bla-flum, Bla-fum, sh, nonsense ; sometliiug said to mislead. 


Blanket. ' It's aa braid as it's lang, like Padd/s blanket ' = it's no 
matter which of two ways a thing is done. 

Blanter, ib. a particnlar kind of oats^ long in the pickle, and late in 

Blashy, adj. splashy. 

Blast o' the pipe, sb. a smoke. 

Blate, adj. bashf nL 

Blatther, sb. < He fell a blatther on the groonV «'• ^- with great force. 

Bland, (1) #5. a slap or blow. 

(2) V. to slap. 
Bleart^ adj. bleared. 

Bleary-een. «6. pi, eyes a£fected by a thick fluid ; inflamed eyes. 
Bleerie-tea, ab. very weak tea. 

Blessed be the Maker ! an exclamation, made after saying that any 
one is particularly ugly. 

Blessing, (1) ' You missed as you missed your mammy's blessin* : ' 
said derisively to some one who is disappointed at haying missed 

(2) * The Lord's blessing be about you,' a common form in which 
a beggar acknowledges an alms. 

Blether, Blather, (1) sb, a talking, empty person. 

(2) V. to talk foolishly ; to talk indistinctly. 

Blethers, sb. nonsense ; foolish talk. 

Blind, V. to ' blind a road ' = to spread small stones or cinders so as 
to coyer up the large stones, with which a new road has been 
* pitched,' and to fill the interstices. 

Blind man's stan, sb. a boy's game, played with the eggs of small 
birds. The eggs are placed on the ground, and the player, who is 
blindfolded, takes a certain number of steps in the direction of the 
eggs ; he then slaps t^e ground with a stick thrice, in the hope of 
breaking the eggs ; then we next player, and so on. 

Blinked, adj. Cow's milk is said to be blinked when it does not 
produce butter, in consequence of some supposed charm haying been 
worked — a counter charm is required to bring it right. 

Blister, sb. an annoying person. 

Bloekan, sb, the coal fish, Merlangus carbonarius. The fry are 
called gilpins, small ones pickies ; the mid-sized ones blockans and 
glashans, and when large, grey lord and stanlock. 

Blood, (I) V, ' To get blood from a turnip,' to achieve something 
very oimcult in the way of getting. 

(2) V, to bleed. * Your nose is bloodin\* 


Blood-sucker, sb. a stinging jelly-fish, or Medusa, 

Blooming Sally, sh. the hairy willow herb, Epilobium hirstttum, 

Blooster, v, to bluster. 

Blootther, sb, a severe blow ; a clumsy blundering rustic. 

BI088, sb, contraction for blossom ; a term of endearment 

Blne-bonnety sb, the blue titmouse. The bird that is here called 
the ' cock blue bonnet^' is really the great titmouse. 

Blue-bow, Blew-bowed, sb, said of flax when it blossoms. 

Blue-month. ' It happens longer or shorter, from the time that the 
owl pratis (potatoes) goes out, an' the new ones is not come in.' 
— Oluonick. 

Bluit, sb, a fish j some description of skate or thorn-back. 

Blurtin' thing, sb. a crying child. 

Boag, sb. a bog. 

Boagie, sb. a strong low truck with four wheels. 

Board, ^1) v, *To board a person,* to bring him before a board (of 
Guardians, for instance) on some charge. * What ails you at the man ? ' 
' Sure he boarded me an' got me the sack ' (dismissed). 

(2) V, to accost a person. 

Bog-bean, sb, Menyanthes trifoliata. It is used medicinally bj the 

Bogging, sb. black bog or peat, used for manure (AiASON's Parochial 
Survey y 1814). 

Boggle, sb, a mischievous spirit or goblin. 

Bog-wood, sb. fir- wood dug out of peat bogs. 

Bohog, sb. a rude shed, under which the priests said mass during 
times of persecution. 

Boil, sb. the boil = the boiling point ' The pot's comin' to the 
boiL' ' If 8 just at the boii: 

Boiled milk, sb. porridge made of oat-meal and milk. 

Boiled upon, boiled with. 'Take some of that herb boiled upon 
sweet imlk.' 

Boke, V, to retch ; to incline to vomit. 

Bole, sb, a small recess in the wall of a room. 

Bo-man, sb, a bogey. The word is used to Mghten children. 

Bonaught, sb. a thick round cake made of oaten meal, baked on the 
clear turf coal, and often used on the first making of meal after 
harvest (Dxjbourdieu*8 Co, Down, 1802). 


Bone dry, adj, perfectly dry. 

Bonham, ah. a pig of six or eight weeks old. 

Boimock, ah. Same as Bannock. 

B0O9 %b. a louse. 

Bookety adj. sized. ' It's hig booket.' 

Boolt ^^- ^6 bow of a key, or of scissors. 

Booled oan, f^. pi. a kind of oars used by the Scotch quarter fisher- 
men at CarrickfergXLS. 

" Booled oars are those which row, two at one beam ; upoa each oar 
is fastened a piece of oak timber, the length of such part of the oar as 
is w^orked within the boat ; which timber enables them to balance the 
ocu: so tiiat they row with greater ease." — S. MoSeimin, Hiti. of 

Bools, sh, pot-hooks. 

Boom out, V, When a small boat is running before a light wind 
the sails are boomed ou< so as to catch as much wind as possible. 

Boon, sh. a company of reapers. 

Boor-tree, Bore-tree, sh. the elder-tree, Sambucus nigra. 
Boose, sb. a stall for an ox. 

Bose, adj. hollow. 'The goose is a bonnie bird if it was not hose.* 
Bother one's head, v. to trouble one's self. 

BoTin\ V. bound; determined; prepared; certain. 'He's boun' to 

Bowl, adj. bold. ' He come on as bowl as a lion.' 

Box-boira, sb. a wheel-barrow with wooden sides. 

Boxen, sb. a casing of wood such as is round the sides of a farm cart. 

Bozty, or Bozty-bread, sb. a kind of bread made of grated raw 
potatoes and flour ; it differs from * potato bread/ or * potato cake,' 
of which cold boiled potatoes form the principal part 

Box-wrack, sb. a kind of sea-wrack. 

Brace, sb. a screen, made of stakes interwoven with twigs, and covered 
inside and outside with prepared clay used to conduct the smoke from 
a fire on the hearth to an aperture in the roofl 

Braeken, sb. any large kind of fern. 

Brads, Br^ds, sb. pi. the flat boards or scales, usually made of wood, 
which are attached to a large beam for weighing. 

Brae, sb. a steep bank ; a hill ; the brow of a hill. 
Braid, adj. broad. 


Braik, sb, a large harrow, sometimes caUed a ' double harrow,' usoallj 
drawn by two horses ; the ' single harrow ' is much smaller, and is so 
called, not because it is in one piece, it is really double, but because 
it is drawn by one horse. 

Braird, «b. The young blades of com, flax, &c that come up in a 
field are called the braird. 

Bramble, eb, withered branches ; rubbish of twigs^ &c. 

Bramelly, or Brambled. A ' 2^ameZ/^-legged man ' is a man who 
is either * knock-kneed ' or < out-kneed,' or has misshapen feet and 

Branded, Braimet, cu^'. of a red colour with slreaks or bands, applied 
to cattle. 

Brander, eb. a broiling iron. 

Brash, (1) sb, a turn at the operation of churning. ^ Gi'e the chum 

(2) «6. an attack of illness. 

Brattle, sb, a peal of thunder. 

Brave, adj. fine ; large. ' That's a brave day.' ' That's a brave 
chile ye've got' 

Bravely, adv, finely. * He's doin' bravely* t. c. he is recovering 

Braxier, eb. a fish ; the pout» Morrhua lusca ; also the poor or power 
cod, M, minvta ; also the common sea bream, Pagdltu cerUrodanttu^ 

Bread. ' Bread and butter, and tith, thith, thith.' A child is asked 
to repeat this, and when he gets to the last syllables the tongue gets 
between the teeth, and when some one gives him an unexpected Mow 
under the chin of course the tongue gets bitten. 

Bread and cheese, sb. the young leaf-buds of the hawthorn. 

Break, (!) sb. a, word used by the Ulster Scots for a rout or defeat 
(obsolete). * The Break of Drummore,' * The Break of Killeleigh.' 

(2) V. to change money. ' Can you break that pound note for me ? ' 

Break by kind, v. to be different in habits, disposition, &c., from 
one's parents. '' The son of a dhrunk man 'ill le be inclined to be 
dhrunx hisself, if he dizint breaJi by kind.*^ — OLLMnacx. 

Breeks, ab. pi. trousers. 

Breest, or Breast, v. to spring up and alight with the breast upon 
some object. * Cud ye breest that wall P * 

Breeze, sb. fine cinders or coke. '' The price of fine breeze has been 
reduced to 3«. per 40 bushels," — Belfast Papery 1875. 

Bremmish, sb. a dash, or furious rush or blow; the sudden rush 
made by a ram. 

Brent clean, adj, (i[uitc clean. 


Xrent new, adj, quite new. Same as "bran new.*' 

Xrequist, ah. breakfast. 

Briar bot, sh, the fisbing frog or sea devil, Lophiua piscaioriuf. 
Same as Kelly Qowaxiy Kilmaddy. 

Sriar bunting, sh, the common bunting. 

Xridge, sh, a weigh-bridge. A coal carter was found to have been 
abstracting coals from his own load. ' Ah, ye fool,' said his comrade, 
' shure A tool' je je had to go oyer a hridge,' 

BrillSy sh, spectacles. 

BriBale, v, to toast or scorch. ' To brissle potatoes.' ' Don't be 
hristling your shins oyer the fire.' 

Xroad stone, The, sh, a cromlech in the parish of Finvoy, co. of 

Srochan, sh, thin oat-meal porridge. There is a sayiug, ' Neyer bless 
hrochan,^ i, e. that hrocJuin is not worth saying grace for, and that 
such poor food comes as a right. 

Brochan roy, sh. brochan with leeks boiled in it : used by the yery 

Brocky (1) sh, a badger; a foolish person ; a dirty person ; one \vho 
has a bed smell. 

(2) ah, broken victuals. 

Brogue, sh, a strong Irish accent. * He has a brogue you could hang 
your hat on,' i. e, a very strong brogue. 

Brognes. ' As vulgar as a clash o' hrogves,* i, e, a pair of common 
boots, — ^very vulgar indeed. • 

Broken down tradesmen, sh, a boys' game. 

BroOy sh. 8noW'hroo = snow broth ; half-melted snow. 
Brooghledy v, badly executed. 

Brosnach o' sticks, sh. an armful or bundle of branches gathered 
for fire-wood. Also called Brosna and Brasneugh. 

Broth. Broth, like porridge and sowans^ is spoken of in the plural : 
« A few hroth: * Will you sup them ? ' ' They're very salt the day.' 

Brongh, sh. a halo round the moon. ' A far awa brmghy is a near 
han' storm,' saying. 

Browlt, adj. deformed or bowed in the logs : generally applied to a 
pig) a young dog, or a call 

Bmckle, adj. brittle. ' That's hruefde ware ye'r carryin'.' 

Bmckle sayson, sh. very unsettled weather. 

Brnllimenty sh. a disturbance ; a broil. 

Bnunf, adj. curt or short in manner. 


Brutty r. to burst. 

Bncht oot I V, get out ! 

Bnok-honie, sb. " To be sold or let, a good buek-houeej about 80 
feet long, with a well- watered bleaching green.*' — ^Advt. Bd/tut News- 
letter y 1738. 

Bnokie, sb. a mollusk, Buccinum undatum, 

Baokie-berrias, eb. the scarlet berries of the wild rose. 

Baokie-breer, sb. a wild rose bush. 

Buckled, v. bent or twisted : applied to a saw. ' There, that saw's 
all buckled ; take her to the saw doctor,' t. e. a man who repairs saws. 

Buddagh, sb, the large lake trout, &(dmo ferox. The word is said \o 
mean a big, fat fellow ; a middle-sized cod-fish. 

Buddy, sb. an individual. 

Budge, v. to move. ' He's that ill he can't budgs his feet or his legs.' 

Buffer, sb. a boxer. ' An old buffer,^ a tough old fellow. 

Bug, sb, a caterpillar infesting fruit trees. 

Bulk, V, to play marbles. 

Bulkey, sb. a constable. 

Bull, sb. a large marble. 

Bully-rag, v. to scold in a bullying and noisy way. 

Bully-raggin', sb. a great scolding. 

Bum-bee, sb. a bee. 

Bumbee wark, sb. nonsense. 

Bummer, sb. a boy's toy, made with a piece of twine and a small 
circtdar disc, usually of tin ; it makes a humming noise. 

Bumming, v. boasting ; talking big. 

Bun, sb. the tail of a hare. 

Bun, Bunny, call to a rabbit. 

Bunce, (1) sb. a consideration in the way of commission given to 

E arsons who bring together buyer and seller at a flax market. Per- 
aps a corruption of hontis, 

(2) V. to divide money. * Bxmce the money.' 
Bundle, sb. what a child sits on. 

Bunker, sb. a low bank at a road side, a road-side channel. 
Bunny, sb. a rabbit. 
Bunt, V. to run away, as a rabbit does. 
Bum, sb. a small river. 


Bum-alim-da-eve, sb.,^ term for a woman who is fond of crouching 
oyer the fire. 

Burrian, sIk a bird ; the red-throated diver. 

Burroe, sh. a kind of sea wrack ; the tangle, Laminaria digltata, A 
tall, shapeless person is called in derision a hurroe. * When I was 
sixteen I grew np as tall as a hig burroCf^ said hy a woman from 
Glenarm, Co. of Antrim. 

BuTTOngh duck, sb. the shell drake. 

Bnrflted chuxiL When the sun sets hefore the grain is all cut, on 
the last day of reaping on a farm, there is said to he a bursted chum. 

Bushes, sh. pi. masses of sea-weed (tangles), growing on sunken 
rocksy and exposed at low water. 

Busk, r. to dress, or deck oneself. 

" Gkte bmk yeirsel' an come awa* 
An' dinna sit here dringin*." — HuDDLESTOir. 

Buskin boot, sb. a man's low boot ; to tie. 

Butcher, sb. the parten or shore crab, Carcintis moenas, 

Bntter goes mad twice in the year, a saying. In summer it 
runs away, and in winter it is too hard, and dear as well. 

Buttery fingers, sb. a term for a person who lets things slip from 
his hands. 

Bnttiu' at, v. hinting at. 

Buy. * He cud buy ye at the yin en* o' the toon, an* sell ye at the 
ithir,' said to a person who is supposed to have a small supply of 

By-chap, sb. an illegitimate male child. 

Bye-word, sb. a saying. " It was about this time that Paddy 
Longhran seen a ghost that had come to frighten him, but he only 
sayd, ' Ye're late,' an' with that the bye-word riz, ' Ye're late, as 
Paddy Longhran sayd t' the ghost.' " — OLLMnacK. 

By Oommany, a petty oath, or exclamation. 

By Cbneys, or By Qolly, an oath. 

By Jaiminie King, an oath. 

Byre, sb, a cow-house. 

Cackle, sh. a concealed laugh. 

Cadda, Oaddow, sb. a quilt or coyerlet ; a cloak or cover ; a small 
doth which lies on a horse's back underneath the * straddle.' 

Cadge, V. to carry about anything for sale. 


Cadgper, $h, a pedlar ; an itineiant dealer in fish. 

Cafl; sb. chaff. 

Cahill, ab, an eel net. 

Caigey, adj. in very good spirits ; lively ; wanton ; eager. 

Cailey, sb. a call or friendly visit. 

CaiUyea, sb, a talk round the fire ; a gossip among neighboars. 

Caleerinesa, sb. giddiness ; fun ; mischief. 

Caleery, adj. light ; vain ; full of mischief. 

Call When a calf is bom, it is customary in some places to cni^^h 
an egg in the hand, and thrust it, shell and all, down the animal s 
throat. It is also dragged by the heels round the yard for luck. 
Mason's Parock, Survey, 1819. 

CaUagh, sb. a potato of more than a year old (probably from its 
wrinkled appearance, as this is the Irish word for an old woman or 

Call, sb. occasion or need. ' You had no call to do that' ' What 
call had you to touch them P ' 

Called on, in demand, as certain classes of goods in shopcc ' Flan- 
nen's greatly eaUed on this weather.' 

Calling, V* ' He's a calling^ u e. he is being called. 

Cambered, adj. slightly arched ; a builder's term for a floor or ceiliog 
which has beoome bent. 

Came on, v, became of. ' What came on you 1 ' 

Candy-man, sb. a rag-man. These men generally give a kind of 
toffee, called ' candy,' in exchange for rags, &c. 

Canney, v. cannot. 

Canny, adj. cautious. 

Cant, V. to sell by auction. 

Can yon whistle and chaw meal f addressed to a person who i^ 
boasting of his powers of doing difficult things. ! 

Cap-ball, sb. a boys' game. 

Capper, sb. a turner of wooden bowls. 

Carcage, sb. a carcase. 

Carf, Carp, sb, a fish, the sea bream, PageUus centrodoniusM 

Carf, sb. a ditch ; a shallow channel cut in peat bogs for conveying 

Camaptions, adj. quarrelsome; fault-finding. 


Carpen, sb. pi. " Hundreds of men, women, and children, called 
cof^pera, are ready to catch the fish [herringB] that break from the net 
on its drawing on shore." — ^Mason's Paroch. Survey (P. Ardcliuis, 
Co. of Antrim^ 1819. 

Cairion. ^A carrion won't poison a crow/ u e, there are some 
persons wlio can eat anything, or to whom nothing comes amiss. 

CSarry, sb. a weir or mill-lead. 

Carryia^ on, $b. pi, boisterous or improper proceedings. 

CSarry my lady to London. In this game two children grasp each 
other by the wrists, forming a seat, on which another child sits, who 
is thus carried about, while the bearers sing— 

' Qiye me a pin, to stick in my thumb. 
To carry my lady to London; 
(Hve me another, to stick in my other. 
To cany her a little bit &rther.' 

Carry of fhe aky, $b. the drift of the douds. 

Carry 01L9 v, to behave in a boisterous or giddy manner; to act 

Carry seed, $b. carroway seed 

Case equal * It's case equal,' i. e, it's just the same ; it's as broad 
as it's long. 

Cadi, sh. a pathway; a covered drain made to leave a passage for 
water in wet ground or bog. 

Cast, (1) adj. rejected as being faulty. 'Them's old east yins; A 
wouidn*t tak them.' 

(2) V. to reject on account of some imperfection. 
Castaway, sb. an old, worn-out horse. 

Casting out, 1;. falling out; quarrelliDg; also the fading out of 
colours from articles of dress. 

Caft ones, sb. pi. rejected things. 

Oast up, V. to reproach ; to bring up byegones ; to remind one of 
past errors or offences. 

Oatoh it, V, receive pimishment. ' If he finds you here you'll 
eaUh i$,' 

Cat-flih, sb. a cuttle fish, Sepia officinalis. 

Catteridge, sb. a cartridge. 

Canp, sb. a wooden cup without a handle. 

Oawney, adj. cautious. Same as canny. 

OawMy» Cassy, sb. the paved or hard-beaten place in front of or 
round about a ^Eumhouse. 



Cett, (1) V. a house painW» term. When water is put on an oOj 
BOJctBLoe it is said to eem, i, «. it runs into sepaiate drops. 

(2) $b. ' BadecM to you/ saying; t. e. had luck, 

Chainy, $b. china. 

Champ, $h. mashed potatoes. 

Chander^ v. to chide ; to scold in a complaining way. 

Change, $b. not merely ' the change ' coming hack after a payment^ 
but money itsell ' Sir, Tye called for the c^n^ for them jiea-rods.' 

Change one's fset, v. to put on dry shoes and stockings. 

Chapman gill^ lib, a toll of one shilling leyied annually by the 
sheriffs of Carrickfergos from each yessel trading to the port. It is 
to pay the cost of burying the bodies of sailors or others cast on shore. 
— MgSkdcik, Hist. Carrtck/ergui. 

Charged. ' Charged or no charged she's dangerous : ' said of a gun 
or pistoL 

Charity, sb, a person who is deserving of charity is said to he a 
' great charity.^ 

Charlie. ' It's long o' comin', like Eoyal Charlie : * said of a thing 
that has been long expected. 

Charm. ' That would charm the heart of a wheelbarrow ; ' and 
' That would charm the heart of a beg^ar-man*s crutch : ' said in 
derision to a person who is singing or whistling badly. 

Chase-grace, eh. a scapegmce. ' Bunnin' about like a chaee-graee.* 

Chay-chay, said to cows to call them or quiet them. 

Chay, lady, said to a cow to quiet her. 
Check, (1) eh. a slight meaL 

(2) V. to chide. ' He checked me for going.' To slightly slacken 
the uieet of a saiL 

Cheep, V. to chirp. 

Cheevy, v, to chase. Same as Chiyy. 

Chert your tongue, bite your tongue. * If you can't tell the truth, 
you had better chert your tongue and say nothing.' 

Chew, sir ! away ; or behaye yourself : said to a dog. 

Childhre, $b, pi. children. 

Chile, eb. a child. 

Chimin', t;. singing. 

Chimley, sb. a chimney. 

Chimley brace, eb. the screen that conducts the smoke from a fire 
on the hearth upwards through the roof. 


Cbimiy t7. to sing ; to make a low, munnaiing sound. 

'^ But sweetly you chirmed <m ould May momm! .'*— Flecher. 
Chitterlingy (1) sb. a swallow. 

(2) V. chattering, as applied to the noise that swallows make. 
Chitty wran, sh, the common wien. 
ddYjf (1) sh. a chace. 

(2) v. to chase or pursoe. ' He chivied ma' 

ChokeSy sb, j>L the sides of the neck. 

ChoUers, Chillers, sb. pi, the sides of the neck. 

Chop-stick, sb, a smaU bit of whalebone attached to a sea fishing- 
line to keep the snood and hook dear of the sinker. 

Chow, V. to chew. 
nhriflfriiniB, sb, Christmas. 

Christen, (1) sb, a human being. ' The poor dog was lyin' on a 
Christen's bed.' 

(2) cuij. Christian. 
Chnekie, a hen ; the call for f owL 

Cfaorchyard deserter, sb, a very sickly-looking person. 

Chnm, sb, a harvest home. 

Clabber, sb, mud. ' They clodded clabber at me.' 

Clabbery, adj, muddy. ' Don't put the dog into that clabbery hole.' 

Claehan, sb, a small cluster of cottages. 

daghtin', v, catcMng or clutching at 

Clam, sb, a shell-fish, Pecten maximus, 

damp, sb, a small stack of turf, containing about a load. When 
tu^ or peats are ' put out/ they are left for some time to dry ; as 
soon as they can be handled they are put into ' footms ' or * futtins,' 
i, e. about four peats are placed on end, the upper ends leaning against 
each other. In the course of a week or two, if the weather be dry, 
these are put into ' turn footins,' seyeral footins bein^ put together. 
In this case, two rows at turf are placed on end, say six in each row, 
the upper ends leaning against eacn other ; on these are laid, cross- 
wise, as many peats as the upright ones wiU hold. After some time 
these * turn footins ' are put mto ' dampe,* in which they remain until 
they are sufficiently dry to be remoyed &om the bog. 

Clan-jamfrey, CQam-jamfrey, sb, a whole lot of people. 

Clargy, sb, a clergyman. ' Ah 1 he's a good man ; he's my elargy^* 

Clarkin', v, clerking ; doing the work of a dork. 

Clart> sb. a dirty, slovenly woman. 

c 2 


Clashf (1) sh. a slap or hkm. 

(2) $b. a tell-tala 

(3) V. to tell tales. < He w^t and da$hed on me.' 

Clashbag, sb. a tale-bearer. 

Clatchen, ab. a brood of young chickens or ducks. 

Clatin', V, the act of raking together. 

Clatty, adj\ dirty, slovenly. 

Clatty and longtome. ' Yon weren't both daiiy and longaome at 
that,' means that though you were quick about it, you did it badly 

and dirtily. 

Clanty a strong rake for raking up mire or rubbish. 

Clavin, a sea-fish, the spotted gunnel, BUnnius Gunneillus. Called 
also Flutterick and Oodliok. 

Claw-hammery sb. a slang name for a pig's foot, also for a dress coat. 

Clay-bug, 8b, a common clay marble. 

Clean, adv, quite. * I dean foigot.' ' He's clean mad.' 

Clean ower, adv, completely over. 

Clean wnd, adj. stark mad. 

Clearsome, adj, clear; bright 

Cled, adj\ thickly covered, as a branch with fruit 

Cleek, sK a hook. 

Cleeked up, adj\ hooked up, as window curtains sometimes are. 

Cleekups, sb. stringhalt ; a twitching disease in the hind legs of a 
horse or ass. 

Cleet, eh, a double hook used in a boat for belaying small ropes ta 

Cleg, (I) sb. the gad fly. 

(2) V. to clog. 
Clemmed to death, adj. perished with wet and cold. 

Cleush, sb. a sluice ; a water channel or spout. 

Clever, adj. large; fine-looking. 
Clib, sb. a horse one year old. 

Clifted, adj. cleft or split 

Clincher, sb. a convincing statement or argument that settles the 

Cling, V. to shrink or contract, as wood in drying. 

Clint, sb, a projecting rock. 


dip, 9b. a gafi^ or strong iron hook with a wooden handle, used for 
lATi^iTig fiah; a mischieyotLS young girL 

dipe, sK anything pretty large. 'A dips of a boy.' 

Clipes, sh. tongs for holding stones when being lifted by a winch. 

duh-marelayery sb. silly talk ; nonsense. 

ditterty, datterty^ meal upon Saturday. The rattling noise of 
grinding mill is supposed to resolve itself into these words. Another 

' CliUeriy, datteriy^ lato upon Saturday 
Barley panitch, an' hardly that.' 

dockm'y V. hatohing. 

dockfly (1) $b. pi, dandelions in seed. 

(2) * rd as soon watoh chck$ [beetles] as mind them childre.' 
dody V. to throw any thing, such as stones. 
doot, sb. a hool 
dootia^ sK a left-handed person. 
doots, (1) sb. pi. ragged clothes; fragments of cloth. 

(2) tib. the deyil. 

dose fide, ab, the right side of a carcase of mutton, so called 
because the kidney at that side adheres more dosely than at the lef t^ 
which is called the open side. 

doth, ab, linen. 

douty (1) $b. a slap. ' All gi'e ye a dout on the lug if ye dar' to 

(2) V. to slap. 

dove, 9b, an instrument used in the preparation of flax ; by it the 
' shows' are remoyed which haye not bc^n taken off at the * scutch 

dutch, «&. the silty substance in which oystois are partly embedded 
on the oyster banks near Caniokfergus. 

Coag, ab, a yessel for carrying or holding water, made of hoops and 
stayes, like a small barrel, with one of the ends remoyed. 

Coaly 8b, a lap of hay; a lap cock. 

Coaling hay, v, rolling it in small cocks after being cut. 

Coast anent, v. Farm labourers who are giyen money to lodge and 
board themselyes are said to * coast anentJ 

Coat, (1) $b, a woman's gown. 

(2) ' I wear my coat none the worse for it to-day/ i . e. I am nothing 
the worse now for haying been in a much lower position at one time.J 

Cobble, V. to bargain or haggle. 
Cobblety-ourry, ab. Same as Shuggy-shu (1). 


Cobbs, or Herring Cobbs, «6. pi, young herrings. 

Coek-bread, sb. a mixture of hard-boiled eggs and other things with 
which game oooks are fed. 

Cocked up, adj, conceited. 

Cocker, ah. a cock-fighter. 

Cockers, Caackers, ah. pi. the heels of a horse's shoe turned down. 

Cockles of the heart. A warm drink or a dram is said to ' warm 
the cockle$ of oiuft heari.* 

Cocks, ^. a common wild plant, Plantago, Children amuae ihem- 
selyes in summer with knocking off the heads of each other's codba. 
This is called ' fighting cocks.' 

Cock-shot, $b, anything set up as a mark at which to throw stones. 

Cock-stride, ah, applied to the lengthening of the days. ** About onl' 
New Year's Day, the days is a cwk^hrUk longer." — OuLMnacK. 

Cod, (1) $h, a silly, troublesome fellow. 

(2) V. to humbug or quiz a person ; to hoax ; to idle about. * Quit 
your codd%n\* 

Codger, sb. a crusty old fellow. 

Codlick, $h. a fish, the spotted gunneL 

CofBn-cutter, eh, Oeypus olens^ the cock-tail^ an insect larger than aa 
earwig, of a black colour. Called also The Devil's Coachman. 

Cog, (1) sh. a wedge or support fixed under anything to steady it 

(2) V. to steady anything that is shaky by wedging it; to plaoe a 
weage under a cart-wheel to prevent the cart going down ^ill- 

Cog^le, V, to shake. 

Cogglety, Coggly, adj. shaky; unsteady. 

Colcannon, sb. potatoes and * curley kail ' mashed together. A dish 
of Colcannon used to form part of the dinner on Hallow-eve, and 
usually contained a ring. The finder of the ring was to be married 


Cold comfort, sh. no comfort at alL ' That's cold comfort ye're givin' 
me.' Ck)mjpare " He receives comfort like cold porridge." — 7empef<, 
Act ii. Bc. 1. 

Coldrife, adj. chilly; cold; of a chilly nature. 'Some people's 
naturally coldrife,^ 

Coif, V. to wad a gun. 

Colfln', sb, the material used to wad a gun. 

Colley, sb. smuts. 


CMUogrney (1) sb. a confidential chat. 

(2) V. to talk confidentially. 

Collop^ sK a slice of meat 

CSollop Konday, ah, the day before Shrove Taeaday. 

Colly [coalie], a dog. ' It's as clean as if OoUy had licked it : ' said 
of a plate or bowl that has been thoronghly emptied and polished off. 

Come baek. ' Chyme hack an' pay the bap ye eat,* i. e. come back ; 
don't hnzry away. 

Come in, 9. to suit; to serve. ' It's snre to come in for some use.' 

Come on* v. to grow np ; to thrive. ' The chile's coming on finely.' 

Come over, v. to repeat anything told in confidence. ' Now don't 
come over that.' 

Come round, t;. to recover from illness. ' Doctor, do you think he's 
comifC roun\* 

Come speed, t;. to get on with any work. * Are ye comin* much 
«peed wi' the job?' 

Commanding pain, $h. a severe pain, such as almost disables one. 

Common, (1) sb, hockey ; a game. Same as Shinney. Called in some 
districts Comiin and KaTninaTi, from the Irish name for the game. 

(2) ' As common as potatoes,' ft. e, of very low extraction, or a com- 
parison f6r anything very common. 

Connongh worm, $b. the caterpillar of Sphinx airopos, "Cows 
eating of the grass that it passes over are believed to be affected with 
that tML distemper called the connough,** — ^MoSiomin's Hist, Carrick- 
/ergu$, 1823. 

Conquer, $b. a conqueror. 

Conaate, (l)$b. conceit ; a pleasurable pride. ^ He takes a great conmte 
in his garden.' 

(2) th. conceit. To ' knock the comaU out of any one,' means to 
give him a beating. 

Constanoy, ah, a permanency. * I wouldn't do it for a constancy^* 
f . e. I would not make a practice of it. 

Contrairy, (1) adj. obstinate; contradictory. 'Now, what's the 
good o' bein' so contrairy ? ' 

(2) Inconvenient. * It happened at a most contrairy time.' 

(3) V. to prove the contrary; to controvert 'I couldn't contrairy 

Convenient, adj, near. ' His house is convenietit to the church. 

Convoy, v. to escort or accompany. 

Coody doon, v. kneel down. * Goody doon an' say yer prayers.' 
SomeasCoorie doon. 


Coof, or Conf, sh, a clownish fellow. 
Ooo-piulila, sb. a single dropping of a cow. 
Coorie doon, v, kneel down. Same as Coody doon. 
Coorse Christian, Bb. a rough fellow. 

Coorse morning, sh, coarae morning, t. e. very wet or storm/. Tliifl 
is a common greeting. 

Coo-sherran, ab. cow-dung. 

Corby, ab, the grey crow or hooded crow. The corby has become rare 
in Ajitrim and Down since the piLTchmring of dead horses and co^wb by 
the artificial manure makers became usual. 

Corker, eb, a laige pin ; anything large — a large fish, for instance. 

Cormoral, ab. a cormorant. 

Com, sb, oats. 

Comy-gera, or Comy-keevor, $b. the missel thrash, Turdus vid- 

Corp, ab. a corpse. < 

Corrag, ab. a wind guard for the door of a cottage, made of inter- 
laced branches. Same as Waasock. 

CormptioiL, ab. matter from a sore. 

Corvorant, ab. a cormorant. 

Cot, ab. a flat-bottomed boat. 

Conlter-neb, ab. the puffin. 

Conlt fit, ab. colt's-foot, Tuaailago. 

Country, ab. * My country ' is the common way of saying * the part 
of the country where I Uye,' so that if two farmers from districts 
three or four miles apart meet at market, one asks the other, 'What's 
the news in your country I *» • 

Country Joan, ab. an uncouth country person. 

County crop, ab. having one's hair cut very short, as it would be cut 
in the county prison. ' YouVe got the county crop : ' said in ridicule. 

Course, v. * To courae a lime-kiln ' is to put in the alternate layers 
of limestone and coaL 

Coutther, ab. a plough-share. 

Cove, (1) ah a cave. 

(2) V. to rub a flagged floor with a ' coving-stone.' 
Cove, V. to rub a flagged floor with a ' coving ston&' 

Covered car, ab, a ear with two whe^, drawn by one horse. 
There is room inside for four passensers, who sit Reusing each other. 
The door and step are at the Sack, the driver sits in firont, perched 
up near the top. There are two very small windows in front, and one 
in the door. 


Cowl, adj, cold. 

CorwPf V. to npset ; to empty. 

Cow's-clap, $h, a piece of cow's-dong. 

Cow's tail ' To grow down, like a cow^a tail : ' said in derision to 
» a person who is supposed to be growing shorter instead of taller. 

Crab, «. to carp ; to scold at. ' A couldn't thole bein' crabbed at, 
when A didn't do nothin' ondaioent' 

Chrab's allowaaoe, ab. the treatment that jnyenile fishers give to 
those crabs (' partens') that fasten on their hooks and eat off Qie bait 
— ^the crabs, ^en landed, are instantly trampled to death. 

Craek, (1) sb. a chat. 

(2) V. to gossip or chat; to boast 

Craisked, adj. damaged : as ' cracked hams/ hams which are slightly 
damaged in appearance. 

Cracker, sb. the thin cord at the end of a whip ; a boaster. 

CSraoks, tales; gossip. 

Crane, sb. the iron arm over a fire from which the ' crook ' hangs. 

Crapen, sb. the crop of a f owL 

Crava^ v. * To crave a man,' to apply to him for payment of a debt. 

Craw, Crow, sb. a rook. 

Creel-pig, sb. a young pig, such as is taken to market in a creel or 

Creepers, sb. jol, lice. Same as Pedes. 

Creepy, or Creepy-stool, sb. a very low stooL 

Creeah, (1) sb. a punishment of an uncertain kind. ' You'll get the 
creesh,* i. e, punishment. 

(2) «5. grease. 
Creeshy, adj. greasy. 
Creaben, sb. a crab. 

Crib, or Crib-stone, sb. the curb-stone at the edge of a foot-path. 
Crine, v. to shrink. 

Crock, sb. a derisive term for a person who fancies himself ailing or 

Crocky, adj\ fanciful about his health ; hippish. 

Crofl^ sb. a space surrounded by farm buildings. * Just go through 
thon f army's ero/t down there,' a small field near a house. 

Cronkin, acff. to describe the baying sound made by a flock of Brent 
• geese. 

Croo, sb. a poor, filthy cabin. See Pig Croc. 


Croodle, v, to crouob ; to cuddle. 

Crook, sh. a book which is snspended from the 'crane* m a 
ohnxmey fcr hangiDLg tiie pot or gziddlBi&!ai&. *Ab black aa the crook/ 
Tory black. 

Groon, v, to lament or waiL 

CrooM, a^\ sharp-tempered; pugnacious; irritable; conceited. * He's 
as crooM as a banty cock.' 

Crop, V, to crop land. ^To put in crop/ to sow seed. 

CroM. ' Ha would steal the cross off an ass : ' said of an avaiicioiia 

Crottle, eb, a lichen. A decoction of it is used for dyeing. 

Crowl, (1) sb. a small person ; a dwarf. * A crowl on a creepy looks 
naethin'/ saying. 

(2) V. to stunt the growth of anything. It is said that dogs cflko. 
be croioled by ciring them whiskey when they are voung, and that » 
child is cTowlei if a man puts his leg over the child s head. 

Crown of the causey, sb, the centre of the road, the driest and 
cleanest part, and therefore taken possession of by the strongest The 
expression refers to the old payed country roads, which had no side 

Crub, (1) sb, a horse's curb-chain. 

(2) V. to check. ' The caterpillars crub the blooms of the roses.' 

Cruden, eb. a parten (crab), Carcinua moenas^ of a reddish colour. 

Cruds, sb, pi. curds. 

Cruel, Crule, acff. very. * Orud big,' * Crud nice.' * Cruel purty.' 

Cmeli, $b. the king's eyiL 

Cruffles, sb. pi, a kind of potatoes. 

Crule han', sb. a disagreeable spectacle ; a bad case. ^ He's made a 
cTuU han' o' hisself with the dhrink.' Same as Sore Hand. 

Crulge, V. to crouch near the fire ; to cramp oneself by sitting in a 
crouching attitude. 

Crumbs. Children are recommended to eat up the crumbs^ 'for the 
crumhi will make you wise.' 

Cnunmel, sb. a crumb. 

Crumming-knife, sb. a cooper's tooL 

Cruse, adj. captious ; cross. 

Cmckle, sb. a cockle. 

Cuekoo-sorrel, sb. wood sorrel, Oxdlis aceioseUa. 

Ciekoo-spittle, sb. the white iroth deposited on plants, which is 
secreted by and encloses the young of an insect, Jphromora spwnaria. 


Cudd6&9 sK a small fish, the young of the coal-fish, Merlangm 

Cuddy, sb. a donkey. 

* Cndnae tell a B firae a bill's-llt,' applied to a person utterly 

Cnidhioh, A. a night's lodging and food. 

Cnlloeh, bK the broad-nosed eel, Anguilla latirostris. This word is 
used at Lough Nei^h, and is the Insh CdUoch = wicked, in allusion 
to tills eel's Toradous habits. It is also called Hunter Sel and 
Oorb EeL 

Cummings, sb. pi. the rootlets of malt. 

Cnrehie, sb. a curtsey. 

Cnreadiouglily, cidv, comfortably ; cosily. 

Curl doddy, sb. a flower, the blue scabious, Scabiosa succisa. 
Children twist the stalk of this flower, and as it slowly untwists in 
the hand, say to it : 

* Cwrl doddy on the midden^ 
Turn round an' tak' my biddin*.* 

Carl6]riy 9b. curled kaiL 

Curmorriiig, sb. grumbling ; the sound caused by fatus within the 

Cum, sb. a currant. 

Cumaptioui, adj. quarrelsome; cross-grained. 

Custom gate. Custom gap, sb. one of the approaches to a fair. 

Cut, {}) sb. a measure of linen yam. See under Spangle and Lea. 

(2) V. to taok from side to side up an inclined plane ; to more a 
heayy object forward by pushing eadi end alternately. 

Cut butter. ' It would cut buttery if it was hot,' is said of a parti- 
cularly blunt knife. 

Cut meat. To, v. to eat anything. 'They never cut meat from 
Saturday till Wednesday:' said of a lot of sheep which were in transit 
from Ireland to England. 

Cuts. ' To draw cutSy to draw lots. 
Cutter, sb. a slate pencil. 

Cutty, (1) sb. a short, clay pipe. 

(2) sh, a sea bird, the razor-bill. Also the guillemot. 

(3) ' There you are puttin' in your cu% among spoons,' said to a 
youngster who attempts to join in the conversation oi tiie elders. 

(4) adj. short. ' CMy pipe.' ' Cutty spoon.' 

Cutty ftilL * You haVn't a cutty fulV (of brains), i. e. you have 
no sense. 


Da, Dada, sh. father. ^Hi da! come home to the wain !' 

Da-dilly, sh. a helpless, useless person. * She's a sore da-dilly of a 

Dab, (1) sh. a small flat fish. 
(2) sb, a snatoh, or clutoh. 

Dab at the hole, sh. a game of marbles. 

Dad of bread, sh, a laige lump of bread. 

Dafly-downdillies, sh. daffodils. 

Daft, adj, weak-minded ; mad. 

Da-ho, sh, the hedge parsley, ArUhriscus sylve/itris. See Hi-how. 

Dais, sh, A log used as a seat, and plaoed against the gable of a 
cottage at the back of the fire, that is where a ' round about ' fire was 
used. If the fire-place was against the gable there was of course no 
room for a daU, 

Daiver, t;. to strike a person such a blow as almost to stun him. 

Daivered, adj, doting ; bewildered. Same as Doithered. 

Damsel, (1) sh, a damson. 

(2) ib, an iron rod with prqjecting pins, that shakes the shoot of 
the hopper in a com mill 

Dander, on the dander ; idling about ; on the spree. 

Dandher, (1) sh, a slow walk. TU just take a dandher.' 

(2) V. to saunter ; to walk about slowly. 
Dangenome, adj. dangerous. 

Dapery, sh. When oats are being put through frames the lightest 
grains fall through a sieve, and are collected by themselyes, these are 
called dapery t co. Antrim. In co. Down they are called * wake com,* 
i. e, weak com. 

Dare, or Dar, v. to taunt, or challenge. * He darredmQ to fight him.' 

Dark, adj, blind. * Will you give something to a poor dark woman 1 ' 

Darlin, adj. nice. * A darlirC red-head,' means a nice head of red 

Daundered, adj. dazed. 

Dauma, v, dare not. Sometimes Danmae. 

Daver, s, to stun. 

Davy, sh. an affidavit. ' Til take my davy.' 

Daw, sh, a lazy, good for nothing person. 

Dawmson plume, sh. a damson. 

Day, sh, one's lifetime. See under Tour day. 


Day an' daily, adv. constantly ; every day. 

Bayligon, Dayly goiji, eh. (daylight going) ;- the dnak of the 

Dead end. * If yon saw it yon would take your dead end, i, e. you 
would die of laughter. 

I)ead knowledge, sb. deceitf ulness ; cunning. 

Dead man's plunge, sb, this is made by throwing a stone, so that it 
enters the sur&ce of water with such force that no splash is made. 

Dead men's pinches, sb. Small discoloured marks on the skin, which 
oome mysterioxisly during the night, and which show themselves in 
the morning. They resemble the marks oipincke% or brmses. 

Deaf nut, sb. an empty nut. 

bless you ! Grod bless you [?], an exclamation. 

help you ! God help you [1], an exclamation. 

Dear knows. A common rejoinder, meaning ' who Jcnows^^ or ' no- 
body knowB^* probably meant originally, ' Qod only knows,* 

Dear love you ! God love you [)], an exclamation. 

Deave, v, to deafen ; to bewilder. ' You would deave one's ears.' 

Debate, sb, a defence, or fight. ' He can make a great debate for 

Deck of cards, sb, a pack of cards. 

Decline, sb. consumption. 

Dede auld, adj. very old. 

Deed and doubles, indeed. 

dl (1). 'The deU couldn't do it unless he was drunk:' said of 
something very difficult. 

(2) ' The deU gang wi' ye, an' saxpence, an' ye'U nether want money 
nor company,' a saying. 

dl bane ye, an expression of anger. 

Deil perliokit, nothing. 'What fortune did his wife bring himT 
< Oh, deil perlidcity tied up in a clout.' 

Deil's needle, sK a dragon-fly. 

Demands, sb, commands. 'Have you any demands into townl' 

Demean, v, to lower, or disgrace. 'I wouldn't demean myself to 
speak to him.' 

Demin ane, sb. an odd one, i. e. singular, unusual. 

Den, (1) sb, a dark cellar in a mill building. 

(2) the place of safety in games, such as ' Hy spy.' 
Desperation, sb, a great rage. ' The master was in desperation.^ 


Deval, Beyalve, or Develye, t?. to desist. 

Beranhion, th, tidicale. ' Makin' divarshion^ taming into ridicule. 

Devil's ohnm staff, the sun spurge. Euphorbia hdioseopicL 

Deyil's coaohmaii, sh, an insect. Same as Coffln cutter. 

Dhirl, «6. a good-for-nothing person. 

Dhrap with hunger, v, to die of hunger. * If I was dhrappin^ with 
hunger I wouldn't ask him for a fiBirden.' 

Dhray, v, drove ; driyen. ' I dhruv past him.' * A' ve dhruv that horse 
these five year.' 

Dibble, sb. a pointed wooden implement for making holes in the 
ground for planting in. 

Dibble, or Dibble in, r. to plant by means of a dibble. 

Diddles, sb. the breasts of a woman. 

Differ, sb, the difiference. 

Dig, (1) sb. a blow. ' I wish I had three digs at him.' 

(2) * To dig with the wron^ foot,' is a way of saying that the person 
referred to belongs to a religious persuasion different from that of the 

Dig wi' baiih feet, this is said of a clever person. Compare Two 
hand boy. 

Dig with the same fbot, to belong to the same religious denomination. 

Dimpsy brown, adj. ' Dimpsy broumy the colour of a mouse's wabt- 
ooat^' an undecided colour. 

Din, acy. dun, or brown-coloured. 

Dinge, (1) sb. a dint. 

(2) V. to dint 

Dingle, or Dinle, v. to throb ; to vibrate ; to tingle. 

Dinlin, adj, trembling; vibrating. 

Directly, just so ; precisely. 

Dirt bird, sb. the skua. It follows flocks of searguUs, and chases 
these birds till they disgorge the contents of their stomachs, and the 
vomited matter the dirt bird eats. See Allan hawk. 

Discomftifflei v. to incommode. 

Disooorse, v. to talk to. ' Come here till I discoorse you.' 

Disgist, t;. to digest. 

Disremember, v. to forget. 

Distress, sb. a sickness. ' Since I had that distress in my head' 

Ditch, sb. a fence, generally of earth. 

Divil mend ye. ' Served you right.' ' You deserved it richly.' 


DiTTid, V. divided. ' We diwid ihem as well as we cud.' 

Do [doo], V, to lecover from illness. 'I'm thinkin' he's not goin' 
to doJ 

Dochraiy »b. gmeL 

Soekan, sb. a dock-plant When a hoy gets stnng by a nettle he 
searches for a dock leaf, and rubs it on the wounded part, repeating 
the dharm, ' Dockan, Dockan, in. Nettle, nettle, out.' 

Jkgtey adj. heavy ; stupid, as with a cold ; also to describe a dull 
Heavy sound. 

Doffy V. to take the full bobbins off a spinning-frame in a milL 

Doffer, «&. a girl who doffs, t. e, takes off the full bobbins from the 
Bfpiiming frunes. The doffer$ are the yoTingest girls employed in flax 

Dog> sb, the end of a rainbow. It generally precedes or accompanies 
a squall at sea. Same as Weather galL 

Dog wilk, sb. a sea mollusc^ Purpura lapUlus, 

Doing of^ sb. a scolding. 

Doithered, ac(f. doting; bewildered. 

Dolaohan, sb. a large lake tront^ not so large as the ' buddagh/ but 
same spedee {Salmo ferox). 

Doldram, adj, confused; stupid. 

Dolfor, Dolver, sb, a laige marble. 

BoUy. * He had hardly a dolly on him,' means he had scarcely any 
clothes on him. 

Done, V. did. In the same way 'seen' is used for saw ; 'had went,' 
for had gone, &c. 

Done man, sb. a worn-out old man. 

Donse, sb. the deviL 

Donsy, Dannoey, a^/* sick ; sick-looking. 

Dool, sb. a kind of naiL An iron spike, sharp at both ends. 

Dooled, a cooper^s term. " The head and bottom equally dooUd and 
set into the cross."— J?e{^a«< News4etUr^ 1738. 

DooleSB, adj. helpless ; thriftless. 

Dom, sb. a narrow neck of water (not fordable) between two islands, 
or between an island and the mainland (Strangfoid Lough). 

Dotard, adj. doting. 
Dotther, v. to totter. 
Douoe, adj. neat; tidy. 
Door, adj. sulky ; disagriseable. 


Doviing^y sh. a beating. * A good dousing.* 

Dowd, sh, a woman's white cap without any frilling. 

Dowdy cap, sb. Same as Dowd. 

Down in fhe mouth, in low spirits. 

Dowp» »h. a candle^nd ; also a child's 'bnndie.' 

Dowse, V. to extinguish. 

Doylti a4f, stupid. 

Dozed, adj\ decayed, applied to wood. 

Drabs, sb. See Dribs. 

Draft, sb. a drawing, or picture. 

Drafts, sb. cart-traces made of chain. 

Drapisy, sb. dropsy. 

Drap it like a hot potato, t. e. drop it at once. 

Draw, (1) t;. to cart. 'He's Awaydrawin! peats.' 

(2) V. to lift or raise for the purpose of attack. ' He drew his fist» 
and hit him on the fiice.' ' He drew his foot and kicked her.' 

Drawky, a^'. wet ; misty. * It's a draicky day.* 

Dredge, sb, a boat used for dredging in harbours. 

Dredge box, sb. a flour dredger. 

Dreegh, adj. dreary ; tedious ; slow. ' It's a dreegli jab ' (a weari- 
, some piece of business). < A dreegh road ' (a tedious road). * A dreajh 
boy ' (a slow boy). 

Dreep, v. to drip slowly ; to ooze. 

Dreepin', adj. very wet j dripping. 

Dribs and drabs, sb. small amounts. ^He pays it in dribs and 

Dring, v. to delay ; to linger. 

Dringing, adj. lingering, or dawdling on the way. 'Come on, 
Joan, an' dont be dringing behin'.* 

Drink-a-penny, the bald coot, Fulica atra. The little grebe is also 
so called. 

DrogjB^et, sb. cloth which is a mixture of flax and wool. Of the off- 
spring of mixed marriages it is sometimes said, ' They're droggety an' 
tnat's the worst of aU cloth.' 

Droghey, adj. drizzly. 

Droll, sb. a tale, or story. 

Drooned, ac(/. When the sky is overcast and dark all round, it ia 
said to have ' a drooned appearance.' 

Drop, sb. a rather small quantity. ' Give us a wee drop,* 


Brouldt, adj. drenched ; drowned. ' As wet as a droukit rat.' 

Bronth, sh. thirst ; a drought. 

Ihrowa tlie miller, this is said to be done when too much water is 
added to the whiskey in a glass of grog. 

Drown your Shamrock. On Patrick's day (March 17th) persons are 

Drudge, (1) «6. a dredge. 

(2) V. to dredge for oysters ; to shake flour from a dredger. 

Drugget, «5. to speak drugget To endeavour to graft a fine accent 
on a vulgar one. 

Drum, 8b. * rU give you what Paddy gave the drum,' t. e, a good 

Drumlin, sb, a mound or ridge of gravel (Co. Doum, Geo, Survey). 

Druihy, adj. thirsty. * Talkin's (^y-w^^y work.' 

Dub, sh. mud. "Their petticoots weel kill ahin, nor dub, nor 
stoure mismay them." — ^Huddlebtoit. 

Ducey, adj. juicy. 

Duck, sh. a dip in the sea, ' I can take nine back ducks running,^ 
i. e. in succession. 

Duck at the table, sb. a boy's game played with round stones, and a 
table-shaped block of stone. 

Duck in thunder. ' He turned up his eyes like a dtiek in thunder,' 
saying expressive of astonishment. 

Ducks meat, hardened mucous in the corners of the eyes after 

Duds, sb. clothes, ragged clothes. 

Due sober, sb. quite sober. 

Duggen, V, dug. * I'll get that plot duggen.^ 

Duke, (1) 8b. a duck. 

(2) V. to evade; to stoop the head so as to avoid a blow. Same 
as Juke. 

DuUis, Dillisk, sb. dulce, Rhodomenia palynaia, a sea-weed, eaten or 
rather chewed, after having been dried for a few days in the sun* 

Dumb oraythurs, sh, the lower animals. 

Dunch, V. to push, or butt. * That cow will dunch you.' 

Duudher, (1) ab. a violent noisy blow. *A dimdhe}' came to my 

(2) V. to make a dull heavy noise, such as pounding. 



Dnnduoldty, adj. ' Dunduckity mud oolour, the ooloni of a moiue's 
diddj/ an tmdecided colour. 

Dumei 9b. a bird, the knot, Tringa canutus. 
Dnnnyi «5. the skate, Roda baits. 
Diint, ab. a posh ; a hard blow. 
Dure, eh. a door. 

Burgaii, (1) a short stout persoa ; a kind of pig. 

(2) Bh. oatmeal firied in dripping, and sometimee flayoured with 
leeks, &c.» co. Down. This dum is called in oo. Antrim, mealy-crushy. 

Dnrin' aah or oak, for ever. 

Dnrsenti dare not ' They dursent do it' 

DiukiM, 8b. the dusk ; the eyening. 

Duty hem, sb. fowls of which a tenant has to giye a certain number 
to his landlord each year. 

Dwamiah, adj. feeling sick. 

Dwanm, ab. a fainting fit ; a sudden fit of sickness. 

Bwine, v. to die away ; to decline in health ; to diminish. 

Dwyble, v. to walk with a foltering gait, as if weak in the limbs. 

Dwybly, adj. shaky ; tottering. 

Dyke Shengh, sb. a ditch or trench, alongside a fence. 

Dyor, ah. a small quantity of any liquid. A wee dtjor \b the same as 
' a wee aupt* 'a wee drop.* 

Dyorrie, adj. dwarfed; smalL * There's a dyorrie pig in eyery 
litter/ saying. 

\, ab. shreds and tatters. 

Earles, ab. earnest money. Same as Airlet. 

Ears, (1). When the ri^ht ear is hot, some one is speaking ill of 
you ; when the left ear is hot, some one is speaking good of yotu 

(2) ' I can't hear my ears,^ i. e. there is such a din that I can't hear 
a word. 

Earywig, ab. an earwig. 

Easin, ab. pi. the eayes of thatch. Same as Audns. 

Edge, ab. an adze. ' Foot edge,' a foot adze. 

Ee, Een, ab. eye ; eyes. 

Eedyet, ab. an idiot. 

Eelans, of the same age. ' We're eelana.' 


Eel oil, sK used as a care for deafness. 

Sel akins, sh, these are used for bandages for sprains, and are sup- 
posed to possess a curatiye property ; they are bound round the hurt 
wet and slimy, just as they are taken on the eela Eel-sh'n is also 
used for the ' hooden,* or ' mid-kipple * of a flail. 

Ekes an' ens, <6. odds and ends ; small scraps of things turned to 
account. ' Ekes an' ens rise to something if you just put them together.' 
' Between ekea an' ens T ye managed this.' 

Elder, sb. a cow's udder. 

Elk, sb, a term for the wild swan (Harris, Hist. co. Down). 

ELnn, sb. a shoemaker's awL 

End. ' From end to one ' = from one end to the other ; throughout. 
' I've cleaned the. hedge from end to one.' ' The story's known firom 
end to one through the whole place.' 

EndeaTonr, sb. an attempt ; one's utmost. To do one's endeavour = 
to try earnestly. ' He come in, an' they done their whole endeavour 
to get him out.' ' Make an endeavour to do it.' 

End's enran'. ' On one end's erran*, on one single purpose or errand. 

Enengh between melts and rounds, i.e. between one thing and 
another : the allusion is to the miit and roe of herrings. 

Engrained, Ingrained, t;. A very dirty-looking person is said ' to 
have the dirt engrained into his skin.' 

Enjain, Injain, sb. an ingenious thing. ' That's a great enjoin.* 

Entertainment, sb. lodging and food. ' Entertainment for man and 
beast,' a notice. 

Entry mouth, sb, the end of an entry or lane, where it opens upon a 

Ere yesterday, sb. the day before yesterday. 

Emm', sb. an errand. * If A mak an erran* tae yer face, it 'ill no 
be tae kiss ye,' said in anger. 

Erroek, sb. a young hen. 

Bspibawn, sb. the ox eye, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. 

Etamal, adj. infernal. ' He's an eternal yillain.' Compare Shake- 
speare, * The eternal deyiL.' 

Bttle, V. to intend. 

Even, V. to impute. ' Would you even the like of that to me.' 

Even ash, sb. an ash-leaf with an even number of leaflets, used in a 
kind of divination. The young girl who finds one repeats the words — 

*' This even ask I hold in my han', 
The first I meet is my true man." 

She then asks the first male person she meets on the road, what his 
Christian name is, and this will be the name of her future husband. 

D 2 


Evenlier, cuij, moi^ even. 

Even one's wit, v. to condescend to aigue with another. * I wouldn't 
eveti my wit to you.' 

Even on, or Even down, applied to heavy^ continuous rain. ' There 
was an even douni pour.' 

Every, each. ' There's a cliimley on every en' o' the house.' 

Eyes, (1) When the right eye itches it is a sign of crying: whon 
the left eye itches it is a sign of laughing. 

(2] ' Tour eye* are like two humt holes in a blanket/ an expression 
of derision. 

Eye sore, ^h, a blemish ; anything that looks ilL 

Face cflxd, sh. a court card. 

Fadge, {\) sh. a kind of thick bread made of potatoes and flour or 
meal, baked on a griddle. 

(2) sh, a bale of goods of an irregulai* shape. 

Failed, looking very ill, or in impaired health. 

Failin', sh. a present from a fair. 

Faize, Fis, v, to show or make an impression. 'Drink newer fizze* 
on that man.' ' He took all the medicine, and it neyerfaized on him/ 

Fall, V, to fell trees. 

Falling hatchet, sb. an axe for cutting down trees. 

Fan, V. to fawn, as * the dog/an* on me.' 

Fangled, v. entangled. 'The cow has got /angled in her tether.* 

Fangs, sb, the roots of the teeth. 

Fans, ab, a winnowing machine. 

Far through, nearly finished ; very ill. 

Farl, sb. the fourth of the circular piece of oaten cake, which is baked 
on a griddle at one time. 

Farley, sb. a Avonder ; something strange. See Spy farlies, al^o 
used as a term of contempt. * Ye farley ye.* 

Farm o' Ian', sb. a farm. 

Fanner. * By the holy farmer^ an oath. 

Famess, sK distance. * What farness off do you live ] ' 

Famtickled, adj, freckled. 

Famtiokles, sb. freckles. * The famtickhs niver sayd a word but 
one, that tiiey wouldn't light on a din skin,' saying. 

Fash, V, to trouble oneself. * Don't fash your lug,' pay no heeil ; 
never mind. 


Pasten's e*en, «&. Shrove Tuesday. 

Fatigue, sh, liard wear or abuse. ' That cloth will fi\A\\(\ fatigue' 

Faulty V. to blame. 

Pause face, a mask. 

FaTOnr, v. to resemble, as regards family likeness. 'That chile 
favours his fether.* 

Feat, adj. neat; tidy. 

Feather, sb, the lines and markings seen iu polished wood. 

Febberwerry, February. 

Feck, sh. a quantity ; the greater quantity or majority. 

Feerd, afraid. 

Feint a hate, devil a bit ; nothing at all 

Felt, sh. a bird, the redwing : the fieldfare is here called the ' largt? 
blue felt J 

Fend off, v. to prevent a boat from striking against any object. 

Fend off post, sb. a post set in the ground to protect an object from 
injury by carts, &c., coming in contact with it. 

Feth i, Heth i, faith yes. 

Feth and troth, by fSedth and truth. ' Feth arid troth, but I won't 
let you.' 

Fettle, &. to fix; to settle; to grind the rough edges from iron 

Pettier, sh, a man wlio fettles castings. 

Fiery-edge, sh. the first or original edge on a knife or other cutting 
implement; the first eagerness on commencing a new thin^. ^TU 
just eat a bit now to take the fiery-edge off my appetite.' It is some- 
times said of a new servant, * Oh wait till you see how he does, when 
the fiery-edge goes off him.' 

Pike, 17. to be busy in a trifling way. 

Pillaira, sb. a plant, valerian ; also called villera. 

Pined in, v. fined. ' He wnB fined in 10/^.' 

Pinger-stail, sb. a finger-stall ; the finger of an old glove used as a 
protection for a sore finger. 

Fired. When black specks appear on the stem of growing flax, it 
is said to be fired (Mason, 1814). 

Firing, sb. a kind of mildew or disease to which young fiax is sub- 
ject ; called by bleachers * sprit' (Dubotodieu's Antrim, 1812). 

Pisiling, sb. a stealthy noise, such as a faint rustling. 

Pisty, sb. a nick-name for a person who has only one hand. 


Fits. * It fits you to a hair in the water ' = it fits you exactly : saiil 
of a garment. 

Fitty forra ooo, nb. »cow that has been giving milk for say fifteen 
months, and is not with calf. 

Flaf^ (I) 8b, ' Lichenin' flaff; a flash of lightning. 

(2) V. to flutter or flap. 

Flaghter spade, sb. a broad, pointed spade, with one edge turned up,. 
used for paring sods or * scraws ' off the surfeuse of the ground. 

Flail, sb, A flail consists of three parts ; the han' stay*, the hooden 
or mid-kipple, which is a piece of cow-skin or eel-skin; and the 
soople, or part that comes in contact with the grain. 

Flake, Flaik, sb, a hurdle, or arrangement of branches, on which flax 
was formerly dried over a fire. 

Flannen, sb, flannel. 

Flatter, to wheedle ; to coax ; to persuade. ' Away and flatter him 
for the loan of his wheel-barra.' 

Flaucht, sb, a flasli. 

Flayers, sb, what drops from a dog's tongue. 

Flax ripple, sb, a comb with large iron teeth through which flax is 
drawn, to remove the bolls or seeds. 

Flea. * He would skin a flea for the hide and tallow : ' said of an 
avaricious person. 

Flee, sb. a fly. 

Fleeoh, v. to coax or supplicate in a fawning way. 

Fleet-line (float-line), sb, a line used in a particular kind of sea- 
fishing; the hook floats mid- way between the surfS&ce and bottom, 
and is carried away clear off the boat, which remains at anchor by 
the current 

Filed, FUet, adj, frightened. 

Flinch, sb, a finch ; e, g, gold-flinch. 

, adj, skittish, specially applied to a mare which kicks when 
touched on the flank. 

Flit, V. to change house. ' Do you flit this week or next 9 ' 

Flitting, sb, f umiture, &c., when in transit from one house to another 
'AlovA oifliUing: 

Flofflng, Flai&n', v. fluttering, as a bird when held. 

Flooster, Floosterer, sb, a flatterer. 

Flooster, v, to flatter, or coax. 

Floostered, v, flurried. 

Flowan, the bog cotton, Anthemis Cotuh. 


Vlowanty Flonans, $h, the light dinging dust in a flax-scutching mill ; 
small fragments of the flax stem. 

Plow-bog, Flow-moiSy ah. a bog through which water has flowed, or 
in which it lodges. 

Plower, sh. a bunch of flowers. 

Flug.flsted, left-handed. 

Plununery, sb. nonsense. See under Sowans. 

Pluahy ^1) V. to startle a shoal of herrings at night, so that the fish indi- 
cate uieir presence by disturbing the sui&ce of the water. 

(2) ab. a pool ; a pool of water that extends nearly across a road. 

(3) fledged, as young birds. 

Fluttariek, sb, a fish. Same as dayin. 

Flyaome, adj. frightful ; dreadful. 

Pog, sb. moss. 

Pog-cheese, sb. a soft inferior cheese, made late in the year. 

Pog-harroWf sb. a harrow to clear moss away. 

Pog-meal, sb. a full or hearty meal. A person who has eaten too 
much is said to haye got a ' fog-fill,* or to be ' fog-fu.' 

Pooflng, sb. the melancholy howling of a dog. 

Fool, acff. foolish. E.g, 'a fool man.' 

Pooran, sb. a bird, the puffin. 

Fooited, adj. fusty ; decaying ; having a bad smell. 

Foot and a half, sb. a boy's game. 

Foot go, sb. a sloping plank, with stout laths nailed on to assist the 
feet, used by masons. 

Footins, sb. small heaps of cut peat. See under Clamps. 

Footther, (1) sb, a useless, foolish, or awkward person. ' You're a 
fooUher, and the duck's ill get you,' common saying. 

(2) v. to idle; to do anything useless. * Don't BtsLn' footthering 

Footfherin', adj. handless. 

Footy, adj. trifling ; small ; mean. 

For. ' I'm for doing it,' i, e, I'm going to do it. ' Are you for 
going P ' t. e. do you intend to go P 

Forbears, Forebeers, sb. ancestors. 

Forbye, (1) adv. besides. 'There was two forbye myself.' 

(2) ad. very; past the common. ' Thafs &, forbye good horse.' 
Forder, (\) sb. progress ; speed. See €h>od forder. 

(2) V. to assist ; to help forward. 


Fordenome, what forwards any work ; manageable. 
Fore. 'To the /ore* = in existence. 

Fore-end, sb. the beginning, or early part * He may go out in the 
fort-end of the day.' 

Fore-milk, sb. the first milk got from a cow at each milking ; it is 
Tory poor and watery. 

Foreway, to get ihAforeway of one ; to forestall ; to anticipate one. 

Forget, sb, an omission ; a neglect. * That was a great forget.* 

Fomenst, opposite to ; in exchange for. 

Forra-eoo, ab, a cow that has been giring milk, for say nine or ten 
months, and is not with calf. 

Forrard, Forrit, adj\ fast, as a clock. ' She's twenty-minutes /orrarcf.' 

Forth, sb. an earthen fort or rath. 

Fosey, adj, spongy, like an overgrown turnip, or decayed wood. 

Foul ground, sb. the bottom of the sea, where it is covered with 
rocks or stones, and sea- weed. 

Founded, Foundet, sb. anything. ' There was not a foundet in the 
house/ i. e. there was nothing---always used with a negative. 

Founder, sb. a catarrh ; a cold, or illness. * The boy has got s^ founder.* 

Foundered, adj. exhausted or lamed with wet and cold, ' The horse 
wns foundered in one of his forelegs.' 

Fower-square, adj. square. 

Foxed, adj. Women's cloth boots ax^/oxed when they have a bind- 
ing of leather on the doth all round next the sole. 

Foxing, adj. scheming. 

Foxy, sb. a term for a red-haired person. 

Freen^ sb. friend, or relative. 

Freet, sb. an omen. 

Freety, adj. having belief in charms or omens. * We're no that 
freety about here.' 

French flies, sb. a boy's game. 

Friend, Freen, sb. a relative. * They're far out friends of mine, but 
I niver seen them.' 

Frimsy-flramsy . Same as Frincy-firancy, q. v. 

Fiinoy-firanoy, sb. a game played between the dances at balls in 
farm-houses. A chair was placed in the middle of the barn or room ; 
the master of the ceremonies led to the chair a young woman, who 
sat down and named the young man whom eho was willing should 
kiss her. This he did, ana then took the sent which the lady vacated. 


He then called ont the name of some fayoniite girl, who was led up to 
bim ; there was another kiss. The girl then took the seat, and so on 
(Co. of Down). .The same game is called Frimsey-frarMey in parts of 
the 00. of Antrim. 

I, eh, the iron mountings on single and double trees, by which 
they are attached to a plough or harrow. 

IVom that I went, from the time that I went. 

Prost, (1) 'By the holy frost/ an exclamation. 

(2) ' She'll sit a/roa^,' ». e. she will die an old maid. 

(3) ' The/rosi has taken the air/ this is said when a wet day follows 
a clear frosty morning. 

Fmgliaiis, sh. whortleberries. Same as Blaeberries. 

Fnuh., culj. brittle, as applied to wood, &c. : said of flax when the 
' shoughs ' separate easily from the fibre. 

Fud, $b, the tail of a hare. 

Foil fimner, sb, a large, or well-to-do farmer. 

Fvm turf, sb, light spongy turf. 

For, sb, a furrow. 

Furrow and land, the hollows and heights on the surface of a mill- 

Fat, t?. I. e. foot, to walk. * Ye futted it weel * = you walked 

Fozionleu, adj, insipid, or innutritions, as applied to fodder, &c., of 
inferior quality. 

Fyammy, adj, applied to a sea bottom covered with a growth of 
* fyams,' t. «. tangles. 

Fyams, sb, the long sea-weeds known as tangles. 

Gab, (1) sb. the mouth : hence talk. * Gie us none of your gab.* 
(2) * All gab and guts like a young crow/ a comparison. 

Gabbnck, ov Oobboek, sb, the piked dog-fish. 

Oaokin', v, mocking. 

Gaffer, sb, the head man over a gang of navvies. 

Gag, (1) sb. a joke ; a deception. 

(2) V, to ridicule. ' They began with gaggirC other.' 

Ghiilick, Cteliok, sb, an earwig. 

Ckdly pot, sb, a jam pot. See Oelly onp. 

Gaining, ctdj, winsome ; lovesome. 


Oaits, sb. sheaves of com set up singly on end. They aie tied higher 
up than usual, so as to allow the base to spread. 

OalloUy sb. the butter burr, Petasitee vulgaris, 

OallowBOS, sb. suspenders. 

Galore, Oalyore, sb. abundance. 

Game. A dog is said to be game if it does not howl when held up 
by the tail or ear. 

Game leg, sb, a lame leg ; a leg shorter than its fellow. 
Ghtmmel, sb. the back of the knee of a horse's hind leg. 
Ganoh, sh, an awkward, silly fellow. ' A sore (^tmch of a craithur.' 
Gang ower (going over), sb, a scolding. 

* Gang up the hous/ go on to the best room or parlour, i. e. when 
the panour is up a step ham the passage or outer room. In some 
farmnouses, where the parlour is down a step, the expression used is 
' Qang doon the hous* an' mine the step.' 

Gangway, sb. a frequented thoroughfare. * Oh, we live right in the 

Gant, Gaunt, sb. a yawn. 

Gant, Gaunt, v. to yawn. 

Ghipeseed, sb. what one can see or spy out ; what catehes the eye. 
* They came in here just for gapeseed, for they had no erran'.' 

GFar, V. to make or cause. 

Garron, sb. an old horse. 

Gash, sb. a rent or gap. * That cow has made a sore gash in yoar 

Gaskin, sb. any material, such as flax or india-rubber, used te pack 
the jointe of steam or water-pipes. 

Gather, v. to suppurate. 

Gathering, sb. a suppuration. 

Gatherup, sb. a wandering rag-man. 

Gavel, sb. a gable. 

Gaw, sb. a trap-dyke. Also called a March. Hamilton's Antrim, 

Gawk, sb. an awkward person. 

Gazebo, sb. a stand at a racecourse ; a tall building from which a 
look-out can be had ; a staring lookmg building. 

Gkusened, sb. When the seams of a boat, a barrel, or any wooden 
article are opened and gaping in consequence of heat or drought it is 
said to be gazened. 

Oelly cup, sb. a small jam pot or cup. 


Gentle, adj, haunted by fairies. The laige hawthorns growing singly 
are deemed sacred to fSuries, and are hence called genXU iAom«. 
MgSkimin's Carrickfergus, 1823. 

Oentry, sh. the fairies. 

Gentry bnaheSy ' Mry thorns/ &c. They are sacred to the ' good 
people,* and are therefore let alone. 

Ctet^ (1) sb, an opprobrious term used in scolding matches. 

(2) V. to be called. ' He gtt» the name of Toal,* «. 0. he is commonly 
called Toal. * His name is Mulgrew, but he geit l^ony.* 

Get out of the sheugh,' get out of the way. 

Get yer heed in yer han\ o. to get a great scolding. 

Get your lines, v. to be dismissed from employment. Same as Get 
the sack and Get the bag. 

Ghost, V, to haunt a person or place for the purpose of importuning 
for money or anything else. 

Ghoater, ah. one who follows another person or hangs about for the 
purpose of asking for something. 

Giants' (Jraves, #5. cromlechs and kistvaens. 

Gih, ^. a hook on the end of a peculiar paUem of jard-etick. 

Gif^ if. * I certainly will fight gif your honour bids me.' 

Giff-gaf^ mutual giving and taking. ' Oiff^gaff mak's guid freens.' 

Gig-ma-gog's Grave, bK a kistvaen between Coleraine and Bush- 
mills, Go. of Antrim. 

Gil&eroy. * I wouldn't give it to you if you were as big as Oilderoy,' 
a defiance. G. was a celebrated outlaw. 

OQlaroo trout, sb. a large lake trout, commonly said to have a 
gizzard like that of a fowL 

GiUets, ab, narrow channels among rocks. 

Qilpins, sb, the fry of the coal-fish, Merlaiigua Carbanariw. 

Oinkin, sb, a fish. Harris ^1744) says it is "a delicate small fish, 
spotted and shaped somethmg like a trout It is called here a ginh'vy 
in the rivers of the G. Gktlway a streamer, in some parts a graveling, 
and in the G. Kilkenny a gilloge." 

Ginling, v. catching fish under stones with the hands. 

Girn, (I) sb. a noose. The noose which is made with a halter and put 
in a norse's mouth is called a girn. * Pit a girn in his mooth.' 

(2) V. to snare trout, &c., with a noose. 

(3) V. to cry. * Stop that giming.* 


' Oimy go gabby the eat's oousiny' said to a child that cries fre- 
quently without much cause. 

Olaildt, adj, thonghtless ; giddy. 

OlaikSy sh, a lever attached to a chum-staff, by use of which the 
churning is less laborious. 

Olam, sh, a sadden snatch. < I made a glam at it.* 

Olar, Olanr, sh. slimy mud. 

Olaahan, sK the coal fish, Merlangus earhonarius. Called also 
Blockaa and Orey Lord. 

Oled, sb. a kite (bird). 

Oleed o' sense, sb. a spark or grain of sense. 

Olimin', v. looking out of the comer of one's eye. 

Olipe, sb, an uncouth fellow. 

(Uower, V, to stare or look. 

Qo, or Gang, of water. A go of water is two pails, t. e. as much 
as a person can carry at one time from the well. 

Ooak, Oonk, sb. a cuckoo. 

' The bat, the bee, the butterflee, the cuckoo, and the gowk^ 
JThe heather bleat, the mire snipe, hoo many birds is that ? * 

Answer Twa. Another form : 

' The cuckoo and the gouk, 
The lavrock and the lark. 
The heather bleat^ the mire snipe, 
How many birds is that P ' Three. 

Goat * It would blow the homs off a goat : * said of a great storm. 

Ood speed. ' The back of God ^peed,' any very solitary and unfre- 
quented place. 

Ood's truth, the truth. 

Ooing on a stick, v. walking by the help of a stick. 

Gold Head, sh, the pochard or red-headed widgeon. Harris, Oo. 
Down, 1744. 

Goldspring, Oooldspring, sh, a goldfinch. 

(Jolly, sh, a ball or block of wood used in the game of 'shinney.* 
Cfidled also a Nag. 

Gomeril, sh. a fool. 

Oomus, sh, a stupid person or blockhead. 

Good. ' He's no good^* L e. he is of no use or of no account. 

Good forder, sb. a salutation to a ploughman or labourer, meaning 
* May you get on well.' 


Gk>od lock, sb, a large quaotity. * Ah, that's nuthin' ; gi'e us a good 

Oooldspring^, sb. the goldfinch. 

Oooae seam, ab. goose grease. 

CK>ppen, Ooapen, sb. the full of both hands. < She gave the poor 
body a goppen & meal.' 

CK>r1>, sb. a greedy person. In Belfast the boys of any one achool 
called the boys of another gorhs. 

CK>rb-6eL Same as Cnlloch, q. r. 

Gtorgy-mill-tree, sb. a willow. 

Cfonoon, sb, a young lad. 

CK>8pel greedy, fond of going to church. 

Ooving about, or Qoving roimd, v, staring about in a stupid way. 

Ckiwk storm. On the N.£. coast of Co. Antrim, ** the peasantry 
look forward with the greatest interest every spring for what they call 
the gowk (cuckoo) gtorm, that takes place about the end of April or 
the beginning of May, when the note of this bird is heard. This 
storm, which is from the east, casts on the beach vast quantities of 
sea- wrack, which is used as manure for their potatoes." — Thompson's 
Nat. Hist, of Ireland, 

Ckiwl, V. to howl ; to cry in a howling way. 

Oowler, sh. a dog, /. e, a howler. 

Qo'WpisiySh, the painful beating or throbbing in a suppurating finger. 

Ora, liking for ; affection. ' I had no gi*a for it.' 

Graden, sb. a coarse kind of oat-meal. Obsolete. 

Oraith, sb. hoi-se harness. 

Oranny, sb. The granny is a small sheaf composed of the last 
remaining growing stalks of com on a farm at harvest. The stalks 
are plaited together, and are cut down by the reapers throwing their 
reaping-hooks at it from a little distance. It is then carried home in 
triumph, and the person who has cut it down puts it round the neck 
of the oldest woman of the farmer's family. It is sometimes hung 
up against the ' chimney brace,' where it remains till next harvest, 
when it gives place to the new granny. Also called the Chum and 

Oranny grills, sb. head vermin. 

Qranny's needle, sb. a hairy caterpillar; a dragon-fly. Same as 
Delias needle. 

Oranl, sb, a sea-fish resombling a young salmon. Harbis (1744). 
A half-grown fellow. 


Oraving^ bowl, sb. a gratuity paid to ship carpenteis when thej liave 
completed the repair of a yewel, on bringing her out of the graTing 

Oreat, adj. intimate; confidential. 'As great as inkle weavers,* 

Greatly fiuled, adj\ much impaired in health. 

Oreat shakes, adj. much consequence. * He's no great shakes ' — 
he*8 not of much consequence. 

Oreeshaw, Oroshaw, sb, glowing ashes ; embers. 

Oreet^ v, to weep. 

Oregt^b, sb, a fish, the ballan wrasse. Same as Bayin, q. v. 

Grew, (l) sb, & greyhound. 

(2) ah, a tremor. 

(3) V. to shudder. * The chile grewed at its medicine.' 

Orewsome, adj, frightful ; anything that makes one shudder. 

Orey, sb. the grey linnet. 

Grin (corruption of grain), a small quantity. ' Gi'e us a wee grtn o' 
6thix)e.' * A'U no gi' e ye a taste.' 

Gripe, sb. a ditch. 

Grogan, sb. a kind of fairy about two feet high and very strong. He 
helps the feirmers in harvesting, threshing, ftc, but te^es offraice if 
any recompense be offered him. 

Groof, sb. the front of the body. ' We found him lyin' on his grao/,' 

Group, sb. a drain in a cow-house behind the cows. 

Grubs, sb. juvenile thieves of the street Arab kind, who run away 
with the tops or marbles of school-boys. 

Grummel, sb. a backing of clay put round the outside of the brick 
lining of a weU. 

Gmmmles, sb. grounds ; sediment 

Grumpy, adj. disagreeable in manner. 

Grunt, sb. a fish, the perch. 

Grup, (1) sb, a grasp. 

(2) V. to g^rasp or grip. * Eels is gy anMll to grupj* 

(3) V. to catch ; to overtake. ' She's gruppin^ on us : ' said of one 
boat gaining on another. 

Gudge, sb. a short, thick, fat person. ' He's just a gudge of a man.', 

Guldher, (1) sb. a loud, sudden shout, caused by anger or surprise. 
< I gave a guldher at him, and he ran away.' 

(2) V. to shout loudly. 


Onllet hole, ab, a deep bole in a sand or mud bank dangerous to 

Ckilley, sb, a butcher's knife ; and, in derision, a butcher's boy. 

CKiIlion hole, sh, a muddy hole ; a cesspool 

GhnUions, sh. mud. Same as Gutters. 

Onmph, sb, a stupid person. 

Omnption, adj. quickness of understanding ; common-sense ; tact. 

Onn. ' It*8 like the man's gun, that wanted a new lock, stock, and 
barrel, some repairs, and a ram-rod : ' said of anything that is quite 
-worn out. 

Omiked, adj\ taken aback ; disappointed. ' Greatly gunJced,' 'sorely 
ffunlud,^ or ' quarely gunked* are common ways in which this word is 
used. Same as Be-g^uiked. 

Chuiner, sb, a workman who repairs fire-arms ; a gun-smith. 

Ourly, adj. surly ; cross. 

Out, sb. a narrow navigable channel among sand-banks or rocks. 

Gutters, sb, mud. ' The gutthers was dhreepln' aff him,' i, e, off a 

Quzzle, V, to take by the throat ; to choke a person. 

Oy, or Gai, adv. very. * It's gy an' hot the day.' 

€lyly, adv. very well ; in good health. * How are you!* * OylyJ 

Haekit hands, sb. pL hands chapped from exposure to cold 

Haekle berry, sh. a growth on a horse's leg. Same as Angle-berry. 

Haddin, sb. a holding or ' tak ' (take) of land. 

Haddin, sb. the wall in a cottage which faces the door, and in which 
is the triangular or other shaped * spy-hole.' Same as Hollan. 

Haen, v. had. ' I should ha' haen them things home in the cart' 

Haffets, sb. locks of hair growing at the temples. 

Haft, r. to plug the teats of milch cows when they are brought to 
market, so that the udder becomes very full of milk, or to leave them 
xmmilked for the same purpose. 

Hag, V. to cut (HT chop ; to disfigure or spoil by cutting. ' I hogged 
a wheen o' sticks.' 

Haggle, V. to wrangle over a bargain. 

Hag-yard, sb. a stack-yard. 

Hail, sb. shot. * Sparrow Jiail ' = fine shot. * The whole charge of 
hatl went into his back.' 


Ham, V, to save ; to economise. Also to save or spare oneself. ' Ye 
?iained yeneV the day.' 

Hair. ' No a hair feared/ not a bit afraid. 
Halt, anything. ' Deil a halt ' = nothing at all. 

Haiverel, (1) sb. a fellow half a fool. 

(2) ody. giddy ; foolish. 
Half away, adj. mad. 
Half natural, eh, a fool. 
Half one, Hef yiiiy sh, a half-glass of whiskey. 
Half-pieoe crook, sb. the ordinary deep-shaped dairy crock. 
Hallion, nh, a coarse, idle, worthless fellow. 
Hamet, Hems, sb, the iron or wooden parts of a cart-horse's collar. 

Hammer, block, and Bible, a boys' game. Each of the three 
objects is represented by a boy. 

Han*. * It*8 doon the hill, an' wi' the ban' : ' said of a thing that is 
easily done. See Wi' the han'. 

Hanch, sb. a voracious snap. * The dog made a Jianch at me.* 

Hand, (1) sb, a ham made from the fore-leg of a pig. 

(2) $h. something spoiled, or broken, or dirtied; much the samA 
as Sore hand, q. v. * If you let the chile get the book he'll make a 
hand of it' 

(3) To ' take a hand at ' a person is to make fun of him or mislead 
him. * There, don*t mind him ; he's only takin' a ban' at you.' 

Hand idle, adj, idle. ' They're hand idle for want o* their tools.* 

Handketcher, sb. a handkerchief. 

Handle yer feet, make good use of your legs. 

Hand ma doon, a term for any article of clothing purchased second- 
hand or ready-made, from the fcu;t of its being handed down by the 
stall-keeper for the inspection of the intending purchaser. The term 
is sometmies used in ridicule for any odd-looking garment. ' Whar 
did ye get that auld hand ma dorm of a coat ? ' Compare D.'croche moi 
^a, the slang French term for an old clothes shop. 

Hand over head, one with another, an expression used in selling, 
and meaning the putting an average value on a number of things 
that differ in value. * Now how much a piece will you say for them, 
if I take the whole lot hand over headJ 

Hands. When the left palm itches you are going to receive some 
mone3% when the right itches you are going to pay money. 

Handsaw. ' Your voice is like the sharpening of a handaaWy^ i. c 
very harsh and disagreeable. 


Hand's tun, th. any work. ' He hasn't done a haruTs turn these 
flix months.' 

Sbnd write, sb, hand-writing. * Whose hand unite ia that 1 ' 

Sbng, V. to hang a scythe is to attach it to its ' sned ' (handle) for 

Hanging, r. standing. ' Hangin' on my feet all day.' 

Hanging gale. On some estates it \a customary to allow one gale of 
rent to lie always in arrear. This is called the hanging gaUe, 

Hank, sb, a measure of linen yarn. See under Spangle and Lea. 

Han'le, t?. to hurry ; to exert oneself. 

Hanael, (1) sb, an early meal given to farm-Jabourers before they 
commenced work. 

^2) V. The first purchase made from a dealer hanseU him, t. c. 
brings luck. 

Hansel Honday, the first Monday of the year. 

Han' stay, sb. the handle of a flaiL See Flail. 

Hap, (I) sb. EL covering, as a cloak or a blanket. 

(2) V. to cover; to wrap up in muffling or bed-clothes. 

Hap bS, a call to a horse to turn to the off, or right, side. 

Hape ef dacenoy, much politeness or good manners, 

** Boys, A had a Jiape o' daeencjfy 
When A first come among ye." 

Hard, (!) adj. close-fisted ; penurious. 

(2) a4^ quickly; feist. ' Now run ^ari / ' 

(3) adj. strong: as applied to strong drink, whisky, Ac. 

Hard bowed, adj. said of flax when the seed has formed. 

Hardies, sb. broken stones used as road metaL ' Nappin' hardies^ 
breaking stones. 

Hardy, adj. frosty. 'It's a hardy momin'.' 

Hare, The, sb. the last handful of growing com at harvest Same as 
The Granny, q. v. 

Hare soart, sb. a hare lip. 

Harey, adj. cunning ; knowing (like a hare ?). 

Harl, adj. a rough, coarse, field labourer. 

Ham, V. to harden bread on a griddle. 
Hamishin, sb, harness. 

Harp, d). an Irish shilling (temp, Eliz. and Jas. I.) equal only to 
^. sterling money (Hill's Plantation in UJater). 



Harrow goose, ab, a * large ' bird mentioned by Harris, Hid. Co, 
Down (1744). 

Hash, ab, a lazy, untidy person. 

Easky, (1) cuif. husky; hoarse. 

(2) <idj, harsh : applied to flax, fibre, &c 

Haste. ' The more haste the worse speed, as the tailor said to the 
long thread,* saying. 

Hatterel, (1) ' He's all in a haUerel,' L e. his body is all oyer soies. 

(2) a great many ; a flock. < A hatterel o* weans.' 

Hand, v. to hold. 

Hand awa*, go away. 

Haughle, v. to walk badly ; to hobble. 

Have no mind, to forget. 'I Tuid no mind of it' — I foigot it 
' Have you mind of that, Sam f ' 

Hawthery, Huthery, adj. untidy ; tossed. 

Hay-bird, sb, the willow wren, so called from its using hay largely in 
building its nest. 

Hazelly, adj, * Light hazelly land/ i. e. light, poor soiL 

Haserded, adj, half dried, as linen, &c., spread on grass. 'Them 
clothes are not dry at all ; they're only hazerded,* 

Head, ( 1 ) «&. used for mouth. ' Kot a word out of your JieadJ * Ereiy 
tooth in my head was aching.' * The doctor said he was never to have 
the milk away from his head,^ This of a person who required con- 
stant nourishment. 

(2) ' He was like to ate the head oft me,' t. e, he was very angry 
with me. 

(3) * Hould up your head, there's money bid for you : ' said as 
encouragement to a bsishful person. 

(4) ' Over the head of,' on account o£ ' I got dismissed over the 
head of a letter the master got.' 

(5) * To stand over the head of,' to warrant the quality or quantity 
of anything. 

Head beetler, the foreman beetler in a beetling mill, and hence auy 
foreman or head man over workpeople. 

Head fall. " An infant at its birth is generally forced by the mid- 
wife to swallow spirits, and is immediately afterwards suspended by 
the upper jaw with her fore-finger ; this hist operation is perfoimea 
for the purpose of preventing a disease called head^/aU, Many 
children die when one or two days old of the iriamw naecentium, or 
'jaw-fall,' a spasmodic disease peculiar to tropical climates; here, 
however, it is probably a dislocation caused by the above-mentioned 
barbarous practice." — Mason's Parochial Survey, Parish of Culdaff, 
Co. of Donegal, 1816. 


Heaghmost, adj. highest. 

Hear tell, v. to hear. ' Did ever ye hear tdl o* the like T 

Heart ' I could find in my heart to/ &c., i. e, I have the heart to, 
&G. * I couldn't find in my heart to leave her.* 

Heart fever. 'Measuring for the heart fever ^ a country chann» A 
tape is passed round the chest. 

Heart lasy, adj, very lazy. 

Heart's disease, ab. heart disease. 

Heart siok, adj, wearied ; disgusted. ' I'm heart sick of your goin*s 

Heartaome, adj, cheerful ; lively. 

Heartsomeness, eh. cheerfulness. 

Hear your ears, to hear yourself speak. < There was sich a tar'ble 
noise A couldn't hear ma eara.^ 

Heather bleat, eh. the common snipe. 

Heatherling, eh. the twite or mountain linnet. Called also Heather 

Heavy. ' He's very heavy on the strawberries,' i. e. he eats a great 
many. A heavy drinker. 

Heavy-footed, adj. pregnant. 

Heavy handful, eh. a weighty charge. * She has a heavy handful : * 
said of a widow who is left with a large feunily. 

Hech, faith. ' Hecfi man, but ye're dreigh o' drawin',' i. e, faith 
man, but you have been slow in coming to call. Same as Heth. 

Heddle, eK part of a loom. 

Heeler, eh. a sharp, prying, managing woman. 

Heel in, v. to plant young trees in a temporary way, to keep them 
safe till it is convenient to plant them permanently. They are placed 
in a slanting position. 

Heel of a loaf, the last bit of a loaf. 

Heel of the hand, the part of the hand nearest the wrist. 

Heels foremost, dead. ' Kever ! till A'm taken lieele foremost.^ 

Heir, v. To heir a person is to inherit his property. 

Heir skip, eh. inheritance. ' He got it by heir ekip.* 

Hen. * Like a hen on a hot griddle,' a comparison for a very restless 

Hen fish, eh. the poor or power cod, Morrhua minuta^ 

Bern oran, Hem orane, eK the heron. 

Herring hog, eh. the bottle-nosed whale. 

E 2 


Het, V. heated. ' He over het kimscr.* 

Heth, faith. ' Ueth no.* • Heth aye.* ' Hetli an' soul, but you won't.' 
Same as Feth. 

Heugh, sb, a rocky height. ' The Crobbin Heuglia^ precipitous rocks 
on the coast at the east of the Co. of Antrim. 

Higglety-pigglety, in confusion. 

Hi-how, sh. the hedge parsley, AnthrUcus sylvestrie. Of the parts of 
the stem between the joints children make * pluffers' to ' pluff ' haw- 
stones through. Children also make ' scouts, «. f . squirts, of the stem 
of this plant. An instrument for producing a noise is also made. 
Could this sound haye originated the curious name ? A correspondent 
says : *' When we were wee fellows we used to make horns of the 
hi^how" Called also Da-ho, Compare the Soo. hech-Junv. 

Hinoh, (1) sb, the thigh. ' The com was that short a Jinny Wran 
might ha' sat on her hincJies, an' picked the top pickle off.' 

(2) V, to throw stones by bringing the hand across the thigh. 
Hingin' lock, «&. a padlock. 
Hingit, acy, drooping : applied to flowers or plants. 

Hintin, Hint, eh. the furrow in a ploughed field between the ridges. 

Hippo, sb. ipecacuanha. 

Hip-roofed house, a house the roof of which has no gables. 

Eirple, v, to walk lame. 

Hisself^ himself. 

Hitoh, V. to run. 

Hives, sb, red, itchy, raised spots on the skin. 

Hise, Hoise, v. to hoist. 

Hoag, Hogo, sb. a strong smelL 

Hock, Hawk, Hough, v, to throw stones under the thigh. 

Hoges. * The hoges,* a boys' game played with * peeries * (peg-tops). 
The victor is entitled to give a certain number of blows with the 
spike of his peerie to the wood part of his opponent's. 

Hog^^t, Hoggart, sb, a dry measure consisting of ten bushels. (I 
beheve obsolete.) 

Hoke, V. to hollow-out anything, such as a toy boat. A dog hokes 
out the earth from a rabbit hole. 

Hokey Oh ! an exclamation. 

Hole and taw* a game of marbles. 

Holed, V, worn into holes, or suddenly pierced. 

Hollan, sb. a wall in a cottage. Same as Haddin. See under Spy- 


Holland liawk, ah. This name is applied to two birds — the great 
northern diver and the red-throated diver. Same as Allan hawk. 

Holy show, sb. a ridiculous or absurd exhibition of oneself. ' He 
made a luiHy show of himself.* 

Honey, a term of endearment. 

Hooden, ah. the hinge or joint of a flail. Called also the Kid- 

Hooden aheavet, Hudden ahaveg, ah the sheaves which are placed 
on the top of a ' stook ' of com to turn off the rain. Also called 
Head sheaves. 

Hooky Hyenk, ah, a reaping-hook. 

Horn, {\)v, to gore. 

(2) ' To have got the Tiorn in him,' to be slightly tipsy. 

(3) V, to saw the horns off cattle. 

Homed, adj. Applied to cattle which have had their horns sawed 
oft Same as Skulled or Polled. 

Hbm-eel, ah. the garfish, Belone mdgaria. Called Mackerel scout 
at Strangford Lough, and Bpearling at Portrush. 

Homey, ah, a constable. 

Horn ousel, ah. a bird mentioned by Harris (1744) as found in the 
Co. of Down. 

Horse elf stone, ah, a petrified sea urchin. 

Horse pipes, ah, the great horse-tail, JSquiaefiim maximum. 

Host, ah. a large number. * IVe a whole host of things to do.^ 

Hot. * You were hot in the house : ' said to persons who come out 
in wet or inclement days without apparent reason. 

Hongh, (1) ' It's the last JiougJi in the pot,' i. e. the last of anything', 
particularly anything to eat 

(2) V, to hamstring. 

Honghel, ah. a person who walks in an awkward, loose, clumsy way. 
' He*s a sore houghd of acraithur.' 

Honldin', ah. something held, such as a farm. 

Honlts, holds. * When I first seen them they were in hovlta^ i, e. 
they were grappling with each other. 

HotlP yer ban', stop work for a moment. 

Honl' yer loof, t. e, hold out your hand: an expression used in 
bargaining at markets. 

Honl' yer tongue, be silent. 

Honl* yer whisht, be silent. 

Hoved np, swollen; inflated. 


Hovel, sh, tbe stand on which a com rick is built' 

Hoyel-cap, sh, the broad stone, or piece of iron, laid on the top of 
each pillar of a * hover to prevent rats, &c., from climbing up to the 

How-an'-diyir, however. 

'How are you oomin* ont' how do you do) 

How do yon eome ont how do you do? 

How do yon get yonr health I a common salutation, meaning how 
do you do ? 

Howziyer, however. 

Hnlge, any large unshapely mass. ' A hulge of a horae,^ a loose- 
limbed horse. Same as * a wallop of a horse.' 

Hnm, sb, a morsel of food masticated by a nurse, and then put into 
an infSant's mouth. 

Hnmmin', v. feeding a child with *hums.' 

Hnmplook, sb. a shapeless heap : applied to a badly-built hayricL 

Hungry. * A htmgry eye sees far,' saying. 

Hungry grass, sb. some plant When a person treads on it in the 
fields he is seized with an intolerable hunger and weakness. A crop 
of hungry grass is said to spring up if persons who have dined in the 
fields do not throw some of the fragments away for the fairies. 

Hungry heart, sb. an empty, craving stomach. 

Hungry land, poor, sandy soU. 

Hunker, v. to crouch on the ground with the heels under the hams^ 
Hunkers. ' To sit on one*s hunkers,^ is the same as ^ to hunker.' 
Huntagowk, sb, a person sent on a fool's errand. 

Hunter, sb, A cat that is a good mouser is a hunter. ' Her mother 
was ar right hunter : * said of a kitten. 

Hup, a call to a horse to go on ; a call to a horse to go to the 
right or off side. 

Hup ! hup ! a car-driver's cry to get out of tbe way. 

Hurlbassey, sb, a star which when it is seen near the moon foretells 
stormy weather. — McSxiMlN's Hist Carrick/ergtis^ 

Hurly, (1) sb. a game ; hockey. Same as Shinney or Common. 

(2) sh, a long, low cart with two wheels. 

Hurly burly, sb, a boys' game. In it the following rhyme is used : 

* Hurly-burly y trumpy trace ; 
The cow stands in the market-place ; 
Some goes far, and some goes near, 
Where shall this poor sinner steer ? ' 


Humes, The, sb, a term for the Irish Rebellion of 1798, Called 
also the Turn-out. 

Hnrriflh, Thnrry, a call to pigs. 

Hurry, (1) sb. a row or fight ; a quarrel 

(2) *Take your hurry ^^ or *Take yer hurry in yer han'/ take 
your time. 

Hnrstie, HnrstUng, the sound of rough breathing caused by mucus 
in the air passages. 

Hnih, to driye a flock of fowl, saying at the same time, ' Httsh, hush,^ 
Sometimes Whush, or Wheeshoo. 

Hut, tut ! an exclamation of impatience. 

Hy spy, ah. a boys* game. 

I, adv, yes, 

I-dentf adj. diligent ; hard-working ; attentive. 

Idleaet, ah. off work; idle time. 'The horse was kept idleseC 
* There wasn't much idleaet since you went away.' 

If I know, I don't know. * Deed if I hioio when he's commin'.* 

Ignorant, adj, wanting in manners. 

n-oonvainieut, Onoonyaiment, adj, inconvenient. 

m, adj. difficult ' That stuff's ill to grind.' 

Ill done, wrong. * It was very ill done of you to go there.' 

Hi fiiured, adj. ill-favoured ; ugly. 

ni-like, adj. ugly. 

HI put on, badly or carelessly dressed : said of a person. 

HI to learn, difficult to teach » ' I wasn't iU to learn when I was 

HI Willie, HI wullie, adj. disobliging ; not willing to share any- 
thing with neighbours. 

Immaydiantly, adv. immediately. 

Impedent, adj. impudent. 

Impediment, sh. ' There was a man there who had an impediineni; 
he had lost more than the half of his hand.' 

Vm sure! indeed! really! 

Income, sh. a running sore.* * What makes you lame t ' 'A tuk' it 
first wi' an income in ma knee.' 

In coorse, of course. 

Inieed-an'-doubles, a strong way of saying indeed. 


India buek, ^5. meal or porridge made from Indian com (maixe). 

Induo, (ulv. duo. ' He was indue me a year's wages.' 

Industlions, sb. an industiioas person. ' He was a good indusirioug. 

Infair, sb, the bringing home of a bride. 

Imiocenty sb. a simpleton. 

Inns, sb, inn. ' I put up at the head inns.* * He went to the horse 
show, and stayed at the intis.* 

Innundher, adh\ underneath. Same as Annundher. 

In or over, near about any fixed date or any exact quantity. 

Ins and outs. ' The ins and otiis ' of anything, i. e. all that can be 
known about a thing. 

Insense, v. to explain. * Come here, and Fll insense you into \tJ 

Inshave, sb, a cooper's tool, like a drawing knife, but curved. 

In the inside of an honr, within an hour. 

Intill, prep. into. 

It's lone, alone. * Can the chile go ifs lone f ' 

It took me all 'my time, %, e. I found it very difficult to do ; it 
kept me very busy to do it. 

Ivory, fib. ivy. 

J. This letter is sometimes called ya;r. 

Jabble, sb, a sea with small broken waves. 

Jack in the box, sb. the wild arum. 

Jacks, {\) sb. parts of a loom. 

(2) «6. a children's game played with five white pebbles, called 
' Jack stones.* 

Jag, (1) ^5. a prick. 

(2) V. to prick. ' A wee bit o' spruce fir jagged me in the sight o 
the eye.* 

Jap, Jaup, 0. to splash water. 

Japs, sb. splashes or sparks of water or mud. 

Jaw, (1) V. to talk in an offensive way ; to give saucy answers. 
(2) ^, saucy talk. Same as Back talk» 

Jaw tub, Jaw box, sb, a scullery sink. 

Jay, sb, the missel thrush is called the jay herp. The jay does not 


Jeeiay, cuij, juicy. 
Jennerwerry, January. 
Jig, (1) r. to dandle a baby. 

(2) V. To jig for herrings is to catch herrings by means of an 
apparatus composed of a number of wires with fish-hooks attached. 
Tiie jig ia lowered into the sea where the fish are numerous, and is 
jigged up and down. Any herrings that come in contact with the 
hooks are caught and pulled into the boat. 

Jigger, sb. a sail that projects over the stem of a boat, set on a short 
mast called the 'jigger mast.' 

Jing-bang, sb. a number of people. ' I don't care a pin about the 
whole /i/i^-6angF of them.' 

Jingle, sb. grayel. 

Jinnys. ' A pair oijinnySy a pair of callipers. 

Jirging, sb. creaking, as shoes. 

Job of work, anything to do. ' I hav'n't had a job of ioork this 

Jog, Bb. a push or nudge. 

Joggle, v. to rock ; to be unsteady. 

Joggles, sb, the projecting pieces of wood left at the ends of a 
wooden cistem, or at the end of a window-sash. 

Johnny Hod. ' Johnny Nod is creeping up your back : ' said to 
children who are very sleepy, but who don't wish to go to bed. 

Joiant, sb, a giant. 

Joice, sb. a joist. 

Join, (1) «&. a number of farmers, generally from eight to twelve, who 
join together for the purpose of making cheese. '* Each jot ii has yats, 
tubs, pans, and the like implements, which are kept up at the expence 
of the whole." — Tligt, CanrickferguSf 1823. Also a number of persons 
who join together for the purpose of purchasing drink for a carouse. 

(2) V. to commence work. 

Jotther, sb, a small quantity or dash of a liquid, i. e. ' a jotther o' 

Joult, Jolt, ab, a lump. ' A joult of meat.' 

Joke, V. to stoop the head suddenly, so as to avoid a blow ; to turn 
off quickly when running away ; to hide round a comer. Same as 

Jnkery, sh roguery. 

Juke the beetle, ab, a lump in stirabout, or in ' champ.' 

Jump, V, to make a hole in stone for blasting purposes with a Jumper 
{q. v.). The steel bar is jumped up and down, or is struck with a 
hammer, till the hole has been sunk the required depth. 


Jumper, (1) «&. a kind of maggot in meat. 

(2) $b. A bar of steel or iron used at a qnarry for boring a hole 
in the rock to receive a charge of powder for blasting. 

Jump jftok, sh the breast-bone of a goose made into a child's toy, 
with cobbler* 8 wax, a string, and a stick. 

Jundy, (1) »&. a push. 

(2) V. to jostle ; to gosh. 

Jlirr, sh. a cart-load of flax offered for sale, which it is suspected is 
not the genuine production of the £eirmer, but has been manipulated 
by some unscrupulous dealer, is called a/urr, or SLjurred load. 

Jute of tea, 8h. a small quantity of tea. 

Kail mat, sh. a cabbage stalk. 
Kailyee, sb, a friendly evening visit. 

"gaimin* kaim, sh. an ivory or ' fine-tooth ' comb. 

Kaiyel, Kevel, v, to toss the head, as a horse doea Also applied to 
the same kind of gesture in a person. * Watch the way yon girl 
kaiveU her heed.* 

Xam, sh, a small iron pan used for holding the melted grease from 
which rushlights were made. A mould for casting several small 
bullets at once, or for casting small articles in. 

Kash, ah, a bog road, or causeway of uncut turf. 

Xeokle, sh, a smothered laugh. 

Xeddis, sh, a small quantity of silk, or woollen material, or flax, 
stuffed into au ink-bottle, and then saturated with ink. The pen is 
supplied by coming in contact with the keddis, and if the bottle is 
overset the ink does not spill. 

Xeed, sh, cud. * Chow the keed,* 

Keek, v, to peep. 

Keel, sh, ruddle, a red earthy substance. 

Keel men, sh, the term for a class of illiterate buyers, who used to 
attend the country linen markets. When one of them purchased a 
web of brown hand-loom linen, he marked with a piece of * keel,* on 
the outside lap, some obscure characters, which were to the ktel man 
a record of the cost price, &c. 

Keen, (1) adj, anxious ; eager. * She's keeti to be married.' 

(2) sh, a cry of lamentation over a corpse. 

(3) V, to wail or cry over a corp^. * When I heard the ban-shee 
it was just like an old woman keenying.' 

Xeenk, v. to cough ; to laugh in a convulsive way. 


Keep company, v. to be lovers, 

Keeshion, sb. the hedge parsley. 

Xeeye, sh, a large tuh used in bleach works, &c 

Kell, sK the debris of the skin. 

Kelp, sb. the ash of burnt seaweed, of value for the alkali and iodine 
contained in it. 

Kemp-«tone, sK a large cromlech near Dandonald, Co. of Down. 

Ken, V. to know. 

Kennel, v, to kindle. 

KenspecUed, adj, remarkable looking ; easily recognised. 

Keo8, sb. funny tricks ; jokes ; nonsense. 
KeonB, sb. tiie rootlets of the potato plant. 

Kep, t?. to catch ; to stop ; to head or turn back any animal. 

Kernes, sb, fleecy driving clouds. See Carry of the sky. 

Kettle-bellied, adj, big bellied. 

Ub, sK a kind of spade used in stony or hilly ground where a 
plough cannot work. It is very narrow and thick. 

Kilmaddy, ab, the fishing frog, Lophius piscaiorius. 

Kilt, 17. badly hurt. * The wean's km: 

Kimlin, sb. a small wooden vessel, used for dressing butter in. 

Kindlin', sh, fuel. 

King^ of the mnllet, a fish, the basse, Labrax Lapits, Called also 
White Mullet. 

Kink, sb, a twist in a rope or chain. 

Kink, Keenk, sK a paroxysm of coughing or of laughter. 

Kipple, sh, the coupling of the frame of a roof. 

Kipple butt, sb, that part of the principal of a roof which rests on 
me wall. 

KiBses, sh. small sweetmeats rolled up along with mottoes in a piece 
of coloured paper. 

Kist, sh, a chest. 

Kitchen, (1) sh, anything eaten as a relish with other food. ' Butter 
to butters no kitchen: sayipg. 

(2) V, to save or husband anything carefully^ 

Kitlin, sb. a kitten. 

Kittagh handed, left-handed. Colla Macdonnell (circa 1600) is 
known as Coll Kittagh. 


Kittle, V, to bring forth kittens ; to bring forth yoang alive. * Some 
fishes spawn and others kittle.' 

Kittling, adj. A hare with young is called a ' kittling hare.' 

Knab, v. to snatch up ; to steal. 

Knap, V. to strike repeated blows, as with a hammer. 

Knapsack breed, children bom in the army. 

Knookin' trough, sb. a large mortar made of stone, formerly wed 
for pounding barley in. It held about twenty quarts. The ' mail ' 
used was of wood. 

Knowd, Howd, sb. the grey gurnard, Trivia gurnardus. 

Knowe, ab. a knoll ; a small hill. 

Knowin', sb. a knowing ; just what could be perceived. * We took a 
wee knowing o whisky.' 

Knowledgible, adj. knowing. "Pigs is a dale knowled^lbler nor 
people tiunk." — Ollmikick. 

Knur, sb. a dwarf ; anything small or dwarfish ; any animal that has 
become stunted in his growth. 

Krittity, adj. of uncertain temper ; skittish ; cross ; unreliable. 

Kye, sb. cows. 

Lab, sb. a game of marbles. 

Labour, v. * To labour a field,' to dig it or cultivate it. 

Lachter, sb. a brood of chickens, <&c. ; a quantity. 

Lacken day, sh. a wet day. 

Lag, lag, Leg, leg, the call to geese. 

Laimeter, Lamiter, sb. a lame person. 

Lair, sb. A man or horse is said to lair when he sinks in mud or 
snow, and cannot extricate himself. 

Laivins, sb. the refuse. 

Lamed to the ground. ' I got a stab of a bayonet in the groin, 
which has lamed me to the ground.' 

Lament'able, adj. unplea.sant ; disagreeable. * It*s a most lamenf- 
able wet day.* * The smell of the fish was most lamenfable,^ 

Lammas floods, sb. heavy rains which are expected about the first of 

Land, sb. cultivated land or pasture, as Apposed to a road. ' Conic 
on the land,* i. e. come ofp the road into the fields. 

Landed, v. arrived ; placed. * I landed off the car at six o'clock.' 
' I gave him won skite, an' landed him into the middle of a whin- 


Langle^ (1) sh, A 'sheep's langle' is a short piece of any kind of 
rope, with a slip knot at each end. The loops are passed oyer the 
fore and hind leg of a sheep. The animal is thus langUdy and cannot 
go oyer fences. Hence the saying, * He ^oes out of the langUy applied 
to a person who goes on the spree occasionally. 

(2) V. to tie the hind foot and the fore foot of an animal together, 
to prevent it straying &r. 

Lap, or Lapcook, ah. a small roll of grass cut for hay. Same as a 
Cole of bay. 

Lap, V. to roll up grass. ^ They lap it from the swathe.' 

Lapped up, wrapped up. 

Laptthery «&. a lobster. 

Lark heeled, eh, haying long heels : a term of derisien. 

Lasli, (1) eh, a Large quantity. ' The master bought a lodh o* things 
from tnem.' 

(2) V. to throw an3rthing down violently. 

Lanhins, sh. plenty. ' Lashins and layins,' more than plenty. 

Laah wheat, v. to beat the grains of wheat out of the ears. 

Last day. * I wouldn't have lifted it, not if it had lay till the last 
day in the afternoon/ f . e. I would neyer have taken it. 

Latter end, sb, the end. * The latter end of the week.' 

Laugh. * Laugh with the wrong side of your mouth ' = to cry. 

Laughin' sport, sb, sport ; fun. < You'll find it no laughin! sport' 
t. e. it will turn out more serious than you expect 

Lave, {\) sh. the remainder ; the rest. ' Ye may haye the lave o't.' 

(2) v. to lift or throw water out of a pool by means of anything, 
such as a bucket or scoop. 

Layerook, sb. a lark ; also a hare. 

Law, V, ' To take the law ' of a person is to go to law with him. 

Laws. * By the laws,^ a mild oath. 

Lay a finger on, to touch, in the way of hurting or harming. 
Lay down yer bone, v. to work hard or earnestly. 
Lay out, v. to arrange ; to plan. * I laid myself out to do it.' 
Lasy led, sh. a broad ridge of potatoes. 

Le% sh. a measure of linen yam. Same as Cut. The ' lea ' or ' cut ' 
contains 300 yards, a 'hai^' contains 12 *cuts,' and a 'bundle' of 
yam 200 * cuts.' 

Leagh, v. low. 

Leagh the brae, at the foot of the hill. 


Leal, adj. loyal ; true ; faithful. 

Leap the bollock, a boys' game. Same as Leap-firog. 

Leasing, ah, a twisted thiead of cotton or flax used for tying the 
' cuts * of linen yam. 

Leaaing, v. putting in order or disentangling anything, such as 
thread, that has been tossed or tangled. 

Leather winged bat» a bat. 

Leave over ! v. stop ! desist ! 

Lees. ' I haVn't got the lees of you/ t. e. I don't comprehend you. 

Lemon sole, sh. the lemon dab, Platena microcephala. 

Lend, sh, a loan. ' Give me the lend of it.' 

Lerk, Lurk, 8h. a wrinkle or fold. * The child's that fat I can't get 
dryin* all his {erA».* 

Lerked, adj, wrinkled. ^ The uppers of your boots is all lerked.* 

Let, V, to hinder ; to interfere with. A boy's term in ball-pkying 
&c. ' Don't lei the game.* 

Let alone, besides. ' I fell in and got hurt, let alone bein' all wet* 

Let on, to show knowledge of a thing. ' I never let on I seen him.' 
• Don't let o«,' t. f. don't tell. 

Libel, eh a label. 

Libbock, 8h, a small, loose piece of something. 

Lick, {\)8h. a blow. 

(2) v. to beat. 

Licking, «&. a beating. 

Lieye, lief. 

Lift, {Vish. the bend in the shaft or blade of a spade. ' I would like 
a spade with more lifty* t. e. with the shaft more bent. 

(2) V. to collect, as tickets, subscriptions, &c. 

(3) V. * Lift it and lay it like the lugs of a laverock:* applied 
when persons make frequent chfuiges, such as moving things about 
from one place to another. 

(4) * Come here to I lift you : ' said in derision or in fun to a person 
who has fallen down. 

(5) V. to start a funeral. * What time do they lift f * 

Lift yer han', v, to strike. ' Wud ye lift yer han* to a woman ?' 

tiig, V, to lie : a boy's term in playing marbles. * Let him Zt^,' i. e. 
let his marble lie. 

Light, adj, ^Old lights* 'new light* the terms for two sects of 
Presbyterians. The former subscribe the Westminster Confession, the 
latter are principally Unitarians. 



' Light, light, low, 
The butterfly low.' 

Sung by ohildren who are chaamg butterflies. 

Like. 'What like is her i. e. what is he like? 

Like is applied to words thus : ' I'm all tremblin' like,^ < He was all 
frighten^ like.' * He seems careless like.^ * Summer like,* 

Like I don't know wkat^ a vague but common comparison. 

Lilt, t7. to sing or hum an air. 

Limber, culj. flexible ; light ; &ail. 

Limner, sb. a portrait painter : hence sometimes applied to a photo- 

Limpy coley, sb, a boys' game. 

Line, (1) sb. dressed flax. 

(2) sb. a road. The new roads are so called. 

lease, sb. a lease granted under the provisions of the ' linen 
Act.' ^ It was for lives, renewable, and provided for the keeping of a 
certain number of looms on the £Arm. 

Lines, (1) When a dispensary doctor is engaged making calls in his 
disbrict he is said to be out on lines, i. e. when he has received a line 
or order. 

(2) $h. a discharge given to a worker or servant. 

yam, sb. yam made from flax that lias been dressed and sorted, 
so t^t the fibres are long and run in one direction. 

Ling, sb. Heather, Erica cinerea, is especially called lijig, 

Linge, v. to beat ; to chastise ; to lunge. 

Linging, sb. a beating. 

Lingo (pL Lingoes), sb. a long, thin weight of wire used in Jacquard 

Linty sb. flax. 

Lint-bole, sb. a pit or dam for steeping flax. 

Lint-wbite, sb. a linnet. 

Lint-wbite, acy. very white. 

Linty, sb, a linnet. 

Lip, sb. ' Give us none of your Up,* i. e. impudent talk. Same as 

Lippen, v. to trust ; to depend on. ' I wouldn't lippen her to carry 

Lisk, sb. the groin. 


Lithf, sb. the layers of a alatj rook; the layers of an onion; the 
divisions of an orange« 

Lithy, adj. flaky ; in layers. 

Loaden, v. to load. ' I was told to loaden up with flax.' 

Loadened, adj. loaded. 

Load of ooul*, a heavy cold. Same as Morth o' ooul. 

Loaning, sh, a country lane. 

Lock, sh. a quantity. ' A big lock,^ ' A wee loek,^ 

Lockjaw, v. to take lockjaw. ' He lockjawed,^ 

Lock spit, V. to mark off the boundaries of land by cutting a slight 

Lod^d, adj. Growing com that has been laid by the wind and 
rain is scud to be lodged, 

Loghter, Lnghter, sh. a handful of growing com, or crop of any 
kind cut with a reaping-hook. 

Loke smell, eh. a nasty, sickening smell. 

Long. ' The long eleventh of June,' a saying. 

Long last, the very last. ' Well, at long last he did it' 

Long line, sh. a fishing line with several hundred hooks. Also 
called a Bulter. ^ 

Longsome, adj. tedious ; slow. 

Looby, sh. a greats loose, indolent fellow. 

Loof, sh. the open hand. ' They're scuddin' loofs an' buyin',' t. ^ 
they are striking hands over their bargains. 

Look, V. to search. ' Away an' look the child's head.' 

Loose, adj. unoccupied. 'I want to see the mistress when she's 

Loot your broos, to look sulky. 

Loss, V. to lose. 

Lossin' (t. e. losing), v, going to the bad. ' Them childre's lossirC for 
the want o' somebuddy t' see afther them.' 

Lost, adj. cold ; wet ; perished. ^ Come in, chile, out o' the cowl* ; 
yer losV * Och, ye craythur, yell be lost if ye go out the day.' 

Loughry men, a race of small hairy people living in the woods. It 
is said that * they would get your gold.' They are very strong. 

Lonin, adj. hot. * My ears are louin.'' 
Lonn, sh. a boy ; a low, idle fellow. 

Loup, V. to jump. 

Louse, ' They wad skin a louse : ' said of very grasping people. 


Low, sh, a flame. 

Low come off, sh. a low expression ; an offensive remark. ' They 
toul* me to ate ma wee dog, an' A sayd to them, it's a low come off in 
ya to say the like o* thai' 

Iiown day, a calm day. 

' Lown yer crack,' speak lower. 

Iiowze, V. to loosen. 

IfOzenger, ah. a lozenge. 

Luck. ' It was more by good Ituk than good guiding/ saying. 

Laeky, adj. full ; something over in count or measure. 

Lacky half, rather more than hal£ 

Lucky stones, sh, small pebbles of hard, white limestone, which 
have been perforated by a sea-worm. They are found on the beach, 
and when the perforations extend in such a way that a string could 
be passed through the stone, and it could thus be suspended round 
tiie neck, it is c^ed a lucky stone. 

Lue warm, luke warm. 

Lug, (1) «&. the lob-worm, Arenicola piscaiorum, a large sea-worm used 
for beat. 
(2) sh. the ear ; the ear at the side of a can or bucket. 

Lugg^e, sh. a boys' game. In this game the boys lead each other 
about by the * lugs,' i, e. ears, hence the name. 

Lump, (1) 8h. anything big. ^ A lump of a girl.' 

(2) sh. a quantity. * A lump of people.' 

Lump it ' If you don't like it you can lump ity i. e. you must put 
up with it. 

Luppeu shiunen, ah. a started sinew. 

Lurgan, Lurg, Lurk, sh. a whitish, very active sea-worm used for 

Lusty, adj. healthy looking. 

Lying, adj. sick. ' He's lying these two months.' 

Lying heads and thraws, lying in different directions. 

Lyfhe, (1) sh. a fish, the pollack, Merlangus pollacMus. 

(2) V. to thicken broth with flour or meal. 
Lything, (1) sh, flour or meal put into broth to thicken it. 

(2) V. fishing for LytJie. 

Machine, sh. anj jdnd of conveyance, such as a carriage, car, &c. 

Mackerel - cock, sh, a sea bird, the Manx shearwater, Puffinus 



Maokerdl-Mout, «6. the gar fisb. Same as Hom-eeL 

Had, adj. angry. 

Mad angry, very angry ; raging. 

Magnify, v. to signify. ' That hurt won't magnify^ 

Mailie, Mailie, a call to a pet sheep. 

Mails, sb. pi. small perforated scales made of copper or other metal 
used in Jacquard weaving. 

Maist feck, sK the greater part. 

Make, v. to attempt ; to offer. ' He made to strike me.' 

Make moan, v. to pity. ' When youVe tooth ache they make no 
moan for you.' 

Make off, v, to nm away. 

Make up, v, to accost a person with a view of making acquaintancew 
To be attentive to, or to make love to a person. 

Man. ' You'll be a man before your mother/ said to comfort a Utile 
boy in trouble. 

Man alive I an impatient mode of address. 

Man-big, adj, full grown ; the size of a man. 

Mankeeper, Manoreeper, ^5. a water newt, Ldseotriton pundaJtus. It 
is said that mankeepera will creep down the throat of a person who 
feills asleep near any water where they are. 

Manner, v. to prepare. ' It's hard to manner that ground.' * The 
land will be well mannered by the frost' Flax is said to be well- 
manneredj or the reverse, according to its having been carefully 
treated, or the reverse, in the various processes of preparation. Flax 
is passed through rollers to manner it for the scutoners. 

Man or mortal, any one. ' Now don't tell this to man or mortal,' 

Mansworn, adj, peijured. 

Manx puffin, eb. the Manx shearwater, Puffintis anglorum (Habbis, 


Many's the time, many a time. 

Map, ah, a mop. 

March, (1) sK a boundary of land. 

(2) V, to border on ; to be contiguous to. ' This is where my land 
marchea with his.' 

March dike, sh, the dike (fence) between adjoining fiarms or town- 

Margy more, eh, the big market, %, e. the market before Christmas. 

Marksman, sb, a man who cannot write his name, and has thereforB 
to make his mark. 


Xark the groimd, put foot to the ground. < He could hardly mark 
the ground : * said of a horse that was yery lame. 

Karredy v, hindered ; interfered with. 

Harried upon. Married on, v, married to. ' She was married upon 
a man they call McKee.' 

Harrow, v. to lend men or horses for laT>oiir to a neighbour, and to 
receiye a aiTnilar loan in return when needed. Same as To neighbour. 

Karvel, sh, a marble. 

Kaaheroon, sb. a mushroom. 

Kashy-coms, Kaah-coms, sh, roots of ' silyer-weed ' {PotentUla 
anterijia). The root is roasted and eaten. It tastes much like a 
parsnip (Tate's Flora Bd/cutienns), 

Kaaa. * If ye missed mass ye hut the gatherin'/ t. e, you nearly did 

Master^ sir ; a term of address. * Are you wanting any bog-wood 
the day, master f ' 

Hate, sb. meat ; t. e. food of any kind. * The horse dos'nt take his 
mate now at alL* 

Haterial, adj. good ; excellent. ' A material cow.' 

Hang, 17. to walk away. ^Maug off with you.' 

Hannder, v. to talk in a wandering way. 

Haunna, Hannnae, t;. must not. 

Havis {pron. maivis), sb, a thrush. ' You can sing like a mavis/ a 
saying, generally used satirically. 

Hay be that! Oh ! indeed ! 

Hay flower, sb. the marsh marigold, CaltJux paiusiris. 

Hay I never stir, an appeal, used to give force to any statement. 

Hay jack, sb. the whimbrel. It is erroneously believed to be the 
young of the curlew. 

Hay shell, sb. the bone of a cuttle fish, Sepia officinalis. 

Hays. * Between the two Mays/ between the 1st and 12th of May. 

Heal ark, sb. a large chest or bin for holding a store of meaL 

Heal's meat, sb. a meal ; the food taken at one meaL 

Healy-cmsby, sb. oatmeal, fried in dripping. Same as Dnrgan. 

Healy-mouthed, adj. shy ; backward in asking ; not speaking out 
plamly when something disagreeable has to be said. 

Hean. ' As inean as get out,' very mean. 

Heans. * Kot by no manner of means/ i. e. by no means. 

p 2 


Meat and Mense, food, and manners or politeness. '^ Ye shod still 
ax a Men* t' ta^e a bit o' whatiwer's goin', if he diz, why A wish 
him his health, an' much good may it do him ; if not ye hae yer meat 
and mense both." — OLLiniacK. 

Mecldn*. ' MecMrC a chimley o' yer mooth/ smoking. 

Meddle, v, to hurt or annoy. ' The dog won't meddle yoo.' 

Meg, sK a boy's term for a bad old ' peerie,' i, e, peg-top. 

Meg-many-feet, sb, a centipede. 

Meer, ah, a mare. ' The white meer come oot o' some ermy/ t . e. the 
white mare had been in a cavalry regiment. 

Meerin, Mearing, sb, a land boundary. 

Melder, sb, the quantity of meal ground at one time for a person ; a 
large yague quantity. * Fye eaten a melder ^ i, e, I've eaten too mnch. 

Mell whons, v, to bruise whins (furze) with a mallet or ' beetle/ for 
cattle feeding. 

Melt, (1) sb, the milt, or soft roe of a fisL 

(2) slang, sb, the tongue. * Keep in your meUJ 

(3) ' I'll knock the melt out of you,' a threat 

Ment, V, mended. 

Meont, sb, a slight sound. ' There wasn't a meotd out o* the childre.' 
' Don't let a meaui out o* you.' 

Messen, sb, a contemptuous term for a little person of either sex. 

Mich, V. to play truant. 

Mid kipple, sb. part of a flail. Same as Hooden. 

Midden, sb, a manure heap, or pit. 

Midge's knee-bnokle, sb, a very small article. 

Miles, Mildfl, sb, a wild plant used as spinach, Chenopodium album. 

Miller's lift, sb. an upward thrust with the point of a crowbar, to 
move a heavy object forwards. 

Miller^s thumb, sb, two small sea fishes are so called, Cottue scorpius^ 
and C, bulhali$. 

Mill eye. ^Hot from the mill eye^ a comparison for something 
freshly made. 

Mim, Mimsey, adj, prim; prudish. 

Mind, (1) V. to remind. 'Now mind me of that to-morrow.' 

(2) V, to observe. * See 1 d'ye miiid the way she's waUdn'.^ 

(3) V. to remember. * I mind the time,' a common beginning to 
a story. *I don't mind much about my father being- kuled' = I 
don't remember much, &c. 


(4) sb. recollection. * I hadn't a bit mind of it.' 

(5) ' I was a mind to lia' done it,' t. e. I intended to do it. 

(6) * I had no fnind,' i, e. I forgot. 

ICiity V. to beat ; to aim a blow at ; to hit with a stone ; to hurt* 
' Mint the gowler/ t. e. hit the dog with a stone or anything. 

MiBdonbt, v. to doubt ; to suspect. '' He misdoubted there wud be 
blood dhra wed somewhere or another." — Ommuxick. 

ICsert, sb, a miser. 

Kiaertly, ad. miserly. 

Kfllippeiiy 17. to neglect. 

Mifllippeiied, adj, neglected ; not cared for. * A mislippened child.' 

ICfllist, V. to molest. 

Xiamayy t?. to annoy ; to disturb. 

XiMeSy t7. 'There's not much misses you/ i.e. you notice every 
thing that goes on.' 

Xifs yer fiit, to make a false step ; to stumble. 

Kirtress, sb. wife. ^His mistress opened the door to me/ i,e. 
his wife. 

Xizsle, (1) 9&. a drizzle. 

(2) v. to drizzle ; to run away ; to disappear. 

Moan, V. to pity. 

Moan yon a hair, pity you in the least. 

Moat^ d). an earthen mound, or tumulus. 

Mockin* 's oatchin*, i. e. mocking is catching. A warning not to 
mock or laugh at a person who is su^ering from anything unpleasant, 
lest the same misfortune may happen to one-self It is said particu- 
larly to persons who are mimickmg the personal defects of others. 

Moiled, adj. bare, applied to a bare-looking building. 

Moily, Moilya, sb. a hornless cow. 

Molly, adj. hornless. 

Molly gowan, sb. the fishing frog, Lophius piscatorius, 

Molrooken, sb. the great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus. 

Money. ' Money 's roun', an' it goes roun',' saying. 

Monkey flower, sb. mimulus. 

Mools, sb. broken chilblains. 

Mooly heels, sb. heels affected with ' mools.' 

Moofh, sb. mouth. ' Ma heart was in ma mooth^^ i. e. I was very much 


Mootther, sh. the proportion of meal or seeds that the millei takes 
as his payment for grinding, 

Mop6, sb. a mop. 

Here betoken. Besides, generally used when adding a cireamstaaoe 
to proye the correctness of a statement. 

More holy nor godly, applied to a tattered garment. 

Kore red nebs than midges : said in very cold weather. 

More than middling, very superior. ^B^a mother was mor^ than 

Mom's morra, eh, the day after to-morrow. 

Morra. * The morra come niver ' = never. 

Morrian, sh, a fish, the ballan wrasse. Same as Bayin. 

Morth o' cowl, eb. a very heavy cold. 

Mortial, or Mortal, very, or very great. ' Martial cold.' ' A mortial 

Moss, eh. a peat hog. 

Moss-ban, sb, the edge or boundary of a peat bog. 

Moss-cheeper, sb. the titlark or meadow pippit. 

Mother naked, adj, quite naked. 

Mountain men, ab, pi, *^ That sect of dissenters called ' Covenanters '." 
-iMcSkimin's Carrickfergus, 

Mountainy, adj. mountain. ^ Mountainy people.' ' Mountainy land.' 

Month. * Entry motUk,* L e. entry end ; where an entry opens on a 

Month, (1) 'A motcth on you like a torn pocket,' a comparison. 

(2) ' He niver as much as axed me if A had a mouth on me,' t. e. he 
did not offer me anything to eat or drink. 

(3) * You're a mouth f* an expression of contempt. 
Mowlfl, Mowl, sb. i. e. moulds ; earth. 

Mnokle, adj. much ; big. 

Muddle for potatoes, v, to get them out with the hands, sunepti- 

Mnd fat, adj, very fat. ' The grass here is that good, that in six 
weeks a beast will get mud fat on if 

Mnd-lark, sb, a navvy, working at muddy embankments or exca- 

Mndler, sb, a smaU metal stamper, used in public houses to crciBh 
the lumps of sugar in punch. 


KudyeeSy sb. short tongs. 

Mngy sb, the moath ; a sulky peTson. 

lEjiggj^ (1) sh. a hand-basket made of well twisted straw rope. 
(2) od;. foggy; dose and wet; dark, applied to the weather. 

Kvll, sb. a mess ; something spoiled. 

Kurphiefly potatoes. 

KurTan-roe, sb, a fish, the ballan wrasse. Same as BaviiL 

Kusael picker, sb. a bird, the oyster catcher, Hoematopiis ostralegus. 

Mj day, sb. all my life. ^He's the wee-est man ivir A seen in 
ma day,* 

Ky lone. His lone, &c., ad. alone. 
Ky lord, sb. a hunch-backed man. 
Vy ! an exclamation of surprise. 

Vaethin' ava, sb. nothing at all 

Vag, sb. the wooden ball or ^ knur,* used in the game of ' shinney ' 
(hockey) ; also called a * golley.' 

Vaguer [naiger], sb. a niggardly person. 

VagerlinesB, adj. niggardliness. 

Vaggin, sb. a measure of liquid = quarter of a pint. 

Vaigies, sb. pi. horses. 

Vail, V. to strike with a sure aim. 

Vaila. The little white marks that come and go on the finger-nails are 
. the subject of the following divining rhyme : we begin at the thumb — 
a gift; a friend ; a foe; a loyor; a journey to go. 

Haperty, sb, a vetch, with a fleshy root, Laihyrus macrorhizus. 
C&ildren dig up and eat the little knobs at the roots. 

Vapper, Habber, sb. anything large and good of its kind. 

Vatore, sb. the name for a particular quality in flax, an oiliness, 
softness, or kindliness in working, which is of great value. ' This 
flax is hard and birsely, it has no naiurt.* * Now here's a flax full of 

Hanky, adj. cunning. 

Heaped in, adj. term used when a vessel cannot get out of a harbour 
in consequence of tides or winds causing the water to be shallow. 

Hear, adj. miserly; penurious. 

Hear begone, acy. penurious ; stingy. ' Near begone people disn't 
give the workers mate enough sometimes, an' that's a bumm* shame.' 


Hear by, adv, near at hand. * Do you live near by f ' 

Veardest, adj. nearest 

Hear hand, adv. near; nearly; almost 'I was near han' kilt' 
* Not a shot came near hand us.* * The rope was not near hand long 

Veayghen, eh. a small marine bivalve, about the size of a cockle, 
used for bait 

Veb, sb. the nose ; a bird's bilL 

Veok, V. to catch and shake a person. 

Vedoullion, sh. the wood anemone. Said to be derived from colleen. 
It. for girl (Co. Deny). 

Veedcessity, ab. necessity. 

Veeze, v. to sneeze. 

Veighbonr, ^1) ab. a fellow; a match. ' A'm lookin' for the neighbour 
of ma shai, t. e. I'm looking for the fellow of my shoe. 

(2) v. to give mutual assistance in farming, by lending and borrow- 
ing men and horses. Same as to Harrow. 

Veogli, V. to catchy or grasp a person. 

Veyer oiF his back, never ceasing to advise, or scold, or look after a 

Vew-ans, or Vewance, something new ; a novelty. ' It's neuhans to 
see you down so early.' * Ye'r behavin' yerself for tiew-afw,' ♦. c. j^u 
are oehaving well for a novelty. 

Vew-fiBingled, adj. strange ; new-fashioned ; much taken up with 
some new thing. 

Vezt, adv. near. * Are you going next the quay 1 ' 

Hick and go, sb, a close shave. ' It was just nick and go with him.' 

Vicker, v. to neigh. 

Hick my near, sb, a narrow escape ; a close shave. Same as Hick 
and go. 

Hick of time, sb. the right moment. ' I arrived in the nick of timeJ 

Vieve, sb. the fist, or closed hand. 


* Ntevy, navy, nick nack. 
Which han' will ye tak*. 
The right or the wrans, 
m beguile ye if I can." 

The rhyme is used in a game played with the dosed hands ; in one 
hand of the player is a marble, or any small object ; the other is 
empty. The second player tries to choose the hand that is not empty. 
Same as the old English game of ' Handy-Dandy.' 


Vignay, Vignoy, v. to do what is useless ; to do something, but with 
no good result. 

Hignays, VignoySy sb, pi. useless profitless doings. 

High ban', adv. near ; nearly. 

Hippin'y adj. painful with cold. ' Ma toes is just nijyjyin.* 

Hits, ah. pi. small objects among the hair, supposed to be the eggs of 
verxnin, or young lice. 

Hiver 's a long day, a saying. 

H09 adv. not ' Til no do it.* 

Hoan, adv. none. 

Ho canny, adj. not lucky. 

Ho flty adv. not able. ' I'm no ^^ to draw a herrin' off the brander/ 
t. €. I am in the last stage of weakness. 

Hoggin, sh, a wooden vessel with a handle smaller than a ' piggin.' 
Ponidge and TnilTc used to be eaten out of noggins. 

it, ah. * A noit of a crayture/ an insignificant person. 
Ho odds, no matter. 
Hoole-kneed, adj. knock-kneed. 

Horration, sh. a great noise. ' The dogs are making a great 7UfrratioiL* 

Hot a founded, sh. nothing at all. 

Hot at bimself, adj. mad ; not in health. 

Hot can, v. cannot. ' You'll Tiot can do that.' 

Hote, eh. A cow is said to be * commin' forward to her note ' when 
the time of her calving draws near. ' When is she at her note $ ' i. e. 
when will she calve ? The expression seems to originate in a note 
that is kept of the expected time. *' For sale, a Kerry cow, five years 
old, at her no<e in May." — Belfast Papee, 1875. 

Hot expected, adj. not expected to recover from sickness. 
Hotionate, adj. obstinate ; self-opinionated ; fanciful. 
Hotiflh, V. to notice. 
Hout, sh. nothing. ' I got it for nout.* 

Howd, sh. the grey gurnard. Same as Knowd. 

Hudyan, sh. a bunnian. 

Hnrg, adj. miserly ; stingy. 

Hnrr, sh. a small insignificant thing. 

Hnne tender, sh. a monthly nurse. 


Of ah, ' a round / ' a stupid or sDly fellow ; a softy. 

OberinSy sh. ' Wee oherina^ means trifling work. 

Obledgement, sh. a kindness. 

Oeh-a-nee ! int, an expression of weariness or sorrow. 

Odd or evexL, «5. a boys' game. A boy sbuts up a few small objects, 
such as marbles in one hand, and asks his opponent to guess ia the 
number odd or even. He then either pays or receiyes one, aooording as 
the guess is right or wrong. 

Of, as. ' The same of that,' t. e. the same as thafc. 

OfiU, eh, the refuse parfc of ground wheat. 

Off and on, more or less ; there about. 

Offence. ' Ko offence,* is a rejoinder when a person has said^ ' I beg 
your pardon.' 

Offer, (1) «5. an attempt. 

(2) to attempt. * Don* t offer to do it^' t. e. don't attempt ; don't dara 

Ogenagh, ah, a simpleton. 

Oh then ! int Oh indeed ! 

Old-fashionedy Onl-fashioned, adj, knowing or cunning. 

Old May day, ah, the twelfth of May. 

Old stock, ah, a familiar term in greeting an acquaintance. * Well, 
eld stocky how are ye the day ?' 

Old wife, ah, a fish, the ballan wrasse, Labrua maeulafua. 

On, (1) 2>rep, used for * to.' * Who did it on you ? ' ' Who done it on 
you P ' t. e. who did it to you P There is another idiomatic use of on 
m the expression, ' Don't break it on me,' i, e. don't break that {thing 
of mine.' 

(2) adv, continually ; without stopping. ' They would sit there and 
eat on,* 

(3) adv. ready. * On for sport.' 

(4) is sometimes prefixed to the words to-morrow and yesterday, 
thus — * m do it on to-morrow.' 

Ondaicent, culj. unfair. 

On dying, dying. *They say he's just on dying,* 

One purpose, on purpose. 

Ones, ah, people. 'What's the reason, sir, that Tomson's mas 
always sends them kind o' coals P ' 

Onset, ah, a small cluster of houses : ' McCuUough's onset,* 

Ontorious, adj, notorious. 


On you, on your person; about you. *Have you any money on 
you 9^ 

Open weather, sh. weather in winter that is not frosty. 

Or, adv. till. * It won't he long or well he hack.' 

Orchit, sh, an orchard. 

Ordinary, adj, plain-looking, as a person. 

Or ever, adv. before. * It's twelve or ever you're in hed.' 

Qrtui', V. rejecting ; taking out, as a cow does the good fodder from 
the had. 

Ortins, OartinB, sb, refuse; anything rejected. "Other weemen's 
orUns shan't be Sally's pick." — Flegher. *The mornin*8 oartina is 
the evenin's fodtiber/ saying. It arises from cow-house experience. 

Otker, eacb other. ' If they take out the gun they'll shoot other.' 

Other morrow, sb. the day after to-morrow. 

Onr, adv. over. 

Our ones, Our nns, sb. my own family. * Our ones all goes to 

Ont^by, adj, out of doors ; outside the house. 

Ontlandiflh, adj, foreign, such as ships helonging to foreign countries. 

Ont of the &ce, adv, to do a thing * out of the face ' is to do it right 
through £rom first to last without stopping. 

Out of one's name, by a wrong name. 'He called me out of my 
ruime^ %, e. not hy my own name. 

Out ower, adv. out ; -quite over. 

Out-relation, sb, a distant relative. 

Out-wailins, sb, refuse. 

Over, adj. asleep. * The chile's just over' 

Over all, adv. * That's over all ivir A heerd,' i. e. that surpasses 
aU, &c. 

Over-looked, v. the same as Over-seen, and means having received 
the * hhnk of an evil eye,' 

Overly much, adv. too much. * That meat's overly much done.' 

Owranoe, sb. mastery ; authority ; having command over. 

Ozfher, sb. the armpit. 

" Whether would you rather 
Or rather would you he 
Legs to the oxther 
Or belly to the knee ? " 

Ozther-COgged, v. 'They oxther-cogged you home,' i. e, helped you 
along by holding you up by the arm-pits. 


Padt sb, a path. 

Paddlin* walk, sb, a gait, in which the steps made aie very short. 

Paddock, Poddook, sb, a frog. 

PadroUs, sb. * On his padrolls,' t. e, on his walks or rounds. 

Paidlin*, v. wandering ; walking or ranning with short steps. ' A 
naicUin* coUie/ a wandering do^. A horse &at is standing, and lifts 
his feet in an uneasy way, is said to he paidlin\ 

Pairini, sb. thin fragments of pork pared off the bones, in pork- 
curing stores. 

Palms, 8b. pL small branches of the Spruce fir, also budded twigs of 
the willow. These are supplied on Pahn Sunday to persons attend- 
ing service in the Roman Catholic Churches. 

Pamphrey, eb. a kind of cabbage. 

Pandy, sb, a punishment at school, being a blow on the hand firom 
a cane or ruler. 

Pane, sb. a section of ground in a garden. 

Pangd, V. stuffed full (of food). 

Paps, sb. pi, teats. ' A cow's paps,^ 

Paramondra, sb. a large cylindrical mass of flint, sometimes the 
shape of the hiunan trunk. It is said that this curious word is merely 

S'bberish, coined by a facetious quarryman to puzzle the late Dr. 
uckland, when he was geologizing among the oo. Antrim chalk 

Parflt^ adj. perfect. 

Parge, t;. to plaster the inside of a chimney with mortar. 

Parritch, sb. porridge. 

Parten, sb. the shore crab, Carcinus nKBnas. Also called Butcher. 

Pastre, sb. the pastern of a horse. 

Patch. ^ Not a patch on it,' i. e. not to compare to it. 

Pattheridge, sb. a partridge. 

Pawky, adj. sly ; cunning. 

Pea shaupe, sb. pi pea shells. 

Peaswisp, sb. a small bundle of anything tossed roughly together 
like a wisp of pea straw. * Tour head 's just like a pea^wisp.' 

Peat waight, o?* 'weght, sb. a tray or sieve on which peat was 
carried into the house. 

Peeler, sb. a crab which has cast its shell, and is soft ; used for bait 

Peel garlick, sb. a yellow person : a person dressed shabbily or 


Peely grass, sK barley, with the * hulls ' and ' aims ' remoyed. 

Peen, sh, the cross end of a mechanic's hammer, opposite to the face. 

Pee-pee, the call for pea-f owL 

Peep hawk, sb. the kestreL 

Peerie, sb, a peg-top. 

Peeweet, Peesweep, sb. the lapwing. 

Pegh, s. to pant ; to puff. 

Pelt, sb. the skin of an animal ' Bare pelt,* one's bare skin. 

Penned, v. contracted. A horse sometimes has its knee 'penned in 
the sinews.' 

Penny bird, sb. the little grebe. Also called Dnnk-a-penny. 
Pens, sb. pi. the old twigs in a hedge. 

^ adj. particular ; hard to please. 

PerswadianSy sb. pi. persuasion ; entreaties. ^ Through perswadians 
I done it.' 

Peter Dick, sb. a child's toy made of a half walnut shell, a small 
piece of stick and some thread. When j>layed upon by the fingers in 
a particular way, it makes a ticking noise, and is supposed to say : — 

« Peter Dick, 
Peter Dick, 
Peter Dicks peat stack.* 

Petted on, v. to be fond of a person, as a child is. 

Perily V. to strike rapidly. 

Phftisians, sb. pheasants. 

Piano rose, sb, the peony. 

Piekin' czU, v. Same as Casting Calf, i. e. dropping a calf before 
the time. 

Piokle^ sb. a very small quantity ; one grain. 

Piekock, or Pioky, sb. Same as Blookan. A small fish, the young 
of the coal-fish. 

Piece, sb. what a child gets for lunch ; it is generally a piece of bread. 

Pied, 17. searched ; examined. 

Pig-croo, sb. a pig-sty. 

Pigeon. * A pigeon's pair,' a term for a family of two children only. 

Pigeon walk, sb. a boy's game. 

Piggin, sb. a small wooden vessel made of hoops and staves, with 
one stave prolonged so as to form a handle, used for milking in, &c. 

Pig's whisper, sb. a loud whisper, one meant to be heard. 


Pig's wraoky bK a kind of sea wiack^ boiled with meal or potatoes, 
and giyen as food for pigs. 

Pike^ sK a rick of hay. 

Piky dog, ah. the piked dog-fisL Same as Oobbuek. 

Pile, ah, a single grain of shot. 

Pill, Bad pill, or Bitter pill, ah, a disagreeable person. 
Pillaber, ah, a pillow. 

Pin bone, ah, the pointed bone abore a horse's flank. 
Pingey lookin*, adj. tight ; pinched looking. 

Pink, {Vj ah, a term of endearment applied by a young man to his 

(2) V. to strike with a sure aim. 

Pin well, ah, a well in the demesne of Red HaU, near Carrickfeigns, 
18 so-called. A person haying drunk from it throws in a pin as an 

Pipe. ' Put that in your pipe and smoke it/ an expression enforcing 
some rather disagreeable piece of adyioe or information. 

Pipers, ah. pi. stems of grass. 

Pipe stapple, ah. the stem of a clay pipe. 

Pirn, ah, a wooden bobbin. 

Pirn cage, ah, an arrangement of pins standing up from a square 
frame, and in which ' ptnM * or bobbins are stuck — ^used in power- 
loom factories. 

Pirre-maw, ah. the tern. 

Pismire, Pishmither, ah. an ant. 

Placket hole, ah, a pocket hole. 

Pladdy, ah, (Pladdies, pi,) a sunken rock. 

Planet showers, ah. pi, short heavy showers. 

Plan of wrack. In parts of the co. of Down the flat portion of the 
shore, between high and low water mark, is divided into plots, each 
of which belongs to a certain farm, and on these plots or ' plans' the 
farmers grow sea- weed for manure, cutting the wrack periodieally, 
and carting it inland. Stones are placed for the wrack to grow on. 

Planting, ah. a plantation of young trees. 

Plants, ah. young cabbage plants fit for planting out 

Plarted, v, fell down. 

Plaster, ah. anything overloaded with vulgar showy ornament 

Plastery, adj. gaudy; over-omamented. 


PlateSy sh, ph flat rocks in a harbour. 

Play oneBel^ v. to play. ' Play yourselves/ 1. e. go and play. ' The 
chile 's playin' his self.' 

Pleaich, sb, the * sea devil ' or fishing frog, Lophius. Also called 
KoUy gowaa, Kilmaddy, &c 

Pleasement, sh. what pleases; satisfaction; gratification. 'I was 
glad to hear it, but perhaps it's no plecuemeni to you.' * Til do it to 
your pl^asement. ' 

Pleniahing, sb. the famishing of a house. 

Ploigher, v, to cough in an asthmatic or wheezing way. 

Ploitin' down, v. falling down. *What are ye ploitin* down for 
there, ye fitless fella.' 

Plont, V. to splash. 
Pock-arred, oJ/. pock-marked. 

Poddoek-stool, eh, a toad-stool. 

Pedes, 8h, lice. Children are warned that if they do not allow their 
heads to be combed with a * fine tooth comb/ the pode9 will make ropes 
of their hair, and drag them into the sea and drown them. 

Point. * Potatoes and pointy^ i,e, potatoes and nothing. The 
potatoes are supposed to be poisted at a herring as they are eaten, to 
give them an imaginary flavour. 

Pottered out, Poutered out, v. said of land which has been ex- 
hausted, and has received only slight superficial cultivation. 

Poke, sb. a bag. 

Poke ahakins, sb, the last child borne by a woman — supposed to be 
puny. * That's a brave chile, it's no the poke shakina I'm thinkin'.' 

Polled, having the horns cut ofll Same as Skulled. 

Polluted, ctdj. puffed up with pride ; conceited ; overrun. ' Them 
people 's got quite polluted.' *The house is polluted with books.' 
' PoUuted with oeg^fars,' &c. ' The other man polluted the mearing,' 
i. e. he tampered with the boundary. 

Pont, sb. a kind of boat which carries thirty hundred-weight of turf, 
used on Lough Neagh (Mason's Par, Survey). 

Pooin', V. pulling. 

Poor mouth, v. to 'make a poor mouthy to complain of troubles or 
poverty, and to make the most of these, for the purpose of exciting 

Poppel, sb. a flower, the coru-cockle, Lychnis Githago. 

Porvent, Purvent, v. to prevent 

IPofS-tub, Pou8S-tub, sb. a kind of wash-tub. 


Post. * Between you and me and the post^ a preliminary to somo- 
thing confidenti^ being told. 

Posy, sh, a ilower. 

Potyeen, Poteen, sb, illicit whiskey. 

Pouce, Bh, the floating dust in rooms where flax is being dressed. 

Poucy, a<(/. asthmatic, from the effects of inhaling ^pouce.^ 

Pounder, eh, a person who sells freestone for scouring; the freestone 
is sold pounded. 

Pouss, V. to push clothes against the bottom of a tub when washing. 
' Q-ie the claes a guid poiMsing,* 

Power, sb, a great quantity. ' He made a power o' money.' 

Pox, sb, the small-pox. * Cut for the pox,^ vaccinated. 

Praity-oaten, sb. a kind of bread made of potatoes and oaten meal ; 
in texture it is very coarse. * As coarse as praity-ocUen,' saying. 

Prank, v. to amuse oneself. 

Pree, v. to taste. 

Presha, Presha bhwee, Pmshns, sb. the wild kale, Sinopsis arvensis 

(bhwee is from Ir. for yellow). 

Prick at the loop, a cheating game played with a strap and skewer, 
at fairs, &c., by persons of the thimble-rig class, probably the same as 
the game called Fast and liOose. 

Prig, V, to beat down in price. Same as to Haggle. 

Prittaz, Praltays, sb, potatoes. 

Prod, (1) 'He gave me a prod* i, e, he cheated me in something 
he sold me. 

(2) V, to prick or stab. 'Prod him with a pitch-fork.' 

Proddled, v, prodded, i, e. stabbed or poked up. ' Your eyes are 
like a proddled cat under a bed,' saying. 

Proker, sb, a poker. 

Proper, adj, good. * A proper spade.' 

Press, (1) sb. a process at law. 

(2) V, to sue a person. * I prossed him.' 
Pack, sb. a blow. * He got a puck in the eye.* 

Puckan-snlla, sb. a basket or hamper made of well twisted oat straw 
rope, used for holding seed i)otatoes ; it holds about two and a half 

Puddle, sb. a small dirty pool ; prepared or tempered clay. 

Pnllan, PoUan, sb. the 'fresh water herring* of Lough Neagh, 
Coregontu Pollan. 


Pnrre, ^. two sea birds, the tern and the black-beaded gull. See 
'■>^— » and Pynuaw. 


Pnshla, sb. See Ooo-pnsUa. 

"t down one's foot, to come to a determination of stopping some 
thing vhich kas been going on. 

Put on, V. to put on clothes ; to dress oneselt ' I had hardly time 
U}put on me.' • He rose an' piU on him,' 

Pyot, 9b. a magpie. 

Pynnaw, ab. a sea bird, probably the tern or ' purre ' (Harbis, Hi^t 
Co. Down, 1744), r v > 

Qnaa, dnah, sh, a marsh ; a quagmire, or shaking bog. 
ftuait, adj. quiet. 

Quaker. * You're not a quakerV said in bargaining to persons who 
'will not abate the price they haye asked. 

ttuakin' esp, sK a kind of poplar with trembling leaves* 
Qnalitj, sb. gentry, 

Quare, dueer, adj, very * quare an' nice ' = very nice. 

Quarter deft, sb, a crazy person. 

Qnem, sb. the old hand-mill, consisting of two stones. 

ftuey, ar ftuy, ab. a female calf. 

QuidkenSy sK pi. couch grass. Same as Soutoh grass. 

Qoieks, sb. pi. young thorn plants for setting. 

Quo* he, V. said he. This with * qiu)* site, quo' // are in very 
general use. 

Qnut, Qaet» v. quit * Qant yer cloddinV *. e. stop throwing stones. 

Baave, sb. a fresh water plant, Anacharttf. 

£aok comb, sb, a dressing comb. 

Baek of mutton^ sb. a breast of mutton. 

Bam-stam, adj. headlong; rash. 

Bandy, sb. a wild reckless fellow ; an indelicate romping woman ; a 

Baunel, v. among school-boys ; to pull the hair. 



Baanel-tree, BaiTel-tree» sb. the cto6&-beam in a byre to which tlic 
cows' stakes are £Ewtened ; hence a long thin person is called a * rannei- 
irety or is said to be ' as thin as a rannd-tree* 

Sanneriy sb, pf, wild indistinct dreams. 

Banty-berrieSi sb. rowan-tree berries. 

Batherly, or Setherly, adv. rather. ' 

BauspSy sb, pj. raspberries. 

fieam, r. to froth or foam, as a liquor. 

Bedy (1) done work. * What time will you get red f ' 
(2) r, to put in order ; to separate fighters. 

Beddin' kaim, nb, a dressing-comb. Same as Back-oomb. 

* Jied head, fiery skull, 
Every hair in your head would tether a bull.' 

Said derisively to a red-haii*ed person. 
Bed loani]i\ sb. the throat (inside). 

Bedshankf (1) a flowering plant, Polygonum Persicaria. 

(2) ' Bun like a redshanh,^ t. e. as fast as you can. I suppose the 
redshank is the wading bird so called, and not the human redshank^ 
known to readers of the Irish wars. 

Bed the road ! clear the way ! 

Bee, adj. fresh as a restive horse \ wanton. 

Beef, sb. a rent or tear. 

Beek, sb. smoke ; the smell of peat smoke. 

Beel, V. to quiz or humbug. 

Beel-fitted, adj. club-footed. 

Bee-raw, adj. untidy ; confused. 

Beeve, v. to split wood by heat. * The sun will reeve it.' 

Bemember, v, to remind. ' Well, sir, Til call in the morning and 
remember you about it.' 

Bemlet, sb. a remnant. 

Bemove, sb. the re-shoeing of a horse with the old shoes. 

Bench, Bange, v. to rinse. 

Benlet, Bunlet, sb. a small barrel. 

Besidenter, sb. an old inhabitant. 
Bet, V. to steep flax. 
Bex, V. to reach. 


Ubish, adj. thin, as applied to persons, but more especially to pigs. 
' They come of a tibieh breed/ 

tiice, sb. a small branch of a tree ; a twig. 

Bicketty, sb. a ratchet brace for boring metal 

Bift» V. to bekb. 

Big, sb. a ridge. 

"Big and for, ridge and farrow in a field. A particular kind of 
knitting is also called ' rig wndfur.^ 

Biggin, sb. the ridge of a house. 

Bight, adv. thorough ; very ; good. * He's a right rascal.' ' You're a 
right bad boy.' * He's a riyht wee fellow.' 

Bighily, adv. in good health ; right well ; very well * I'm rightly! 
* I know him rightly.^ * Qe got rightly fHghtoned.' 

Bip, sh, a handful of unthrashed com* 

Bippet, sb, a row, or dLsturbance. 

Bipple, r. to take the seed off fiax« See Flax ripple. 

Bipple grass, Plantago lanceolata. 

Bive, V. to tear ; to split 

Boach, sb. the rudd or red-eye, Leuciscus erythropthalmns. 

Bead, (1) sK way. ' What road are you going?' 

(2) ' No road,^ is the formula for ' no thorough&re.' 

(3) V. to direct ; to show the way. * Who maded yon P* 

Boans, sb. pi. *Hazely roans^ hazel brakes. *Brackeny ronmM^ 
fern brakes. 

Bobin-nm-the-liedge, sh. a plant, Galium aparine. The juice of 
this plant is extracted and boiled with sugar, and given as a remedy 
in whooping-cough. 

Bookets, sb, pi the plumes of a hearse. 

Bodden, sb. a little road ; a mountain path. 

Bope, V. ' The clay ropes off my spade like putty.' 

B0869 sb, ^ The rose * is a name for erysipelas. 

Bosit-siiit, or Bosin-slut, sb. a rag dipped in resin and used as a 
substitute for a candle. 

Bot-heap, sb. a heap of weeds left to rot for manure. 

Bonglmess, sb. plenty; abundance. 'There's a great roughness 
about his farm,' t. e. great plenty. * Them people has a great r<mgh- 
nesB of money about them.' 

Bough weed, sb. Strachys palustris, 



Sound oast, sb. a particular throw in sowing grain. * He sows witli 
a round cast* 

Soup, »b, an auction. 

Sonthy or Southi, sh, plenty ; abundance. 

Sonting-wheel, sb. an eddy or whirlpool at the entrance of Strang- 
ford Lough. Mentioned by Harris (1744). 

Sowt, r. to bellow or roar as a bull. 

Srog, a sea-weed, the long tangle, Chorda filum. 

Snbber, sh. a housemaid's dusting-cloth ; a coarse kitchen towel. 

Snbbor apron, sh. an apron made of a coarse material. 

Snohness. Same as Soughness, abundance. 

Snotion, 9b, a row, or disturbance. 

Sue, V. to change one's mind ^ to draw back. * To take the rtie^ to 
repent of an engagement, or promise. 

BrUgg, V. to pull about roughly ; to pull the hair. 

Snggle 0' banes, sb, a thin person. 

Sninate, r. to destroy. 

Suination, sb, ruin. 

Sullion, sb, a big, coarse, dirty fellow. 

Summle, (1) * Put that in your jug an' rumnde it,' i. e. consider that 
piece of information or advice. Same as Put that in your pipe and 
smoke it. 

(2) v. to rumble ; to shake about. ' I feel that rummlin* about in 
my inside.' 

Sundale, a plan of working farms in partnership ; mentioned as a 
* pernicious practice 'in M'Skibum's Carrickfergm^ \%'22, Anciently 
many farms were wrought in * rundaW 

Sung, (1) a round or step of a ladder ; the rail of a chair. 

(2) sh, an old woman. 'That auld rung o' mine's brayely/ s 
young lad. 

Snnners, eh pi, small channels for water. * I made runners across 
the pad to keep it dry.' 

Sonrig, sb. Same as Sundale. 

Sunt, (1) sb, a dwarfish person ; an old woman. 
(2) Bh. a stalk. * A kale runt.' 

Sust, z;. to be restive or stubborn. 

Susty, adj, restive or stubborn. 


Sack, V. to vanquish an opponent by a show of superior learning. 
— ^W. Cableton. 

Saeramenty sb, an oath. 

Sad, adj. sodden, as badly-baked bread. 

Sada. * Sitting over their aadsy l. e. regretting something ; repenting. 

Safe^, adj, (pronounced sometimes as a trisyllable). A useful 
article in nurseries is called a * saf-e-ty pin.' 

Saggan, sh, the wild iris. 

Said, t?, * To be said^ to be advised. * Now be said by me,* 

Sail, ah. a ride in a cart or carriage of any kind. 

SailoT-man, sh, a sailor. 

Sailor's giip» ah, a mode of holding hands by hooking the fingers. 

Sair-bones, «Z>. * A'll gi'e ye sair-hanes^ i, e. rU give you a beating. 

Saired, v. served. 

Sair aoughty adj, nearly worn out with age or weakness. 

Sair-wrought, adj, hard-worked. 

Sally, Bh, a willow. 

Sally wran, ah, the willow wren. 

Salt. * You win shed a tear for every grain of salt you waste.* 

Same O^ same as. ' Can you give me a knife the same of that) ' 

Sang. * Ton my sangy a mild kind of oath. 

Sannies. ' Upon my Boimies^ a mild oath. 

Bark, sh, a shirt. 

Sarking, sh, a coarse kind of linen'; a sheeting of wood under the 
slates of a roof, 

Saturday. ' Saturday flit, short sit.' Servants think it unlucky to 
go home to a new place on Saturday. 

Saogh, sh. a willow. 

Sauny-go-softly, $b. a soft fellow. 

Sauty sb. salt. 

Saying your presence, excuse the word. * Bub, savin* your pre- 
sence, the smell was that bad that,* &c. 

Saw doctor, sb. a workman who repairs and sharpens saws. 

Scabbling, or Scaveling, hammer, sb. a large hammer for chipping 

Scald, sb. ' A heart scald,' a sore trouble. * He's heart scalded with 
her,' greatly troubled by her. 


Soale-drake, sb. the shell-drake, Anas Tadoma, 

Scame, Soam, v. to scorch. 

Scantling, {\) sK wood cut to special sizes for carpenters' use. 

(2) $b, measurement of wood or iron to be used in work. ' What 
scantlings of iron will you put into the gate ? ' 

Soart, V, to scratch. 

Soandy v, to scald. * It's sae het it wud aeaml a pig/ a comparison. 

Scaur, Soar, sb, a steep or overhanging hank of earth ; a reef or 
ridge of rooks. 

Scheme, v. to endeavour to escape work by false pretences. 

Scholar, sb. one who can read and write. * It's a sore thing not to 
be a scholar,* 

School, SchuU, sb. a shoal of fish. 

Scobes, sb. pi rods of hazel or willow, sharpened at both ends, for 
pinning down the thatch to the * scraws ' or sods in thatching a house, 
oame as Scollops. 

Scog, sb, an offensive or mocking valentine. 
Scollops, sb. pi. See Scobes. 

Sconce, (1) «&. a skulking person. 

(2) sh. a hiding-plaoe : used by wild-fowl shootere^ It is generally 
a alight shelter built of stones on a beach. 

(3) V. to joke or ridicule; also to feign illness, so as to escape 
having to work. 

Sconcer, sb. one who pretends to be sick in order to escape work. 

Scope, (1) sb. an extent of land. ' He owns a large scope of moun- 

^2) sh. in trawling or dredging the extra length of rope which is 
paid out after the dredge has reached the bottom is called the scope. 
* Qive it a fifuldom or two more scope* 

Scotch lick, sb. a very slight wash of the face or hands. 

Scotch penny, sb. the thick English penny of 1797. 

Scout, {\) sb. 2k squirt or syringe. 

(2) V, to squirt. 

Scout-hole, Scoot-hole, sb. a rat-hole to which rats run for shelter 
when chased, or a concealed hole planned for exit, by which rabbits 
may escape when their principal holes are watched. 

Scrah, (1) «&. a scratch. 

(2) V, to scratch ' The cat near scrahbed his eyes out.' 

Scraigh, Scraik, sh, a scream, such as the cry of a sea-gull. 


Scraigh o* day, aL early morning. 

SeraiL ' Bad scran to you,' bad luck to you. /Scran is said to mean 

Seraty sb. soinetbing small ' The fowls he had were only wee acraU* 

Seraw, (1) «&. a thin strip of sward or turf. Scraws are laid under 
the thatch, of a house to receive the points of the * scobes ' or 
* scollops.* 

(2) V. to strip sods off the surface of a field. ' Do you want to 
seraw the man's land ? * 

Scraw, Sera, v. to cover a bank with sods. ' To scraw a grave.' 

Bcreeoh cook> sb, the missel thrush. 

Sereed, sb. a rent or tear in clothes ; a discourse or harangue. 

Boreeding, sb. the mortar pointing round a window-frame. 

Sereenge, sb. a mean, miserly person. 

Screw mouse, ab. the shrew. 

Scrimpit, adj, scanty. 

Seringe, v. to creak ; to make a grinding pr rasping noise. 

Scrogg, sb, pi, places covered with furze, hazel, brambles, &c. 

Scrubby, adJ, mean; shabby. 

Scmflf, sb. a mean fellow. 

Scmff of the neck, sb, the back of the neck. 

Scmnchf sb, a crush or squeeze. 

Scud, r. to slap. 

Scuff, V. to subject to abuse or wear ; to make shabby. 

Scoffed, injured in appearance by wear or abuse. 

ScQJ&e, (1) sb. a hoe that is pushed — called in trade a ' Dutch hoe.' 

(2) V, to hoe walks or beds with a scuffle. 

(3) V. to scrape or drag the feet along the ground. 

Seulder, Soalder, sb. a jelly-fish (medusa) of any species. 

Scunner, Scunhnr, Scunder, sb. a disgust ; a loathing. ' I've taken 
a scunhur at that man.' 

Scutch, V. to remove the * shives ' or * shows ' from flax. 

Scotch grass, sb. couch grass. Same as Quickens. 

Scutch mill, sb. a mill where flax is ^scutched.' 

Scutching tow, sb, the rough tow which is taken off* flax at a scutch 


Soyihe hook, eh. a reaping-hook that requires to be sharpened, as 
disdnguished from a * toothed hook * or sickle. 

SeAm, sh, < Groose aeam,^ goose fat. 
Belch, sb, a seal, Phoca, 

* Seed, breed, and- generation,' the whole of one's family and 


Seeds, sb. pi, the husks of oats. See Sowans. 

See ontent, r. to go about for pleasure. ' If A didn't tee outens 
when A'm young, when would A ? ' 

Seep, r. to leak or ooze. 

Seepage, sb, what * seeps ' or leaka ' There's a great seej)affe from 
that cask.* 

Sel, self : hence himsel, her«e/, ihemsd, m'msi. 
Server, sb. a sma]! tray or salver. 

Set, (1) ^2^. a spell. 'A long set of saft weather.' 

(2) A * low set ])er8on,* a person with a squat figure* 

(3) V, to plant. 

(4) V, determined. * She's hard «e< to be married.' 

(5) V. * She sets that very well,* «. e. that becomes her yery well. 

(6) V. ' The night is •«<,' t. e. the night is fixed ; night has come on. 

^7) adj. applied to a person who has stopped growing taller. * She's 
quite set lookin'.' 

(8) V. to appoint. * I cant set no time,* t. e. I cannot appoint a 

Set a stiteh, v. to make a stitch in sewing. 

Sett, sb. the number of ridges of corn that a * boon' or reaping party 
is spread oyer. If there are ten able-bodied reapers in ihe * boon,' 
the sett would consist of ten ridges. 

* Set tae lowe,' set on fire. 

Setting down, sb. a scolding. Same as Doing off. 

Setts, sb. pi. * Paving setts ' or ^ cross setts,* rectangular blocks of 
stone used for paying streets. 

Seven'dible, sb. thorough or severe ; very great 

Severals, sb. pi. several persons or things. ^Severals told me 
about it.* 

Shaaps, Shanpa, sb. pi. the shells of beans or peas. 

Shade, sb, the parting or division of the hair ou one's head j a shod« 

Shai, sb. a shoe. 


Shainuirhait, sh. nothing. Same as Sorra halt, Deil a halt. 

Shamrooky 8b, The leaser yellow trefoil {Trifolium minus) is the 
plant the leafy part of which is worn as a $hamrock on Patrick's Day 
(March 17th). 

Shandry-dan, sb, an old shaky and noisy car or carriage. 

Shank, sb. a handle. 

Shank8*8 mare» sb, on foot. ' We went there on shanks*s inare* 

Shanonghy (1) sb, a confidential chat. 

(2) V. to talk confidentially ; to gossip, 
8ham, sb, cow-dung. 

Shaver, sb, a wag or fanny fellow ; a keen, shrewd fellow. 
Shear, o, to reap com. 
Shearin'y sb, the catting of com. 

Shebeen, sb. a place where intoxicating drink is sold without a 

Shebeening, v, keeping a place for the unlicensed sale of drink. >- 

She-eoeky sb, corruption of ' Shake cock,* a small hay-stack built up 

Shedding, sb, the place where cross roads intersect. 

Sheela, a * inolly-co<idle ' or efieminate man. Slifiela is a woman's 

Sheep's naperty, sb. a plants Potentilla tcrmentilla, 

Sheemian» sb. a workman employed at a bleach green. Obsolete. 
" Wanted a skilfal journeyman sheerman and dyer.*' — Bd/ast New$^ 
letter, 1739. 

She sole, sb, a fish, the whiff, Ehombus Megastoma. 

Sheugh, sb. a ditch. * I always let the sheugh build the dike,' t. e. I 
always let what was dug out of the ditch make the raised fence, a 
saying, my spending neyer exceeded my earning. * Scourin* a dyke 
9heugh,* cleaning out a ditch. 

ShiU com, sb. a small hard pimple on the face. 

Shilling seeds, sb, pL the husks of oats. 

Shilling stones, sb. pL the pair of stones in a corn mill which are 
used for taking the husks off oats. 

Shilty, sb. a pony (corruption of Shetland). 

Shin, Shoon, sb, pi. shoes. 

Shinnen, sb. a sinew. 

Shinney, sb, hockey, a boys' game, played with shinneys^ i. e, hooked 
sticks, and a ball or small block of wood called the * golley ' or ' nag.' 


Shired, adj, thin : applied to a part of any knitted article which is 
thinner tiian the rest owing to loose knitting. 

Shireyy adJ, thin : applied to the thin part of a crop or of a gaiment, 
or of woven materialB. 

Shoddy, gb, pi. the smaller stones at a quarry. 

Shoddy men, itb, ph the men who shape paving sets, &c, at a 

Shods, sh, pi, the iron heel-tips on men's hoots. 

Shoe mouth, ah, the open of a shoe. ' I was over the «7toe mouih 
in glar.* 

Shog, sK a jolt or shake. 

Shoo, V, to sew. 

Shoot, r. to set a long line or net : a fisherman's term. 

Shore, sh. a sewer. 

Shot, sh, a half-grown pig. 

Shotten herring, sh, a spent herring ; one that has spawned. 

Showl, adj, shallow, as ^showl water.' 

Shows, Shonghs, Shives, sh. pi, flax refuse. It is the hard jiart of 
the stem in small fragments. 

Shnggy-ehn, sh. (1) a beam of wood balanced so that persons sitting 
on the opposite ends go up and down alternately ; (2) a swing. 

Shaler, sh. a vagrant 

Shunnert, sh, pi. cinders. 

Shut, sh. a shutter. 

Si, sh, a dressmaker's term for the part of a dress between the arm- 
pit and chest. 

Sib^ adj. related by blood. 

Sio, such. 

Sieoan, such. ' Siccan a heap o' coos.' 

Sicker, adj. sure 3 precise in mode of speaking. 

Sight, sh, a quantity. * There was a quare sight of people there.' 

Silly-go-safUy, Silly-go-sefly, sh, a foolish, useless creature. 

Simper, v, to simmer. 

Sinnerry, Sinthery, adv, asunder. 

Sirraft Chooseday, sh. Shrove Tuesday. 
'Sit down off your feet,' sit down. 
Sit fiajt, di, a ranunculus, R. rejyens. 


Skarty Scarty sh, a connojant. 

Skeegy sh, a small quantity. Same as a Wee drop. ' Theie'a no a 
skeeg o* watther in the kettle.' Same as Sqaig. 

Skee-weep, ah, a dash ; a smear ; something indistinct in writing. 

Skeif^h, adj, restless ; frisky. 

Skelf, (1) sb, a splinter or chip. ' He got a skelf o* wud ondher 'is 

(2) V. to splinte r. 

Skelly, (1) sb. a guess; an nnsnccessfol attempt. *Yoa made a 
queer Mdly at it.* 

(2) V. to squint. 

8kelp, (1) sb. a blow. 

(2) V, to run ; to slap. 

Skemlin, sb, a quantity of peat dug from the edges of a bog-hole, 
and thrown in to be mixed, and afterwards taken out and dried. 
' Tak" a akemlin a£F that side o' the hole.' 

flkeow, sb. a large flat barge, used to leoeive the mud raised by a 
dredging machine. 

Skep, 8b. a straw bee-hive. 

Skerry brand, sh. sheet lightning. 

Skey, sh. a small artificial island forming part of an eel-weir. 

Skiff, sb. a slight shower. 

Skillet, sb. a small saucepan. 

Skillop, sb, a gouge-shaped borer, of tapered form, for wood. 

Skimp, V. to stint. 

Skimpy, adJ, a tight fit ; short ; deficient in quantity. 

Skin a flBury, v, said of very cold weather. • Dear, but it's that 
cowl it would skin a /airy.' 

Skinadhre, sb. a thin, fleshless, stunted person. 

Skink, sb, a mixture to drink. 

Skip, a box in which stones are hoisted out of a quarry ; a basket or 
crate to contain live fowls in transit ; a large basket. 

Skip-jack, sb, the merry-thought of a goose made into a child's toy. 
See Jump-jack. 

Skirl, (!) sb, & cry or scream. 

(2) V, to scream 

Skirr, sb, a sea-bird, the tern. 

Skirt, V, to run 


Skite, (1) sb. a term of contempt ; an empty, conceited feQow. 

(2) sh, a filiarp slap or blow. 

(3) V. to slap. 

Skiver, sb, a skewer. 

Skiver the goose, sb, a boys' game. Two persons are tmseed some- 
what like fowls : they then hop about on their ' hunkers,' each tryiug 
to upset the other. 

Skull, V. * To shdl cattle,' to cut off their horns close to the head. 

SknUed, adj. Same as Homed or Polled. Applied to cattle which 
have been subjected to the cruel operation of haying their horns sawi 
off close to the skuU. 

Skyble, nb. a thin person. 

Slabby, adj. sloppy ; muddy. * Slabby wet clay.' 

Slack, adj, neglectful; remiss. 

Slack lime, v. to put water on quick lime. 

Slack spun, adj, said of a person who is half a fool. The same 
kind of person is said * to have only eleven cuts to the hank/ or ' ho 
is not all there,' or * he wants a square of being round,' &a 

Slap, (l) sb. A gap or passage through a hedge for occasional use. It 
is closed by filling up the opening with branches, &c 

(2) ah. a large quantity. * A whole dap of money.' 

Slater, or Slate-cutter, sb. the wood-louse, Onisetis, and seyeral of 
the allied species of crustaceans. 

Slats, sb. pi. The laths of a Venetian blind and the laths of a bed- 
stead are called slats. 

Slattering, v. going about like a slattern. 

Slavers, sb. pL water flowing from the mouth. 

Slay hook, sb. a small implement used by weavers ; in slang, a term 
for a dried herring. 

Sleech, sb. fluviatile or marine silt ; sea-wrack growing on mud banks. 

Sleech grass, sb. Zostera manna. 

Sleek, Slake, sb, a smear ; a streak of dirt. 

Sleekit, adj. cunning ; underhand ; hypocritical 

Sleep in, t;. to lie too long in the morning, so as to be late for work* 

Slep, V. slept. * A've slep noan.' 

Slenster, v, to flatter. 

Slever, sb, saliva. 

SUggaon, sb, the pearl-bearing fresh-water mussel, Anodon ctjgma. 

Slinge, V, to sneak about. 


Blip, (I) sh, a pinafore. 
(2) $b. a young pig. 

(S) V. to let slip or escape from punishment. * If ye do that again, 
see if I 9lip ye for it.^ 

Slipe, (1) sb. a triangular framework of wood on which large boulder 
stones are drawn out of fields ; a large trough, like a cut without 
wheels, uaed for drawing earth or wet peat from one part of a field or 
bog to another ; a kind of sledge on which stones are drawn down 
hiUy roads. 

(2) V. ' To dipe stones ' a to draw them out of a field on a ' slipe.' 
* To alipe mud * =s to carry it in a ' slipe ' from the bog-hole to a level 
place where it is spread out to harden and cake into turf. 

Slip of a girl, sb, a young, giowing girl. 

Slither, v, to slip or slide. 

Sliver, sb. Flax in process of being spun by machinery is drawn 
out into a ribbon or long lock before it is twisted : this lock is called 

Sliver can, sb, a taU cylinder of tin in which the ' sliver * is coiled 
away and then carried to the ' roving frame ' to get the first twist. . 

Sloak, sb, a seaweed, laver, Porphyra laeiniata. Called in the Go. 
of Clare * sluke ' or * slukane.^ 

Slobbering bib, sb, a small, thick pinafore worn by infants. 

Slockan, v, to quench fire or thirst. 

Sloiterin', Sintering v, loitering or lingering about pretending to 

Slonk, Slump, sb. a ditch ; a deep, wet hollow in a road. 

Slonky, adj. having muddy holes. ' That alonky road.' 

Sloosh, sb. a sluice. 

Sludge, sb. wet mud. 

Sluimnage, sb. a soft stuff produced. at distilleries used for cattle 

Slump, (1) sb. a muddy place. ' The road was all slumps of holes.' 

(2) V. to sink in mud. 
Slunge, (1) sb. a skulking, sneaking fellow. 

(2) V. to slink or lounge. 

Slurrjr, »ft. mud ; *glar.' * I took eight buckets of black slurry out 
of his welL' 

Sluttherin', Swattherin', v. applied to the noisy, slopping way that 
ducks feed. 

Slype, V. to strip the branches off trees. * They would come and 
slype them down in the night for no use.' 


Small family, sh. a family of small children. 

Smell, sh, a small quantity. 

Smirr, Smnrr, sh, ' A amirr of rain/ a slight shower. 

Smit, V. infected. ' I think you've emit me with that cowL' 

Smithereens, sb. pi, small fragments. 

Smittle, adj. infections. ' Is it anything smittle he has 1 ' 

Smooxin', v. smothering — in sense of covering over, as snow over 
ground or treacle over hread. 

Smnd, Smudge, v. to smoulder. 

Smnddy ooom, Smiddy copm, sb, the ashes from a smith's foTge. 

Smudge, sb. a concealed laugh. 

Smudging, v. laughing in a smothered way. 

Snack, Snick, sh. a thumb-latch. 

Snail's pace, sb. To go at a snaiVs pace, to go very slowly. 

Snakes, sb, ' Snakes set here,' is a form of notice sometimes painted 
on a board at the boundaries of plantations, &c. The snake» are sup- 
posed to be iron spikes, fixed point upwards in the ground. 

Snake stones^ sb, pi, ammonites found in the Lias. 

Snaply, adj, quickly. 

Snap the head off one, v. to be very angry. ' Feth, he was like 
to ha' snapped the heed aff m«.' 

Sned, (1) sh the handle of a scythe. 

(2) V. to cut. ' Sued turnips,' to cut off the leaves. 

Sneddon, sh, a large-sized sand-eel. 

Snell, adj, supercilious ; impudent. 

Snib, Sneok, v, to fasten. * Snib the window.' 

Snioher, Snigger, v, to giggle. 

Sniffle, V. to sniff. 

Snifter, v. to sniff. 

Snifther, sh, a strong blast of wind. 

Snifthers, sb, a cold in the head. 

Snig, sb, a juvenile thief, who steals the kites of other boys by 
cutting the string and seizing the kite when it falls. 

Snirt, V, to make a noise through the nose when endeavonring to 
suppress laughter. 

Snod, adj, cut smooth : even : as the edges or eaves of a thatched 


Snood, sb, the thin part of a sea fishing-lme, to which the hook is 

Snook, V. to sneak. 

Snool, sK an ill-tempered, sneaking fellow. 

Snoot. ' Whether wud ye rether hae a soo's snoot stewed, or a 
stewed soo's snoot f ' an amteratiye saying, to he said very quickly. 

Snotther, sb. mucus of the nose ; also a term of contempt. 

Snow. (1) When snow lingers on the ground it is said 'to be 
waiting for more." 

(2) To * ^ like snow off a ditch ' is to disappear quickly. The 
expresBion is used in reference to femilies that have diea off rapidly. 

Snow broth, Snoo broo, «b, half-melted snow. 

Snnggle, v, to nestle, as a child against its mother's breast 

Snorley, adj. gnarled or twisted. 

So ! (1) indeed ! 

(2) 'Sol am,* * m I will,' * so it is,' are added apparently to make a 
statement more forcible. * I will, eo I will,' is considered to be 
stronger than merely * I will.* 

Soaos, sb. Same as Sowans. ' Sup socins wi' an elsin,' attempt an 

Soddened, adj. " The stones so saddened or wedged together, you 
cannot get one loose to throw at a fowL" — Bichard Dobbs, Descrip- 
ii6n of the Co. of Antrim^ 1683. 

Soft, Baft, (ulj. wet, as applied to weather. 

Soft drinks, sb, pi. soda-water, lemonade, &c., as distinguished from 
whisky, &c., which are called hard drinks. 

Soil, (1) sb, fresh fodder for cattle. 

(2) V, to feed cattle in the house. 

Sojer (soldier), sb, a red herring. 

Soldiers, sb, pi. The little creeping sparks on paper that has been 
bumod, but is not quite converted into ashes, are called by children 

Sole, (1) sb, a siU. * A window sole.* 

(2) sb. the sod ; grassy turf. ' The lawn has a good sole.* 

Sonsy and donee, pleasant and quiet. 

Sonsy, adj. lucky. * It's not sonsij to do that.' Comely ; stout : as 
applied to a woman. 

Soo, sb, a sow. 

Soogan, sb. a saddle of straw or rushes. 

Soo luggit, sb. with the ears hanging. * A soo higgit horse.' 


Soop, r. to sweep. 

Soople, (1) bK a part of a flail. See Flail. 
(2) ad^. flexible; active. 

Scoter, 9b, a fish, the gemmeous dragonet, Callionimus Lyra, 

Sore, (1) adj. sad; unpleasant; severe. 'It's a sore day on the 
stocks,* t. e. a very wet day. Also pitifiil or contemptibia ' He*s a 
90Te fool.' 

(2) V. swore. 

Sore foot, a4j. Same as ' a rainy day,' t. e. bad times or sickness. 

Sore hand, Sair han*, §h, a disagreeable spectacle ; anything spoiled 
or disfi^iu^. ' He fell in the mud, an* made a 9ore hatC o* himsel*.' 
' He tried to paint the boat, and made a sort hand of it.' 

Sore head, sh. a headache. 

Sore thumb, sh * To sit up like a sore thumb,' to sit with a super- 
cilious or unbending air. 

Sorra bait, nothing. 'Sorra hait rowled up in deil perlickit,' 
nothing at all.' 

Sorra mend ye, you deserve it 

Sorra yin, not one. 

Sort, V, to repair anything. 

Sosh, adj, snug \ comfortable ; neat-looking. ' She's a 90fk wee las^.' 

Soud, V, ' Let them soiid it amang themsel's,' i, e. let them settle it 
among themselves. 

8oU|^h, (1) sb, a hollow sobbing or groaning sound, caused by the 
wind or by running water ; the sound that comes from a great crovd 
of persons at a disSmce ; a rumour or report of news* 

(2) ' Keep a calm sough till the tide comes in,' t. e. have patience. 

(3) V. to breathe loudly in sleep, but not to snore. 

Sourlick, Sour*k, sb. a sorrel, Rumex acetoea, 

Sowaa pot. ' A wud nae gi'e scrapin's o' a sowan pot for it : ' said 
of anything very worthless. 

Sowans, sb. flummery ; a sour gruel made from the husks of oats 
called seeds. These are steeped in water till the liquor sours; they 
are then strained out, and the fluid portion is boiled. This thickens 
into a kind of jelly on cooling. 

Spadeaman, sb, a man accustomed to dig. 

Spading, Spitting, sb, the depth of soil raised at one time by the 

Spae, V. to foretell. 

Spae fortunes, v, to tell fortunes. 


Spae man, Spae wife, sb. a man or woman who it is suppoeed can 
tell fortonee or foretell events. 

Spain, V, to wean a child or a foal. 

Spaivied, adj. spavined. 

Spang^, sb. a bound or spring. " About three horse spangs frae the 
thicket" — ^HxTBDELSTOif. 

Spangle, «&. a measure of hand-spim linen yam. "As the terms 
hank and spangle are not known to all readers, especiaUy in iheir 
application to the quantities of hand-spun yam, it may be stated that 
alter the thread had been spun, it was wound o£F the spool on a reel, 
constructed so as to measure exactly ninety inches in circumference. 
Every bank contained a dozen cuts, each cut was 120 rounds of the 
reel, and four hanks were counted as a »pangle.** — Ireland and her 
Staple Manufadurei. Seconded. Belfast: 1865. 

Spark, V, to splash with water or mud. 

Spark to deeth, v. to faint ' I was liken to spark to deeth^ L e,\ 
was in a fainting condition. Befers also to persons who can hardly 
recover breath e^ter a paroxysm of coughing. 

Sparrow hail, 6b» very small shot. 

Spaye, sb, a spavin. 

Spawls, Spills, bK pi. long-shaped fragments of stone or wood. 

Spearling, sb. the gar-fish. Same as Horn-eel. 

Specs, sb, spectacles. 

Speel, V. to climb. 

Speer, v. to enquire. 

^P^^h, V. to splice. 

Spell-maiiy sb, a man engaged to work by the job or spelL 

Spend, V, to deteriorate or ' go back,' as cattle if put upon a poor 

Spenshelled, v. spancelled. A cow with her fore-feet tied together 
is said to be * $pens?idled,* 

Spentacles, sb, spectacles. 

Spit, V. to rain slightly. 

Split the differ, v, to divide the sum which is the difference between 
buyer and seller in bargaining. 

Spoiled five, sb. a game of cards. 

Spoke, V. to 'spoke a cart,' is to force it on by pulling round the 
wheels by the spokes. 

Spool of the breast, sb, the bone in the middle of the breast. 

Spraughle, (1) v. to sprawl. 

(2) $h. a straggling branch. 


Spriokly-beg, ah a stickleback. 

Springer, or Springin' oow, sb. a cow in calf. 

Springing, v. about to calve. 

Sprint, V. the ' keeper ' of a chest lock. 

Sprig, V, to embroider muslin or linen. 

Sprigging, sb. the occupation of embroidering muslin. 

Sprit, sb. a mildew or disease to which growing flax is subject. 
Same as Firing. 

Spmnged^ adj, miserable-looking ; starved. 

Spnans, sb. what is vomited. 

Spuds, sb, potatoes. 

Spnlpin, sb. a corruption of the Irish word usually written * spalpeen,' 
a troublesome or disagreeable fellow. 

Spnng, sb. a large pocket 

Spnnkie, adj. high-spirited ; courageous. 

Spnrfle, sb. a pot stick. A small double-pointed flat stick with a 
T head, used for thrusting in the knots of straw, in repairing a 
thatched roof. 

Spy farlies, v. to pry about for any thing strange. ' Now, don't be 
commin' in here to spy farlies.* 

Spy hole, sb. In cottages a wall called the 'hollan ' is buHt to screen 
the hearth from the observation of any one standing at the threshold; 
but in order to allow a person within to see who approaches the door, 
a small hole, usually tnang^ular, but sometimes four or five-sided, is 
made in the ' hoUan,' three or four feet from the floor ; this is the 
spy hole. 

Spy Wednesday, sb. the Wednesday before Easter. 

Sqnagh, sb. the cry of wild ducks or geese. 

Square, sb. a squire. 

Sqnench, v. to quench. 

Sqnig, sb. Same as Skeeg. 

Squinacy, sb. a quinsy. 

Stab, sb. a stake or post. 

Stab, Beggar's stab, sb. a large thick needle. 

Stag, sb. a game cock under a year old ; an informer. 

Stagger, sb. an attempt. Same as Stammer. 

Stagging, sb, a man's game. Two men have their own ankles tied 
together, and their wrists tied behind their back ; ithey then try to 
knock each other down. 


Stag wanung*, sK a boy's game. 
Stake and rioe^ sb, a kind of paling. 

Stammer, 8b. an attempt. * Ye didn't make a bad dammer at it.' 

Stand, «&. Four knitting needles are a §tand. 

Standard, ah. the upright stick of a kite. 
Stand at peaoe ! stand quiet. 

Stand by, (1) sh. a snack ; something taken in place of a regular meal. 
' (2) tr. stand aside. 

Stand of^ adj. reserved ; haughty. 

Stand oyer, v. to warrant the quality of anything. 

Stank, 9b. a ditch or ' sheugh ' in which water lies. 

Stank hole, «&. a pool of stagnant water. 

Stank water, sh, stagnant water. 

Stanlock, sh, a fish, the seath or grey lord, Merlangua carhimarivs. 

Stapple, 8K the stem of a pipe. 

Stare like a stack pig, v. to stare in a stupefied manner. 

Stohiyen, 8h, a kind of searwrack on which pigs are sometimes fed. 

Steek, V, to shut. * Ste^ your e'en/ shut your eyes. 

Steeped milk, ab. curdled milk. 

Ste^ grass, sh, Pinguieula vulgaris, used for cudling milk along 
with rennet. 

Stelk, sb, mashed potatoes and beans. Same as Bean obamp. 

Bten, V. to rear. ' Siennin' like a tip on a tether,' a comparison. 

Stenchels, sb. pi. the wooden cross bars in a window-sash. 

Step-mother's bairn, sb. the caterpillar of the tiger moth. Also 
called Granny. 

Sthroe, sb. straw. 

Sti, adj. steep. ' A sH brae.' ' A sti roof,' a high pitched roof. 

Stian, sb. a stye on the eyelid. 

Stiek. * J£ you throw him against the wall he would sticky* said of 
a very dirty person. 

Stickin', adj. obstinate ; stiff. 

Still, adv. always. * He's sHll asking me to do it.' 

Stilts of a plough, sb. pi. the handles of a plough. 

Stime, sb. * It was so dark I couldn't see a sHme before me,' %, s. I 
could not see anything at all. 

H 2 


Stir, sb. popular commotion ; excitement ; a concourse of people. 

Stirk, eb. a cow one or two years old. * A bull sfirkj* a young bull 

Stitchy sb, clotbes. ' Sbe badn't a dry siitch on.' 

Stock, ab. the outside of a bed, t. e, tbe side furthest from the wall 
' I canna' sleep ony where but at the stock.* 

Stoit, V, to walk in a careless, staggering way. 

Stone. It is said that during the winter half of tlie year, the cold 
side of every stone turns uppermost There is also a saying — ' Neyer 
sit on a stone in a month witn an E in it' 

Stone-checker, sb, the wheatear ; also the cock stone-chat The hen 
is * whinrchecker.'. 

Stood, V, withstood. * Your honour knows I never ttood your word.* 

Stook, (I) sb. the 'shock' into which sheaves of com are first built 
up aftiar being cut — ^generally from eight to eighteen sheaves. 

(2) V. to put up sheaves of com in ' stooks ' or shocks. 

Stookie, ab. the inflated skin of a dog or other animal, used by fisher- 
men as a float for their lines or nets. 

Stooky, ab. a thick red composition used by French polishers. 

Stopple, «5. a knot of hair in a bmsh. 

Stour, (I) ab, dust ' It went off like atour .*' said of something that 
has sold rapidly. 

(2) »b. a disturbance or row. 

Stove, V. to suffocate with smoke. 

Straddle, ab. the saddle on the back of a cart-horse on which the 
' back-band ' rests. 

Strain the anklet, ab. to sprain the ankle. 

Strange, v. to wonder, * I atrange very much that you didn't come.' 

Stranger. * You're a great atranger,' t. e. I have not seen you lately, 
or you have not been here lately. 

Stravaig, v. to wander about - 

Stresses, ab. pi. " Many of the inhabitants, particularly females, 
die in their youth of what they call etressesy that is violent heats from 
hard work." — Mason's Parochial Survey, 1814. 

Strick, (1) ab. a small handful of flax fibre. 

(2) V. to arrange flax which has passed through the rollers, for the 
scutchers, so as to make it as even as possible. 

Strickle, ab. an oak stick covered with emery for sharpening scythes. 
Same as Stroke. 

Strip, ab. the soil or clay which has to be stripped off the surface of 


a rock, before the rock can be quarried. Alao called Sed» i . e. some- 
thing to be got rid of. 

Stripper, ah, a cow that is giving milk, but is not in calf. 

I, sb, the last milk taken from a cow at each milking ; it is 
the richest. 

Strit, sh. a plant, Juncits lamprocarpua. 

Stroke, (1) ah. an oak stick covered with emery for sharpening 
scythes. Same as Strickle. 

(2) sb. a measure of potatoes containing two bushels. Dungiven, 
CO. iJerry (Mason's Parochial Survey, 1814). 

(3) ab, to give a ' stroke of the harrow,* is to pass a harrow over 

Stroop, ab. a spout, as — ' the atroqp of the kettle.' 

Stnint, ab. a sulky fit. 

Stng^hies, ab. pi. stews, of a greasy and coarse desctiptioii. 

Stump and rump, ab. the whole. 

Stune, ab. a sting of pain. 

Stnpe, V. to bathe or sponge any part. 

Sturdy, ab. " Near the sea-coast a sort of Poyson, I take it, called 
darneil, rises in the oats and other grain, veiy offensive to the brain, 
and cannot be cleaned out of the coru; ye country people call it 
aturdy, from the effects of makingpeople light-headed.— -De«crtp<ton 
of the CO. of Antrim^ by BiCHABD DOBBS, 1683. 

Sucli an*, such. ' Stich an^ a fine day.' 

Suck in, (1) ab. a deception. 
(2) V. to deceive ; to mislead. 

Suck ! Suck ! a call to a calf. 
Sncky, sh, a calf. 

Sugar. 'Yoa're neither mgar nor salt that you'd melt:' said to 
reconcile a person to a wetting. 

Sum, ab. *^ A sum of cattle in these parts is what they call a col lop 
in other parts of Ireland, consisting of one full-grown cow or bullock, 
of three years old, or a horse of that age ; though in some places a 
horse is reckoned a aum and a half. Eight sheep make a atim." — 
Harris, Hiat. co. Doum, 1744. In some places six ewes and six 
lambs make a aum. 

Sundays. ' A month of Sundays ' =. a long time. ' I won't go 
back there for a month of Sundays,^ 

Sup, (1) ab. a small quantity of any liquid. 

(2) 8h. a quantity. ' A good aup of rain fell last night.' 


Sup lorra, v. to be aony ; to repent. * Sup sarra wi' the spoon o' 
grief,' a Baying. 

Sorely to goodnesi, adv, soiely. 

Swab, (1) sb. a butchei^s swab = a batcher's boy. 

(2) $b, a oontemptoous term for a person. 

Swankf eb. a tall, thin man. 

Sward, sb. the swathe, or line of grass cut by the scyth& 

Swayed, adj, said of a wall that is leaning to one side. 

Sweel, sb. a swivel 

Sweer, adj. unwilling ; slow. 

Swinge, v. to singe. 

Sfmiger, sb. anything big. ' That conger eel 's a swinger.^ 

Swingle-tree, sb. part of the tackle of a plough. 

Swirl, sb, a whirling gust of wind. 

Swirly, sb. a quarryman's term for a large ammonite. 

Swither, t;. to be in doubt ; to hesitate. 

Switherin*, undecided. ' I'm switJierin* whether to go or not 

Swithers, sb. To be ' in the swithers,* wavering ; to be undecided. 
' I'm in the swithers what to do.' 

Swurl 0* wun, sb. a blast of wind. 
Synayug, a soft crab. Same as a Peeler. 
Syne, adv. late. 

Taapie, sb. a silly, careless woman. 

Taok, sb. a rancid taste or taint, in butter, &c. 

Taokle, sb. a quick and rather troublesome child. 

Taoky, adj. sticky as varnish, not quite hard. 

Taen, v. taken. 

Taiokle, sb. a randy ; a talking, scolding woman. 

Tail of the eye, sb. the comer of the eye. ' I saw him with the tail 
of my eye.' * Now don't be watchin' me out of the tail of your eyeJ 

Tak, or Take, sb. a piece of ground taken on lease. 



Tike. * Take to your beaters.' ' Take to your scrapers ' == run 

Take a hand at, v. to impose upon ; to banter ; to hoax. ' I kuovr 
yer jast takin* a han^ at me.* 

Take an' do, to do. ' Take an' do that at once.' 

Take bad, v. to take ill. 

Take in with, to overtake a person. ' You'll soon take in with him.' 

Taken on with, pleased with. 'They're greatly tciken on with him.' 

Take notice, v. an infant beginning to show that it observes things 
is said to * take notice.* 

Take off, (1) sb, a mimic. 'Dear ! but you're a sore take off' 

(2) V, to mimic. * He took her off to the life.' 
Take stock, v. to take notice of ; to observe. 
Tak' yer tobaoco, don't be in a hurry. 
Tammock, sb, a little knoll, in a bog or marsh. 
Tkumy, »b. a dark-complexioned (tawney) person. 
Tap 0' kin, eh. the head of the family. 

Tap o' tow. Flax or tow placed on the ' rock ' of a spinning-wheel, 
which if set on fire, would be all ablaze in an instant. Hence the 
saying — * He went aff like a tap o' towt* meaning he got into a flaming 
passion in an instant 

Tarble han', terrible hand. Same as Sore hand. 
Tarbilleet, adj. most terrible. 

Targe, (I) sb, a scolding woman. 

(2) V. to scold loudly. 
Targein'. ' A targein' fine horse,' a very fine horse. 
Taste, eb. a small quantity. * A taste o' matches.' 
Tasty, adj\ tasteful ; natty. ^ Oh, he's a very taety man.' 
Tatty, adj, untidy ; unkempt. 
Tawpened, adj, tufted as a fowl. 
Tawpenny, eb. a hen with a tuft on its head. 

Tear, (1) v. to run fast. 

(2) V. to knock or ring violently at a door. 

(3) [Teer] * There's a tear in yer e'e like a threv'lin' rat/ saying. 

Tears. ' The tears were running down his cheeks like beetles up a 
hill : ' said in ridicule of a child who is crying for nothing. 


Teem, (1) t^. to poui. ' He teemed a pint of it down the dog's 

(2) $b, heaviest rain. ' I was out in a perfect teemJ 

Telling. ' It would be no tellin\* i. 6. it would not tell or count in 
one's fayouT — ^would be hurtful. ' It would be teilin* me a quaie dale 
if rd knowed that afore/ i. e. it would have been of great oonseq[U6ac8 
to me to haye known, &c. 

Tamp a utnt (tempt a saint), to be very annoying. ^ It would temj* 
a Hint the way you're gettin' on.* 

Tendered, v. made tender, as linen sometimes is in 'the bleach.' 
' The Hbre (of flax) tendered by excess of moisture.* 

Tent of ink, eb, as much ink as a pen will lift at once out of an ink- 

Thairm, eh. cat-gut. 

That, (1) so. ' He was that heavy we couldn't lift him.' 

(2) used in sense of this. A common salutation. * Thafi a soft 
day/ means, ' This is a wet day.' 

The day, to-day. ' Will you go the day, or the morrow f ' 

Thee, sb. the thigh. 

Thegither, adv. together. 

Theirsels, themselves. 

The long eleventh of June, saying, used as a comparison of length. 

The more, adv. although. * He did it, the more he said he wouldn't.' 

The morra eome niver, never. 

The pigs ran through it» something interfered to prevent the 
arrangement being carried out. 

Thiek^ (1) adj. friendly; confidential. 'As thick as thieves.' 
(2) adj, in quick succession ; dose together. 

Think a heap, v. to like ; to value. ' We think a heap of him.* 

Think long, v. to feel a longing ; to be home-sick. ' What's the 
matter with you ; are you thinking long f ' 

Think pity, v. to pity ; to take pity. ' I thought pity o' the chile he 
was ttiat cowl.' 

Think shame, be ashamed. * Think shame o' yersel', child ! ' 

Thirtage, sb. Same as Mootther, or Moulter. The proportion of 
meal paid to a miller for grinding. OhBolete, 1 believe. 

Thirteen, sb. a name for a British shilling at the time when the 
British and Irish currencies were different The shilling was worth 
thirteen pence Irish. 


Thole, (1) V. to bear; to endure. 

(2) * A haporth o' thoU-yrwl, an' a pennorth o' nivir-let-on-ye-hae- 
it/ reoommended as a cure for a trifling ailmeni 

Thon, adv. yon. 

Thonder, adv, yonder. 

Thongin*, sb. a beating. 

Thoomy sh. the thumb. 

Thooms (thumbs). ' They might lick thooma tae the elbows/ i, e, 
the one is as bad as the other. * We may lick thooms upon that/ a 
common saying when two parties agree to a bargain, or have a com- 
munity of opinion (Ulster Journal of Archceology), 

Thorn grey, eh. the common grey linnet. Also called Hedge grey. 

Thorougliy or Thorra, adj, wise; sane. 'The poor fellow's not 

Thoughty sh, a small quantity of anything. ' A wee thought, a less 

Thraiyeless, adj, careless ; silly, or restless, applied to a person dis- 
inclined to do anything, the disinclination arising from weakness. 
* I was thraivdess after uiat long illness.' 

Thrapple, Thrap, sb. the wind-pipe ; the throat. 

ThraWy t^. to twist ; to turn. 

** Wha scarce can thraw her neck half roun', 
Tae bid guid mom her neighbour." — Huddleston. 

' Them boots would thraw yer feet.' 

Thraw a rope, to be hanged (the weight of the body causes the rop j 
to ^ thraw ^). 

Thraw hook, sb, a hooked stick used for twisting hay-rope. 
Thraw mule, sb. a perverse and obstinate person. 
Thread the needle and sew, ab. a children's game. 
Threave, sb. the straw of two stooks (shocks) of com. 
Threep, v, to argue, or contest a point. 
Threthel, sb. the threshold. 

Thrifftle cook, sb. the common bunting. 

Throm, prep. from. 

Throng, adj. crowded. ' The streets were very throng,' over-throng = 

Through, (1) adv. in the course of. ' I'll call through the day.' 

(2) adv. a horse ' working through land,' means working in fields, 


ploughing, &0. ' Ghoing through the floor ' := walking about a room 
aa a nurse does with a restless child. 

Through-other, Throothar, adj. confused ; untidy ; without order. 
' She's a through-other sort o* buddy.' ' His horse is all through-other.* 

ThroWt t^. to cause. ' It throws us that we can't get the place deand 

Throw by, v. throw away. ' Throw by that owl hat aff ya' 

Thnuny sh. a threepence. A commission of three pence per stone on 
flax, paid by a flax buyer to a person who brings ijie buyer and seller 
together in open market. 

Thmmphry, sb. rubbish ; broken furniture. 

Thrums, sb. pi. the ends of the threads of a weaver's warp. 

Thrush, sb. a boy's game. 

Thrush, the, sb. a skin eruption. 

Thrashed in the feet, applied to a horse whose feet have become 
tender from the effect of dry hot weather. 

Thump, sb. bean champ, t. e. mashed potatoes and beans. 

Thuuder. ' He turned up his eyes like a duck in thunder,' i. e. he 
showed astonishment. 

Thuuder-bolt, a stone celt ; also a belemnite. 

Thunderin*, very. * Thunderin! good hay.' 

Thurrish, v. to be friendly, kindly, or accommodating. ' These people 
wouldn't thurrish together.* 

Tib's eve, or Bt. Tib's eve, never. * I'll mar^ you on Tib's ew, an' 
that's neither before Christmas nor after,' sa3ring. 

Tiolit, adj. smart ; active. * A tichty clean fellow.' 

Ticklish, adj. difficult; precarious. 

Tid, Tidge, sb. a fine warm bed for crops ; adj. the quality of soil 
that is fit for the reception of seed. ' That ground is in fine tid,' i. t. 
pulverised and dry. 

Tied. ' He was fit to be tied, i. e. in agreat passion. 

Tig, sb. a children's game. The one that ' has tig,* chases the others 
till he ' ^ves tig* to one of them by touching; l^e one ' tigged^ then 
chases uie others who avoid him as dangerous. ' Qroaa-tigt* u & 
modification of this game. 

Till, {!) sb. heavy clay; the subsoil. 

(2) prep, used for to. * A'm goin' tiU Lisbum.' 
Till iron, sb. a crow-bar. 

Till midden, sb. a manure-heap in a ploughed field. 


Time, (1) < If I can make time ' = if I have time. 

(2^1 * Ton kept time between you and the day,' t. e. you kept putting 
off tae eTH day. 

Time o' day. To ' bid the time o' day,* is to salute a person with 
' good morning ' or anything similar. 

Ttmmersomey adj. timorous. 

Tin, «5. What is known as * a tin,* is a tin mug or porringer. 

Tinker's toast, sb, the crust at the side of a loaf which has been one 
of the oatfiide loaves of a batch. 

Tint, adj, one-third rotten, applied to wood that has been kept 
seasoning till it begins to decay. 

Tip, sb. a ram. 

Tirl, Thirl, v. to turn up something. * The wun' thirled the thatch 
las* nicht.' 

To, (1) adv. used for tilL ' Come here to I kiss you.' 

(2) ^ep. used for for. * You can get a bit to yoursell' 

Toardst, adv. towards. 

Tod, ah. a fox. 

To-morrow was a year, a year ago from to-morrow. 

Tom pudden, sb. the little grebe ; also called, ' penny-bird,' ' drink a 
penny,' ' Willie Hawkie.* 

Tongue, (1) * Has a tongue wud clip clouts.' ' Has a tongue wud clip 
iron or brass,' applied to a great talker, or to a person who has * a 
cuttin' tongue.* 

(2) V. to scold. 

Tongue thrash, v. to scold. 

Tongue-thrashing, sb. a scolding. 

Tonguing, sb. abuse ; a violent scolding. 

Too big riggit, adj. over rigged, as a boat. 

Took, (1) struck or caught. * A stone just took him in the eye.' 

(2) V. went. ' They took down the old road.' 

Took of^ V. ran away. 

Toom, adj. empty. 

Tooth. Children when they are losing their first teeth, are told 
when a tooth is taken out, ti^t if they do not put their tongue into 
the hole, a gold tooth will grow. 

Top, V. to lop off the top branches in pruning a hedge. 

Top piokle. ' The top pickle of all grain belongs to the gentry,' t. e. 
to the failles. 


Tory, sh, a deceiving person, usually applied in banter ; a teim of 
endearment for a child, tlLUS—' Ah I you're a right tary,* ' A zajl 
fory.* ' A sore tory,* &c. 

Tothan, sb. a silly person* 

To iha fore, in existence. 

Totiherry, adj. untidy ; ragged. 

Touch, sb. a loop of cord put round a horse's tongue or lip. 

Toneh an' hail, sb. (touch and heal), the St. John's wort, Hyparieum 
perforatum. Prunella vulgaris is also so-called. 

Touts, sb. pi. peat sods used in firing. 

Toye, V. to boast or brag. 
ToYor, sb. a boaster. 

ToYOy, Tovedy adj. pu£fed up ; silly ; self-important 

Toyy eedyot, sb. a pufifed up fooL 

Towarst, adv^ towards. 

Town stinker, sb. a boy's game, played with a balL The 'town* is 
marked by a circle on the ground, and two x>arties of bo^ take 
possession of it alternately, according to their success in striking the 
oall in certain directions. 

Track, sb. In playing marbles, a boy who hits one marble may 
* take track oft it,' t. e, he gets another shot. 

Traik, (!) sb. a long, tiresome walk. 
(2) V. to be sickly ; not to thrive. 

Train, v. to travel by train. * He'll have to train it every day.' 

Tramp oock, sb. a hay* cock, which has been tramped to make it more 

Trams, sb. pi. the portions of the shafts which project behind the 
body of a cart. They are also called Baok-trama. 

Trash, Oreeu trash, sb. unripe or bad fruit. 

Travel, v. to walk. ' I travelled it every fut o' the way.' 

Treadwuddy, sb. an iron hook and swivel used to connect a single 
or double tree with a plough or harrow. 

Trench, v. to dig land down to the sub-soil. 

Trig, (^l) sb. the line from which persons jumping start from, when 
making the jump. 

(2) adj. neat; trim. 
Trigged up, v. trimmed up ; settled. 
Trinket, v. a small artificial water-course. 


Trinkle, v. to trickle. 

Trodgo, V. to walk ; to Baunter. 

Trodger, sb. a traveller on foot. 

Trog, sb. slow and petty dealing in the market. 

Troth, in truth. * Troth an' I won't' 

Troubles the, sb. the Irish rebellion of 1641. 

Trout heaghty ah. trout height, the height that a trout can leap from 
the water, used as a standard or comparison of height. 

Trnckle, sb. a small car, in common use before the introduction of 
the present &rni carts. 

TmH t?. to steal. 

Tmff the ducks, a term applied to beggars and vagrants. 

Tmle, sh. a trowel. 

Trump, sb. a Jew's-harp. 

Tnumel, Triimel, (l) ab. the wheel of a wheelbarrow. 

(2) V, to trundle. 'Away out an' trinnd yer hoop.' 

Truss, ab. A truaa of hay is twelve score pounds. A tniaa of straw 
is nine score (MoSkhon, Hist, Carrick/ergus), 

TmtL ' It's as true as truth has been this long time,' saying. 

Tryste, (1) ab. an appointment. * He put in a tryate with his girl.' 

(2) V. to make an appointment ; to bespeak ' You can't have them 
hoots, they're tryatedj 

Trysted, v. appointed. * I have tryated to meet him on Monday.' 

Tthur ! Tthur-I a call for pigs. 

Tuck stick, ab, a sword-stick. 

Tune. * The tune the old cow died of,' a comparison for any unre- 
cognizable air, or any particularly bad attempt at music. 

Tuppenny ticket, ab. * It's not worth a tuppenny ticket,^ i. e. it's 

quite worthless. These 'tickets' were copper, tradesmen's tokens, 

I value two-pence, of which considerable numbers were issued in the 

north of Ireland in the eighteenth century. They were about the 

size of farthings. 

lorn an arch, v. to form or build an arch. 

Tamed, adj. slightly sour, applied to milk. 

Tum-footms, ab. pi. small heaps of cut turf. See under Clamp. 

' You may take one, 
And jou may take two, 
But if you take three, 
m take you.' 


Supposed to be said by fiBurmers oonceming peisons who take a tuniip 
out of a field to eat it 

Turn out the, »b. a teiin for the Irisb rebellion of 1798. Also 
called The Horriea. 

Turn ipit Jack, sb, a game at country balls, &c., in which young 
men compete by singing for their partners in the next dance. 

TuiL the word, to contradict, or dispute the correctness of a state- 
ment ' I wouldn't begin to turn the vford with you.' 

Twa, nu, adj. two. 

Twm hand boy, sh. a smart fellow. 

Twall, nu, adj, twelve. 

Twalmonfh, sb, a year. 

Twiet, Twioet^ adv, twice. 

Two double, acy. 'Bent ttoo double.' 'Going two donhU' bent 
with pain or age. 

Two-eyed beef-fteak, sb. a herring. 

Twusde, sb, a tussle. 

^ TTnease, TTnaisement, sb. an uneasy state. ' They got into 
an unaite when they heard about it' * It caused a great unaitoMid 
in the village.* 

ITuoo, adj, strange. 

TTuderboard, adj. dead and coffined, but not yet buried. 

TTuderoonstumble, v. to understand ; to comprehend. 

TTnder foot salve, sb, filth applied as a poultice in the case of 
horses, &c. 

TTnfeelsome, adj. unpleasant; disagreeable. 

Unfordersome, adj. unmanageable. 

TTnknownce, Uiiknownst, adv. unknown. 

Unpossible, adv. impossible. 

Unsigfnifled, adj. insignificant. 

TTnsonsy, adj. unlucky. 

TTutimous, adj. at unseasonable times. 

TTpcatt, sb. a reproach ; something ' cast up ' to one. 

Upon, prep. with. ' I take the medicine upon milk.' 

Upsetting^, adj. arrogant; assuming. 'The're the most wpeedtned 
people in the countiy.' 


ITp the country people, sb. pi. persons from any part of Ireland, 
except the north-east of Ulster. 

lis, pron, me. 

Vaig, sh, a disreputable, wandering person. 

Vaigiflh, €ulj, vagrant. ' A vaigUh looking person.' 

Vast. To be ' vast against a person/ is to be very much opposed to 

Vaut, sh. a vault. 

Termint o' rats, a great quantity of rats ; a plague of rats. 

Waarsh, Worsh, adj, insipid. 'A've got a warsh taste in ma 

Wabster, sh. a weaver. 

Wad, V, to wager. 

Wag at the wa', sh. a clock, of which the pendulum is exposed to 

Wag on, r. to beckon. ' I wagged on him to come across the field 

Wait a wee, wait a little bit. 

Waited on, just expected to die. * He was loaited on last night.' 
* He's just a waiiin* on,'' 

Wakerife, Waukerife, adj, wakeful. 

Wale, (1) sh. that which is chosen or selected. 

(2) V. to pick the best out of a quantity of anything. 

Waling [wailing] glass, sh. a weaver's counting glass, which magnifies 
a small portion of the surface of linen, and thus enables the set or 
count to oe ascertained. 

Walked [/ sounded], adj, shrunken, applied to flannel that has shrunk 
in washing. * The flannen 's as walked an' hard as a ca's lug ' [a calf s 

Wallop, sK * A wallop of a horse,' a loose-limbed horse. 

Walloping, v, floundering. A certain lake had overflowed its banks, 
and it was said that ' the eels were wallopin' through the fields.' 

Wallopy, adj, loose limbed. 

Walter, v. * The potatoes lie down and waiter on the ground,' i, e, 
they remain lying. 

Walthered, adj, mired or stuck in a boggy road, or swampy place. 
' Whiles in the momin' I find the branches of the trees all waUhered 
and smashed,' broken down into the mire. 


Wanst, adv. once. 

Waat^ V. to do without. ' We can't ward the pony the daj.' 

Wanting, without. ' You're better wanting that' 

Wants a square of being round : said of a person who is not wise. 

War-hawk, sh, a bailiff or summons server. 

Warm the wax in your ears, box your ears. 

Warshness, sh, a sickish feeling, accompanied by a desire to taste 
something salt or with a strong flavour. 

Warts. Warts are said to be caused by the foam of the sea if it 
touches the hands. 

Washing, sh, A washing of clothes is as much as is washed at 

Wasslin', v, making a rustling or hoarse sound in breathing. ' Do 
you hear the chile wasslin* in his chest ? ' 

Wassookt sh. a wind-guard for the door of a cottage made of inter- 
woven branches of birch or hazeL Same as Corrag. 

Watch out, V. to watch for ; to look out for. 

Water, sh. a river. * The six-mile water.* ^ The Braid water.' 

Water-brash, sh. a sensation as of water coming up the throat int^ 
the mouth. 

Water-grass, sh. water-cress. 

Water g^uns, sh. pi. sounds as of gun-shots said to be heard around 
the shores of Lough Neagh and by persons sailing on the lake. The 
cause of the sounds, which are generally heard in calm weather, has 
not been explained. The phenomenon is also spoken of as the Lough 

Water of Ayr, sh. a kind of stone highly prized for hones ; boys' 
marbles are also supposed to be made of itw Sometimes called 
Wattery vair. 

Water table, sh. the channel at the side of a road. 

Water wagtail, sh. the grey wagtail. 

Waur, adj. worse. ' Ance ill, aye watir, saying. 

Way, sh. * He's in a great way with her,' t. e. he is very much taken 
with her, or in love with her. 

(2) * What way are ye ? ' * What way are ye commin* on ? ' i. '• 
how do you do P 

Ways, sh. way ; distance. ' It's a great foays off.' 
Weak turn, sh. a fainting fit. 
Wean, Wain, sh. a child. 


Wear ia^ v. ' The time will aoon wear in,* i. e, the time will §oon 

Wearia. ' The aold wearie on you/ an evil wish or cune. 

Weatd, ^. the stoat. The tme weasel does not occur in Ireland. 

Weaflier gall, sh. the end of a rainbow seen in equally weather. 
Same as Dog. 

Weavers, sh, pi. spiders. 

Webber, sh. a country linen buyer. (Obsolete.) 

Week, sh. a wick — Whence the riddle or puzzle, 'licht a canle on 
Monday momin', an' it 11 bum tae the week's en',* 

Wed, V, weeded. * The garden wants to be wed! 

Wee, (1) 9h. a short time. 'In a wee ' = in a short tima 

(2) adj. little. 
Weed, eh. a fevensh attack to which women are sometimes liable. 

Weel-fiEtured, adj. good-looking. 

Wee folk. Wee people, eh. pi fairies. 

Wee knowin', eh. a small quantity; what could be perceived. 

Weel saired, adj. well served. 

Weeny, adj. little. Same as Wee. 

Wee ones, eh. pi. children. * There was a wheen o' toee onee foUayin' 
afther thim.' 

Wee thing, a little. ' It's a wee thing sharp this momin'.' 

Weght, eh. a round tray, made of sheepskin stretched on a hoop, for 
carrying com, &c. 

Weigh butter and sell cheese, eh. a children's game. Two persons 
stand back to back and interlock their arms; then each, by bending 
forward alternately, lifts the other off the ground. 

Weill whati 

Well-blooded, acff. with a high complexion ; rosy. 

Well ink, eh. a marsh plant, Veronica Beccdbtmga. It is used 

Well, I think ! an exclamation of surprise ; indeed ! 

Well of a car, eh. a receptacle for luggage or parcels in the central 
part of an ' outside car.' 

Well put on, adj. well-dressed. The reverse is HI put on. 

Welshmen plucking their geese, a heavy shower of snow when 
the wind- is 8.E. or E. 



Welt the flure, a call of encouragement to persons dancing. 

Wet-my-footy sh, the quail : so called from its cry. Also called Wet- 

Wet shod, adj, haying one's hoots and stockings satniated. 

Whack, (1) sb, a good allowance of drink. ' He can take his fcAae&.' 
A profit, or a share or slioe of the profit, on a transaction. 

(2) Quality. ' It's not the whack,' i, e. not the quality ; not np to 
the mark. 

Whalin', sb, a beating. 

Whammel, v, to fall in a sprawling way. 

Whammlo, Whummla, v. to upset or knock over something. 

Whangy (1) sb. a thong : hence a shoe-tie. 
(2) ah, a large slice cut off a loaf. 

Wharve, sb. the spool fastened on a spindle over which the band 
passes which drives the spindle. 

What ails you atl means what objection or dislike have yon to) 
Thus : ' What aUs you at that man?* * What aOa y<m at your stir- 
about ? ' 

What oome on you? what happened to you) what delayed you) 

What do they call you? t. e. what is your^name? 

What Uke is hel what is he like? 

What way are ye? how do you do? 

What way is he? how is he? 

Whatsumever, adv. whatever. 

Whaup, sb. a curlew, Numenius Arquata. 

Whee ! Wee 1 call for a horse to stop. 

Wheen, sb. a quantity ; a number. * Give us a wheen o' them nuts, 
* rU try it for a wheen o' days more.' 

Wheep, V. to whistle. 

Wheepler, sb. a whistler. 

Whoetie, sb. a duck. 

Wheetie-wheetie, a call to ducks. 

Which? what? 

Which han' will ye have it in? a taunt, meaning you won't get 
it at all. 

Whiles, adv. now and then ; occasionally. ' Ogh, 'deed, tohilet be a 
betther an' whiles he's waur.' 


WUUalooya. ' Singing whtlldlooya to the day nettles/ dead and 

% sb, a 'whisper. 

L-wham. 'A whim^ham for a goose's bridle/ something that 
April fools are sent in search ol 

Whin cheokery ah. the hen stone chat See Stone checker. 

Whinge, v. to whine ; to cry in a complaining way. 

Whin grey, ah, a bird, the lesser redpole. 

Whins, aK forze. 

Whin<8tone, ah. basalt. 

Whip, r. to run qnickly. 

Whish 1 Whisht ! Wheesht ! inteij. hash. 

White, V. to cut small chips off a stick with a knife. 

White-headed boy, ah. a favoured one ; a mother's favourite among 
her boys. 

White horse, ah. a summons. 

White side, ah. the tufted duck, or the young of the golden eye. 

Whitey-brown thread, ah. a strong kind of thread : so called from 
its ooloTip. 

Whitterick, ah. a small swimming bird, perhaps the little grebe. 

Whitterick, Whitterit, ah. the stoat, Muatda Erminea. 

^Hiizeek, sh. a severe blow. * A hut him a whizeek on the lug.' 

^Hio's owe it? who owns iti 

Whnddin', v. appHed to a hare when it 19 running about as if to 
amuse itself. 

Whnmper, ah. a whisper ; a private intimation. 

Whnp, ah, a whip. 

Whniherit, ah. a stoat. 

Why but yon 1 why did (or do) you not 1 * Why hut you pay the 
man?' * Why but you hut }um?' 

Wiley coat, ah. a short shirt of flannel, with short sleeves, open 
down the front, worn by men, sometimes next the skin and sometimes 
over another garment. 

Wilk, ah. a periwinkle. 

Williard, adj. obstinate ; self-willed. 

Willie Hawkie, ah. the little grebe. Also called Drink-a-penny, 

Willie-wagtail, ah. the wagtail. 

I 2 


Wilyart^ "Wnlyart, adj. bashful ; stupid 

Win, V. to save or dry hay, turf, &c.y by exposure to the wind. 

Wind. (1) * To get under tbe teind* of any affidr is to get secret or 
early ixuormation abont it. 

(2) The following rhyme has regard to the Tarions winds : 

' When the wind *8 from the north 
It*8 good for cooling broth ; 
When the wind 's m>m the south 
It blows the dust into your mouth ; 
When the wind ^b from the east 
It*B neither good for man or beast ; 
When the wind *8 from the west, 
Then the weather's best 

Winedins, sb, pi. The head and foot rig in a ploughed field on 
which the horses turn are the winedins. 

Wine 'ere^ Wind 'ere? a call to a horse to turn to the left or near 
. side. 

Wink o' sleep, any sleep. * 1 didn't get a wink o' skep for a week.' 

Winlin, sb. a small roll of hay. 

Winnie stroe, sb. a stalk of withered grass. 

Winter dyke, sb. two strong fences of stones or earth crossiug each 
other at right angles. These are erected on exposed pastures to shelter 
cattle left out in winter. Also a clothes-horse for drying dothes on. 

Winter Fridayi sb, a term for a cold, wretched-looking person. 

Wit, (l) sb. knowledge; intelligence. 

(2) * He has to seek his toit yet,' said of a fooL 
Witch's cradle, sb: a Lias fossil, Qryphea incurva. 
Wite, V. to blame. 

Wi' the han', favourable ; easily done. This expression is taken 
from ploughing experience. When a man is ploughin]^ across a 
sloping place, and has difficulty in ^tting the earthy to lie back, be 
would say it was * again the han' ; ' if otherwise, he would say it was 
. *' Wiethe han' J The horse that walks on the unploughed land is said to 
be ' in the ban' ; ' the other horse is called the ' fur horse,' because it 
walks in the furrow. 

Without, adv. unless. * Without you do it.' 

Y izzen, sb. the windpipe. 

Wobble, V. to lather the face before shaving ; to totter in walking ; 
to shake ; to be unsteady on thefeet. 

Wobblin' brush, sb. a shaving brush. 

Wool cottar, «5. a cormorant. 


Wool fire, wild fire, an eruption on the skin. ' It spreads like tcoof 
fire,* a comparison. 

Word, sb. news; a message. ' Word come that his brother was dead.' 
' Did the master leave word when he would be home P ' 

Words, 8b. a falling-out. 'Why did you leave your last place?' 
* Oh, the manager an' me had ivorde.* 

Worm monfh, sb. part of July and part of August; a fortnight 
before and a fortnight after Lammas. *' Everything that has life in 
it lives this month. 

Womupickedy adj, worm-eaten, as wood. 

'Worse nor lose ye eanna,' i. e. you can but lose, so you may 
venture to do it. 

Wraith, sb. a shadowy likeness of a person. 

Wran, sb. a wren. 

Wringin', adj. saturated ; dripping with water. * I was out in that 
pour, an' Tm all wringing.^ 

Wrought on, v. worked in the system. ' He took a swelling in his 
knee last July, an' it has wrought on him ever since.' 

Wud, adj. enraged ; mad, 

Wnn, sb. the wind. 

Wunnher, sh. a sprite of a child. ' Come here, ye tminnJiery ye.' 

Wunnhiir what ails ye. ' A'U mak ye wunnhur what ails ye,' a 
threat of a beating or punishment. 

Wunnie claith, sb. winnow cloth, a large cloth on which the grain 
&lls when it is winnowed by being tossed in the wind. 

Wur sels, sb. pL ourselves. 

Tammerin'y Timmerin', v. complaining ; grumbling. 

^*P> (1) 9b. a cross, peevish fellow. 

(2) V. A chicken or young turkey is said to yap when it makes 
repeated calls for food. 

^*Ppy> <^j' ^^ y hungry-looking. ^ 

Tarn. * Take the yam,' said of herrings when they strike the net. 

Tarwhelp, sb. a bird mentioned by Harris {Hist. Co. Down, 1744). 
It ** is something like a woodcock." Galled also Tarwhip. 

Taup, V. to bark ; to cry as a young bird for food. 

Teat, sb. a gate. 

Tell, adj. dry, as a cow when not giving milk. 


Telloch, 9h, a yell. 

TeUow-man, «6. a kind of tofifee made of treacle and flour. 

Terp, V, to yelp. 'Whiles a whitterick yerpa like a dug/ t.«. t 
stoat sometimes yelps like a dog. 

Tilley-yorlin, Tella-yoit, Tella-yert, sh the yellow-hammer or 
yellow bunting. 

Tin, culj. one. 

Tin ends erran', on particular or special purpose. ' He went yin 
ends erran' for it.* 

Tirkin, sb. the side of a boot. 

Tirnin^ Termerin', v. grumbling ; complaining. 

Toke, Tok, v. to attach a horse to a cart or other vehicle. 

Tirlin, sb, a yellow-hammer. 

Ton and yon die, /. e, you and others like yon ; in the same line 
as you are, or the same way of thinking. 

Tonr day, sb, your lifetime ; all your days. ' The watch will Iwt 
you your day,^ 

Ton're no fit, you are not able. 

Tonr nns, sb. your famOy. 

Toil% pran. ye. ' Tons can't get commin' through this way.' 

Ton'ye only fhe half of it, a reply to the observation, ' Pm glad 
to have seen you,' meaning < I am as glad as you are.' 

Towl^ V. to howL ' The dog yowled when I clodded a stone at him.' 

Towlin', Bb, a howling or yelping noise. 

Tnky, acy, itchy. 

Zinc, sb. This word is sometimes sounded as of two syllables, thiw— 


■ '4 








(DEPAHTMENT of botany, BBinSH MU8ET7M). 


BY TRttBNER & CO., 57 & 59, LUDGATE HILL. 




iNTRODUCnON ... ... ... ... ... vii 

I. From the 'Modern Husbandman' (1750) and otheb 

-WOBKS OF William Ellis ... ... ... 1 

II. Fbom * Obsbbvations in Husbandry.* By Edward 

liiSLE. (1757.) ... ... ... ... ... 00 

m. * DicnoNARiuM Eusticum.' By J. W[orlidgeJ (1681.) 73 

IV. From * Annals of Agriculture.' (1784 — 1815.) ... 93 ^ 

V. From the Reports of the Agricultural Survey. 


(1793—1813.) ... ... ... ... ... 115 

VI. Agricultural Provincialisms. From Morton's 

'Cyclopedia of Agriculture.' (1863.) ... ... 129 

vn. Weights and Measures. From the same ... ... 165 

XNDEX ... ... ... ... ... ... Liu 


This collection of words, like many things of very much greater 

importance, owes its formation to an accident. A casual reference in 

a horticultural work to Ellis's Modem Husbandman induced me to 

consult it with a view of seeing if it contained any plant-names. I 

soon saw that it would be worth my while to go through the whole 

set of eight volumes for the purpose of extracting the plant-names 

contained therein, some of which were quite new to me. While thus 

engaged, I saw many other words which seemed to me unusual, and 

which were often stated by the writer to be of local use ; and it then 

occurred to me that it might be worth while to extract these also. 

On consulting Mr. Nodal he considered the collection thus formed 

sidtable for publication by the English Dialect Society ; and it 

seemed to me then that one or two other works of similar character 

might be treated in like manner, and the words so obtained issued 

with those extracted from Ellis. I am now further encouraged in 

this belief by the Rev. Prof. Skeat, whose kind assistance I shall 

acknowledge later on ; he has read the extracts in slip, and has from 

time to time expressed his belief as to the value of the collection. 

Many of the words which I have selected are probably in more 
general use than I, with my very limited knowledge of the subject, 
am aware of. Some few, indeed, can hardly be considered as really 
dialect words, but I have included them because they were at any 
rate unusual, and thus, as it seemed to me, deserved to have attention 
drawn to them. Perhaps whatever value the collection may possess 
will be found to consist largely in the references given to many words 
which are included by Halliwell and other writers of dictionaries, but 
^hich have not been referred to fmy printed source. 


There can, I think, be but little doubt that collections o! words 
similar to those now placed before the membeis of the Englbh Dialect 
Society might be made with advantage from other works of a like 
character. There ar6 many books on husbandry and gardening which 
contain much <^ dialectal interest — an illustration of this wiU shortly 
be ^ issued by the Society in the shape of a reprint of Fitzherberi's 
Htisbandri/, under the skilled editorship of Prof. Skeat 

The following is a brief account of the works from which the 
present collection is selected. 

I. Ellis. — ^The glossary numbered I. is extracted from the works 
of William EUis. Ellis was a farmer at Little Gaddesden in Hert- 
fordshire during the last century. Very little is known about him, 
but from his Modern Husbandman we gather incidentally that he 
had been fifty years a resident in the locality, which makes it 
probable that he was born there ; that he had trarelled both in 
England and on the Continent ; that he had a wife and six children, 
the latter of whom he took pains to train in agricultural pursuits (see 
Collar in Gloss., p. 12). It is clear that he was a man of much 
intelligence, although he refers (Modem HuabandmaUf YI. iL 36) to 
his * illiterature ' ; his writings have a strong local colouring, and 
record for the most part his experience as a Hertfordshire fanner. 
An inspection of the words selected, with their accompanying 
extracts, will show that many of them are specified by Ellis as in 
use in Hertfordshire ; others are from various counties, also specified: 
those which are not mentioned as being in use in any special locality 
are, I think, most probably also Hertfordshire words. The import- 
ance of this may be gathered from the fact that the Bibliographical 
List issued by the K D. S. has no reference to any collection of 
Hertfordshire words, however small ; and the close proximity of the 
county to the metropolis renders it probable that local words ars in 
especial danger of extinction. If the plant-names used by Ellis may 
be taken as a criterion, the collection contains many new words; 
several of these plant-names do not appear, I believe, in any other 
work, the E D. S. Dictionary of English Plant-names not excepted, 
although we have endeavoured to make our collection as complete as 


possible, and have consolted almost every work known to us bearing 
on the subject. Ellis's works, indeed, seem very little known, or 
tbey would have been alluded to in the K D. S. Bibliographical 

I proceed to give the full titles of the works of Ellis cited in 
Gloss. L, with the abbreviations by which I have indicated them. 

Modem Husbandman = The Modem Husbandman, complete in eight 
volumes, containing— I. The Practice of Farming, as it is now 
carried on by the most experienced farmers in the several counties 
of England, for every month of the year. II. The Timber and 
Fruit-Tree improved, or, the best practical methods of improving 
different lands with proper Timber, m. Agriculture improved, or, 
the Practice of Husbandry displayed, shewn by Facts performed on 
all sorts of land, according to the old Plain, and the New Drill way 
of Ploughing. lY. Chiltem and Yale Farming explained, accord- 
ing to the latest Improvements. Necessary for all Landlords and 
Tenants of either Ploughed, Gfrass, or Wood Grounds. By Williara 
Ellis, Farmer, at Little Gaddesden. London, 1750. 

The eighth volume of this work seems to be mainly a compilation 

from, or summary of, the rest. Ellis also issued The Practical 

Farmer, or The Hertfordshire Hushandinan^ of which I have only 

seen the fifth edition (1759), which does not materially differ from 

The Modern Husband fnan, but has prefixed to it a short glossary of 

terms, which I occasionally quote. The Timber-Tree imp'oved is 

the title of a separate and earlier work (1738), which is incorporated 

in The Modem Husbandman, Although the title-pages of the eight 

volumes bear the same date, The Modern Hiisbandman seems to 

have been issued in parts, and these were bound up differently by 

different people. Thus, although the parts of the British Museum 

copy (pressmark, 235. g. 20) and that acquired for the E. D. S. 

correspond in nearly every particular, the volumes containing them 

are arranged differently. It is so important to bear this in mind 

in verifying quotations, that I have drawn out a table showing the 

differences in arrangement in the British Museum copy, from which 

my quotations are taken, and that belonging to the E. D. S. In the 

second column, I have indicated the position of the corresponding 

parts in the British Museum copy. 


Britiih Museum Copy. 

VoL L pt. 1, Jan., pp. viii, 148 
pt. 2, Feb., pp. viii, 151 

Vol. n. pt 1, Mar., pp. viii, 150 
pt. 2, April, pp. viii, 152 

Vol. IIL pt. 1, May,pp.x,viii,188 
pt. 2, May, pp. [vi] 190 

Vol. IV. pt. 1, June, pp. [vii] 190 
pt. 2, June, pp. [vi] 136 
pt. 3, July, pp. [viii] 142 
pt. 4, JiQy, pp. [v] 136 

Vol. V. pt. 1, Aug., pp. [vi] 139 
pt. 2, Aug., pp. [iv] 129 
pt. 3, Sept., pp. [vi] 152 

Vol. VI. pt. 1, Oct., pp. [iv] 152 
pt. 1, Nov., pp. viii, 150 
pt. 3, Dec, pp. [vi] 152 

Vol. VII. The Timher-Tree imprwed 
pt. 1, pp. [iv] 115 
pt. 2, pp. viii, 207 

Vol. Vm. ChiJtern and Vale Farm- 
ing explained, pp. [vi] 

English Dialect Soci€tys Ct^y^ 

VoL I. pt. 1, as opposite 
pt. 2 „ 

pt 3 = Vol. n. pt 1 

VoL n. pt. 1 = Vol. n. pt 2 

pt. 2 = YoL ni. pt 1 
pt 3 = VoL IV. pt 1 

VoL nL pt 1 = Vol. rv. pt 3 

pt. 2 = VoL V. pt 1, 
but is a different printing, 
and has 141 pp., which, 
however, contain nothing 
additional, but are more 
widely printed 

pt 3 = VoL V. pt 3 
VoL IV. pt. 1 = VoL VI. pt. 1 

pt. 2 = VoL VX pt 2 

pt 3 = VoL TI. pt 3 

Vol. V. 

= VoL vn. 

VoL VL pt 1 = Vol. IIL pt 2 
pt 2 = VoL IV. pt 2 

VoL vn. pt 1 = VoL rv. pt 4 

pt 2 = VoL V. pt 2 
VoL vm. corresponds 

Country Housewife = The Country Housewife's Family Companion : or 
Profitable Directions for whatever relates to the management and 
good (Economy of the Domestick Concerns of a Country Life 
according to the present practice of the Country Gentleman's, the 
Woman's, the Farmers', &c., Wives, in the Counties of Hertford, 
Bucks, and other parts of England : shewing how great savings 

may be made in Housekeeping The whole founded on near 

thirty years' Experience by W. Ellis. London .... 1750. 8*- 
Front pp. X, 379, index. (Brit. Mus. pressmark 7954 aaa.) 

This is a very complete work of its kind, and, like the rest of 
Ellis's writings, bears the stamp of originality. The recipes for the 


core of varions disorders are numerous, and should not be overlooked 
bj those interested in such subjects. 

STuphercPs ChUde = A oompleat system of Experienced Improyement, 
made in Sheep, Grass-lambs, and House-lambs: or the Country 
Gentlenian*8, tiie Grasier's, the Sheep-dealer's, and the Shepherd's 
Sure Guide : in the profitable management of those most servioe- 
able Creatures, according to the present Practice of the Author, 
and the most accurate Ghrasiers, Farmers, Sheep-dealers, and Shep- 
herds of ^England. .... In three books. By W. Ellis. London, 
1749. 8*- pp. [32] 384. (Brii Mus. pressmark 3d a. 23.) 

Prad, I^armer = The Practical Farmer or Hertfordshire Husbandman 
(see under Modem Husbandman), (Brit. Mus. pressmark 235 g. 31.) 

New Ea^peritnenU = New Experiments in Husbandry, for the month of 
ApriL ... By William EUia . . . London, 1 . . . 1736. 8*- pp. 
[6] 124, index. (Brit Mus. pressmark !2ii?) 

This also is mainly incorporated in The Modem Husbandman, 
but is not quite identical with it. 

Besides The Timber-Tree improved (Brit. Mus. pressmark *^^~)f 

already referred to, but not quoted in this collection, Ellis wrote one 

or two other works which I have not seen. Donaldson (Agricultural 

Biography, p. 50) cites * The compleat Planter and Cyderest, or a 

new method of planting Cyder-apple and perry-pear trees, and the 

most approved ways of making, cyder. London, 1757. 8®;* and in 

the Country Housewife (p. 131) EUis refers to a work of his which I 

have not been able to trace. He quotes it as ' The London and 

Conntry Brewer, sold by Mr. Astley, at the Rose in Paternoster 


La 1772 was published ' Ellis's Husbandry, abridged and method- 
ized : comprehending the most useful articles of Practical Agricul- 
ture. London, 2 vols.' (Brit. Mus. pressmark 1251. g. 19. 20). Li 
the preface to this some account is given of Ellis, but not the date of 
either his birth or his death. We extract the following passages, 
which seem to give a just, rather than a complimentary, estimate of 
his works, viewed from a practical agricultural standpoint : — 

' TTia education was something not much superior to that of the 
general run of common farmers, but he inherited from nature strong 
and active parts, which enabled ^inri to rise into a sphere superior to his 


brethren. .... Any person in Oreat Britain miglit send for him, on 
paying for his time and expences. .... Having engaged for larger 
quantities of MS. than his materials of real excellence would aUow, all 
his pieces are nearly equal in being filled with trash. This did bis 
reputation so much mischief, and at last injured him so much witii the 
public, that he no longer found any pecuniary advantage in writing, bat 
stuck to his farm, and very wisely depended on that alone. . . . instni- 
ments, he procured them, and sold them to any persons. . . . Ellis 
made a traffick, sometimes profitably, of ploughs, drill ploughs, horse- 
breaks, ftc. This induced him to be very voluminous in their descrip- 
tion, and very hyperbolical in their praise.' 

There is a good deal of proverbial and other folk-lore scattered 
through Ellis's writings : the most interesting of this I have extracted 
and published in the Folklore Record for 1880 (vol. iii. pp. W — 86). 

II. Lisle. — The words forming this Glossary are taken from 
' Observations in Husbandry. By Edward Lisle, Esq., late of Crux- 
Easton, in Hampshire, Dublin : printed for G. Faulkner, in Essex- 
street. iiDCCLVii.' (pp. xiv, 1 — 530). 

This is a posthumous work, and begins with an ' advertisement 
by Thomas Lisle, eldest son of the author, dated Sept. Ist, 1756. 
From this I extract the following account of lisle, which shows how 
thoroughly devoted he was to his subject : — 

' He settled at Crux-Easton in Hampshire, as far as I can collect, 
about the 27th year of his age, and in 1693, or 4, where he immediately 
determined to make the study of agriculture one of the chief amuse- 
ments of his life. 

' In pursuance of this resolution, not only at the place, and in the 
neighbourhood where he lived, but in his joumies either to Dorsetshire, 
where he had concerns, or to Leicestershire, in visits to his father-ia- 
law. Sir Ambrose Phillipps of Garenton, or to his own estates in Wilt- 
shire and the Isle of Wight, and to other parts of the kingdom, he 
made it his business to search out the most reputable farmers, and get 
the best informations he could, in all the branches of husbandry that 
were known and practised in those counties. His constant method was 
to note down the opinions and advices he thought might be usefol to 
him, and afterwards to add occasional remarks on them from his own 
experience. For many years I believe, he had no other drift, in 
employing himself after this manner, than merely his own informatioii 
and improvement; but about the year 1713, he seems to have entered 
into a design of making his observations public; for I find he had 


begun an index, and had thrown together some thoughts, as an essay 
towards an introduction, dated at that period. Through his other 
studies however, which were chiefly in divinity, in which he has left a 
very long and laborious work ; his frequent attendance on the business 
of his neighbours in the capacity of justice of the peace, and the care 
of a numerous family (for he had no less than twenty children, of 
whom seventeen survived him), hindered him from pursuing this his 
intention, yet they did not interrupt his first design, but he continued 
writing down his inquiries and experiments to the time of his death, 
which happened in the year 1722. 

' As these observations therefore were left in such disorder, as to 
require no small pcdns and application to regulate and digest them, and 
as all his sons, except the eldest, were bred to professions, and those 
very foreign to that of agriculture, and had neither leisure nor inclina- 
tion for an undertaking of this nature, they would, in all probability, 
have been entirely suppressed, had not 1 accidentally communicated 
them to some farmers of my acquaintance, as likewise to some gentle- 
men, who amuse themselves in husbandry, who were all of opinion they 
might be of use to the profession, and encouraged me to collect them 
under their several heads, and put them into the order in which they 
are published. 

* Some of his readers will smile, no doubt, to see the names of many 

4 C of our English farmers mingled together with those of the ancient 

Bomans, Varro, Cato, Pliny, Columella, and Palladius, and with those 

j^ j^ also of our own writers. Lord Verulam, Evelyn, Bay, Grew, Boyle, and 

Mortimer ; but, had I thrown them out, I must have given an entire 

new form to the whole, and when I had done all this, the reader, in ray 

judgment, would have owed me no thanks for my pains : it would have 

robbed the work of an agreeable simplicity, and^ made it appear less 

genuine. I was inclined therefore to print it as I found it, and was 

pleased to find this inclination seconded by the advice of many of my 


The words selected are taken partly from an 'Explanation of 
terms in husbandry, used in the foregoing observations,* which 
occupies the two last pages of the book • and partly from the body 
of the work, in which the explanation of many of them is given iu^ 
a marginal note. All the words in the ' Explanation ' are included 
except the following, which seemed to me scarcely worthy of inser- 
tion, but I give them here, so that the list may be complete : — Ana, 
Cotyledons, Declivous^ Idiosyncrasy^ Prcecociousy SuccedaneouSf Vili- 
orate {' to make worse, impoverish '). The words seem to be for the 
most part such as were in use in Hampshire and the adjoining 


counties, but some are from Staffordshire and Xieicestershiie, and 
others apparently of general use. I have usually given the contert, 
to show, when possible, where the word is used. There are many 
words in the book which strike me as of unfrequent occuiiencc, 
although hardly suitable for inclusion in the present list ; while, like 
the works of Ellis, it is clearly a volume which deserves the attention 
of all interested in the history of English agriculture. 

Besides the edition from which I have made my extracts, there 
are at least two others, both in the Library of the British Museum. 
The first is a quarto volume (pp. xiv, 452), with a portrait of the 
author, dated 1757; the second ('second edition') is of the same 
date, but in 2 vols, octavo (vol. i. pp. xxii, 400 ; vol. ii. pp. 408) : 
their pressmarks respectively are 33. f. 8 and 7074. ccc. 

III. WoRLinaB. — ^Little appears to be known of the life history 
of John Worlidge or Woobridge of Peteisfield, in the county of 
Hampshire, Grentleman He wrote several treatises on agriculture, 
gardening, and bees, of which the principal is, * Systema Agricul- 
turse. Being The Mystery Of Husbandry Discovered and layd Open.' 
London, 1669, foUo, Ed. 2. 1677; Ed. 3. 1681.' Octavo editions 
appeared in 1687 and 1716, the title being altered to 'A compleat 
system of Husbandry and Gardening, or the Gentleman's Companion, 
in the Business and Pleasures of a Country Life.' . . • . Worlidge 
is considered to have taken a scientific view of agriculture, so &r a^ 
the notions of his time permitted; he must therefore be held as 
being in advance of his contemporaries. 

The Glossary as here printed consists of the * Dictionarium 
Kusticum,' which, although it has a separate title-page and preface, 
forms part of the * Systema Agriculturae ' : the third (1681) edition 
is that which I have consulted. I have selected other words whfcli 
seemed to me interesting from the body of this work ; such ^ 
enclosed in square brackets, as are also some cross-references which I 
thought would be useful. Many of the words included by Worlidge 
in the ' Dictionarium ' seem, however, to me, to quote his own words, 
' terms so universally understood that they need no interpretation/ 



aud I have therefore omitted them ; but I enumerate them here, so 
that the list as Worlidge gave it may be complete ; — 



PUmgh-righJt [plough 




Adda [—7 adze] 

Fewel [fuel] 


























Axletree or Axis 

















Sluce [sluice] 






























Terrasse [terrace] 








Mold [mould] 















Parterre or Partir 

Although it contains some interesting words, the ^ Dictionarium * 
is a less valuable and characteristic production than either of the 
preceding. The author has laid Eay laigely under contribution, as 
may be seen by a comparison of his work with E. D. S. Gloss. B. 
15, 16 ; and his words are not referable to any special locality. His 


preface is quaint and suggestive, and might fitly be taken as intro- 
ductory to the present collection. 

rV. Annals of Agriculture. — ^Tlie words forming this Glossary 
are selected from 'Annals of Agriculture and other useful Arts: 
collected and published by A. Young. London, 1784 — 1815/ 8^ 
46 vols. 

I have added the counties where they were in use whenever 
these were specified, or when I could ascertain them from the con- 
text, which was not always possible. The number of words obtained 
scarcely compensates for the labour of hunting through the forty-six 
volumes of the AnnaU, but there are among them some of interest. 
VArthur Young was a well-known writer upon agricultural subjects, 
but the Annals is largely occupied with translations of foreign papers, 
and does not impress me as having met with very great support horn 
practical men. 

y. Agricultural Survey. — These words are taken from a series 
of reports undertaken at the instance of the Agricultural Survey, 
each being issued separately in different places, and at dates extending 
from 1793 to 1813, the title-page uniformly running thus : ' General 
View of the Agriculture of the County of ... . with observations 
on the means of improvement' 

In the present selection only the English counties are included, 
although a similar series of reports was issued for Scotland. The 
reports are by various hands, the name of the author being prefixed 
to each. I have indicated the counties and the pages of the report 
on which the words occur. They form eleven small quarto volumes 
in the British Museum Library (pressmark 41b. 6 — 16), the counties 
being arranged in alphabetical order. This set does not include all 
the counties surveyed by the Board of Agricultui-e, some of which 
came out in octavo, and occasionally I'eached a third edition. 

VL Agricultural Provincialisms, and VII. Weights and 
Measures. — Of these it is only necessary to say that they are 
reprinted, by the kind ponuissioii of the publishers, Jklessrs. Blackie 


aod Sons, from The Cyclopedia of Agrieulturey by Jolin C. Morton 
(1863). I have introduced a few cross-references in square brackets. 
The subject of a collection of the names of local Weights and 
Measures was brought before the readers of Notes and Queries in 
1878 by Mr. Eobert Holland (5th s. x. 283), when a good deal of 
information was elicited. A yet more complete list than that 
compiled by Mr. Morton might be made, and would be very useful ; 
meanwhile I may direct attention to the very elaborate notes on 
the subject in Miss G. F. Jackson's Shropshire Word-Book, pp. y 
Ixxriv — ^xciii. 

It will be observed that I have not attempted the collation of the 

* Old Country Words * with other Glossaries. I have neither the 

learning nor the leisure for such a task ; nor indeed do I think that 

this is at present necessary, or even desirable. The aim of the E. D. 

H., as I understand it, is rather to collect than to elaborate ; I have 

therefore contented myself with a running comparison of the words 

with Halliwell and such other works as happened to be under my 

hand at the time, adding references to these here and there when I 

thought it desirable. But my own deficiencies have been more than 

supplied by the very generous assistance which I have received from 

two members of the E. D. S., each in his way fully qualified for the 

work. Prof. Skeat has kindly read the whole of the collection in 

slip proof, and his notes (signed W. W. S.) are, as is always the 

case, most useful and suggestive. Mr. Eobert Holland has brought 

his practical knowledge to bear upon the subject, and his additions 

(signed B. H.) give a satisfactory indication of what we may expect 

from the Cheshire Glossary which he has in preparation for the 

Society. To each of these gentlemen my hearty thanks are due, and 

I am sure that this expression of gratitude wUl be endorsed by the 

members of the E. D. S., for whose acceptance this collection of 

* Old Country Words ' is offered. 


November y 1880, 







AbeL Apparently the Abele, Populus alba, L., althougli Ellis seems 
to regard it as different. — Modem Husbandman, YIL i 106, &c. 

After-mead. ' Our after-mead or second crop.' — Modem Husband- 
many rv. L 95. 
After-meatli, or Latter-meatli. — Id,, lY. ii. 76. 

Afternoon farmers. 'In Hertfordshire we call [declining' hus- 
bandmen] afternoon farmera.^ — Modem Husbandman, III. ii. 4. 

Ails. (1) The awns of wheat or barley. — Modem Husbandman, IIL 
i 156. See Tails. 

(2) Oomplaints, diseases. 
* StaggerSi and other aih.' — Modem Husbandman, III. i. 169. 

Allan. A sheep suckling a lamb not its own (Modeiii Husband- 
man, lY. L 115), or a lamb suckled by a sheep not its mother. See 

AUhoUantide, i. e, All-hallows'-tide = All Saints' (Nov. 1—8).— 
Modem Husbandman, L i. 100. Commonly used throughout the 
book. Allhollandy, YI. ii. 40. In F. Kennedy's Evenings in the 
Ihtffrey, p. 91, Holland-tide is given as a Wexford word : it is also 
a Herts word. See Agr%c» 8urv, Beport for Herts (1795^, p. 28. 
[Hollan = A.S. hdlgena, gen. pi. of hdlga, a saint. — ^W. W. S.] 

^ Anack. * Six several sorts of [oatmeal-bread] may be made, every 
one finer than the other, as your Ana^iks, Janacks, and such like.' 
— Country Housewife, 205. 

"^Anbury. ^That common destructive turnip disease ... in the 
sandy grounds of Norfolk . . . [which] is there called Anbury.* — 
Modem Husbandman^ lY. i. 27. Galled also ' fingers-and-toes.' 



Appling. 'Old thatch-straw, by time, is so rotted and reduced 
.... as to gire the capillary roots of the seedling-potatoe easy and 
free room to strike into it, yet not so free as to prevent their 
appling or hcUlingJ — Modem Husbandman^ L ii 104. 
Turnips 'did apple or bottle welL* — /d, IV. iv. 70.- 

[There is no difficxdty in understanding that this means swelling 
out into tubers or bulbs; but one does not quite see how any 
medium can be so/ree, i. e. loose and open, as to prevent the young 
potatoes forming tubers after they have germinated in it. It would 
seem as if Ellis were alluding to some popular idea that the for- 
mation of tubers of potatoes, bulbs of turnips and such like, was 
due to the roots having been checked, as it were, in their growth by 
contact with the hard material of the soil — E. H.] 

Apron-string-hold. Property held in virtue of a wife. A man 
' being possessed of a house and large orchard by apron-string-hold^ 

• felled almost all his fruit-trees, because he every day expected Uie 
death of his sick wife, and then all trees, standing on the premises, 
were to be another's.' — Modern Husbandman, VI. iL 118. 

ApB. Popidiui tremiUa, L. — Modern Htisbandman, VII. i. 101, &c 
See Diet, of English Plant-names^ p. 15. 

ArbelL A spelling of Abele, Poptdus albay L. *The Abele or 
ArbdV — Modem Husbandman^ YIL ii. 181 ; also Arbele, p. 182. 

Arks. 'Square wooden bins, or what they here [Cheshire] call 
arks.* — Country House%Joife, 200. 
[The word is still in constant use in Cheshire. The chest in 
^ which oats, &c., are kept in a stable is invariably called a corn-ark 

Arpent, or Arpent-weed. Sedum Telephium, L., a cormption 
of Orpine. 

* A certain weed, called in Hertfordshire, Arpenf — Modem Bus- 
bandmany III. ii. 177, where there is a long description of its 
' pestiferous ' qualities as a weed in crops of com and beans. 

Arse. * The arse or tail of the plough.' — Modem Husbandman^ IL 
i. 44. 

Lay the sheaves 'in a sloping posture, close together, with their 
arses outward.' — Id, V. i. 11. 

[The word is in frequent use in Cheshire. The tail-board of a 
cart is always called the arse-board : and the stalk-end of a potato 
^ the * arse-end of a 'tater.'— E. H.] 

>^ Arsmart Usually applied to Polygonum Hydropiper^ L., but 
Ellis seems to intend the land form of P. amphibium, L., under the 
name (III. L 47). 

V Back, or Bake-stone. See Jaxmock. 

Backboughting (spelt also Backboutiiig). 'Is done by drawing 
the plough once forward and backward, through that which has 
been boughted.^ — Qloss, to Pract, Farmer, See Boughting. 

I. ELLIS. 3 

a hedge. 'When the short thorn is left to grow as 
a defence, either to the out or inside part, it is culled, by the 
Yale-men, hacking a hedge ; that is, it serves as a back or fence to 
save the quick, and so is named an inside hcick or an outside hack.' 
— Modem Hushandman^ I. i. 97. 

This method was used by the Yale-men ; plaishing by the Chiltern 
men. See Modem Bushandman, 11. ii. 139. 

^^Baconer. A pig kept for bacon. — Modem Ilushaivhrum, I. L 25. 
. Bag up. See Mow and bag up. 

[To put into sacks for carrying away : in the north of England 
sacks are usually called bags. — E. H.] 

Bait. To pasture or feed. 

' Take [the sheep] off the common, and hait them (as we call it) 
*^ on clover or other artificial grass.' — Modem Hushandmant III. i. 146. 

Bake and cake. * Great rains . . . are apt to hake and cake (as 
we call it) the ground.' — Modern Hushandmany II. i. 33. 

Baking. 'The horses go in the last furrow, and thereby miss 
treading and hakinf, as it were, the ground down so close.* — Modem 
Husbandman, II. ii. 104. 

[Hardening. In ploughing with a single file of horses, as was 
the custom in Ellis's day, they all follow one another in the hollow 
furrow from which the preceding ridge has been turned, and thus 
do not tread and harden the portion already ploughed. The plough 
then turns another ridge over the gutter in whidi the horses have 
walked. Thus they leave no footmarks. In ploughing with two 
horses abreast, as is the modem custom, the same care is taken not 
to tread the ploughed ground. The chain by whi(^ the horses 
pull the plough is so arranged that one horse shall walk in the 
gutter, and the other on the land or unploughed ground. Some 
horses become much cleverer than others in walking in a narrow 
furrow, and are always put at that side of the plough. — E. H.] 

Bale. * By mowing barley with the sithe and cradle there is| more 
work done in a day than can be done with a sithe and 5a7e.' — Modern 
Husbandman^ Y. ii. 13. See Cradle. 

* The sithe with a bale fixed to it.' — Id., 16. 

Bandy. Clay is sometimes 'apt to bum into a hard substance 
(clinker like), as to defy the frosts and handy J* — New Experiments^ 21. 

* We either throw or beat the mould about with bandies,^ — Modern 
Husbandman, YI. ii. 110. 

[Evidently sticks used for clod-breaking. The name seems to 
imply that tiiey were of the same form as the curved sticks with 
which boys play the game of hocky or handy, which would be very 
convenient for the purpose, though I have never seen them so 
used. In the north clod-malls are used, which are made by fixing 
a small block of wood, by means of a hole bored through it, to the 
end of a long stick, and this, also, is a very efficient, though simple 
implement. The bandies spoken of may have resembled these. 

B 2 


v" Bandy-wioket. A Horts game. — ShephercTs Guide, 199. 

V BaneL ' A hanel^ chum, heads, or any other new-in vented dury 
ntenails.' — Modem Hushandman, Y. ii. 93. 

Barb. The ^harhs^ teeth, gnms, and eyes' of a calf. — Modem 
Husbandman^ III. L 98. Hal. quotes fix)m Florio, ' BarbonceUif the 
harbes or little teatos in the mouth of some horses.* 

Barning. Barn-buildings. * They keep whole bays of laming foil 
of tumops.'.— Modern Rushandman, VI. ii. 84. See Bay. 

Barrow-hog. A castrated boar, — Modern Husbandman, V. i. 7. 
HalliwoU thus explains the word barrow. 

Bash. To knock down. Acorns * are commonly hished down by poles 
on purpose ' for hogs. — Modern Htuibandman, VI. ii 90. HaL giTos 
this as a Beds, word. 

Bashing. 'A basiling wet time.' — Modem Husbandman, V. L 57. 
See preceding. A bashing wet time would mean that the rain was 
so heavy as to beat down the surface of the soiL See Brooking. 

Bassan. They 'stake their horses with bassan ropes.' — Modem 
Husbandman y HL i. 169. 

J?(iM-rope (i. e. bast-io^). — Id,, IV. i. 58. See Bass in Did. of 
English Plant-names, 

^BoMan = bast-en, the adjectival form, like oaketi from oak, be^hfn 
from beech, and cupen (now used as a sb.) from asp or aps, the old 
name of the tree. — W. W. S.] 

Ba9tard-cook. See Haymaking. 

Baulking. To ' miss plowing some of the ground, which is wbat 
we call baulking it,' — Modern Husbandman, VI. ii. 14. HaL has 
' Baulk, to overlook or pass by a hare in her form wiih.out seeing 
her '— ra somewhat similar meaning. 

Banlks of grass. 'Those which some call hedge-greens; they 
lie next to the hedges in ploughed fields, and serve to turn the 
plough-horses on.' — Oloss, to Fract. Farmer. 

^he head-rigs or head-butts in a field left in grass instead of 
being ploughed. The practice is not unfrequently foUowed ia 
Cheshire. After the ploughing is all done, and there is no further 
necessity for head- rigs to turn upon, they are left to grow into hay 
grass and are mowed. — B. H.] 

Banm. Balm, Melissa officinalis, L. — Modem Husbandman^ IV. ii 

Bavin. A bundle of brushwood. See Baven in Hal. ' Bavins and 
faggots.' — Modem Husbandman, VII. ii. 98. 

Bay. ' He had but half a bay of wheat for sowing many acres.* 
— Modern Husbandman^ V. i 135. See Barning. 

[A division of a building open on one or more sides like one of 
the compartments of a long hay-shed ; or separated from the rest 


of tLe bnilding merely by a low walL Tlie old-fashioned bam, 
when flails were in use, generally consisted of a threshing-floor in 
the middle, and a hay on each side for the storing of corn in the 
sheaf. The word is in common use in Cheshire, where also the 
^ng^ay between two rows of cows, from which they are foddered, 
18 called & /odder-bay, — ^B. H.] 

v^Bean-dye. A kind of pea. It ' is of a whitish colour, with a black 
speck or eye in it, and therefore it is called bean-dye, or rightly 
bean-eyed pease.' — Modern Husbandman, II. i. 68. 

Beaned-eye would probably be a more correct spelling. It is also 
called Codgel-pea. 

Beanweed. Pinguieula milgarisy L. 1 A farmer living near Ellis 
' observed that his sheep were so much in love with a certain weed 
called Beanweed, that when they had an opportunity they would 
run greedily in quest of it. It grows in the moory ground of vales, 
comes up about a finger's length, in the spring time of the year, 
like a bean, and most of all in wet weather ; the leaf of this bean- 
weed is of so sammy a nature that it feels, on being squeezed, as if 
it was greased, and being thick withal, it contains much sap in it, 
and thereafter it presently breeds the rot in the bodies of the 
sheep.' — Skepherd^s Guide, 164. 

'^ Bearbind. Convolvulus sejpium, L. * Apply the rough part of the 
leaf bearbind to a green wound.' — Country Houaewife, 266. 

Bearing, n. See Withering. 

To bear stock. See Stock (1). 

Beaver. [Lit a drinking. — W. W. S.] ' Cheese is such a necessary, 
convenient, and wholesome food for our men [in harvest-time], that 
we are obliged not only to send some to them in the field, morning 
and noon, but they eat wholly on this and bread at one time of the 
day, which they call their beaver, and this is commonly about four 

"^ of the clock in the afternoon.' — Modern Husbandman, V. iii. 146. 

^ In Essex (Chelmsford Hundred) beaver is the first meal taken by. 
horse-keepers after beginning work. It is taken about 10*30 a.m., 
and lasts an hour, during wnich time the horses are fed. During 
harvest-time, however, all the men working in the fields have beaver, 
which is equivalent to luncheon. It is taken at 10'30 a.m., but 
lasts only twenty minutes. During harvest and hay-time an extra 

^ meal, caXLoA. fours, is taken in the fields at 5 p.m. : this is equivalent 
to tea. This corresponds with the Cheesing-time mentioned by Ellis 
(which see). See FouHngs and Four o^dodc in Hal. 

Beck (' The heck and broad hand-hough.' — Modern Husbandman, IV. 
i. 75), or Beck-hough. ' An instrument differing from the conunon 
pick-axe or mattock, only by having its two ends about four inches 
broad, with which they dig up the ground of hop-alleys.* — Modern 
Husbandman, IV. i. 16. The tool was in general use at Famham, 

Bee, Oolden. See Oolden Bee. 

Beetle. A fly that * blows ' sheep. 

* The beetle, or the horse-bee, and fly.' — Shepherd's Guide, 339. 



Beloher'8 black cherry. 'Judges eay it is a woid 

compounded of the two words, bd and cerise, signifying a fine 
cherry.' .... But 'a lord's gardener' said that uie name arose 
' from a man whose name was iBelcher ; who, I suppose, he imagin'd 
was the first discoverer of it.' — Modem tiiubandman, V. ii. 29. It 
is the same as the Kerroon cherry. 

Bell. ' About the latter part of July hope are in bell or blossom.' 
— Modem Husbandman, V. L 99. 

Bennet-weed. 'The Bennei-treed, The black bennet is woTse than 
the white bennet.^ — Modem Husbandman, lY. i. 64. I am not certain 
which grass is meant by White Bennet. 

^ Bigness = size, whether small or great. See Knot. 

Billet- wood. * Faggot and bUlef-wood, for making cogs of wheels.' 
— Modem Husbandman, YLL. ii. 101. 

Binds. See Vines. 

Bind-weed. Vicia hirsutay L. — Modem Husbandman, IIL i. 48. 

Bite. A trick or dodge. See Chap. 

Black bennet. Alopeeurus agrestia, L. — Modem Husbandman, III. 
i. 49. See Bennet-weed. 

Black-bug. 'The dolphin-fly, or what some call the Mack bug! 
— Modem Husbandman, I. ii. 33. 

Black-fly. 'The blaehfly makes its lodgment on the stalk and 
bean-pod.' — Modem Husbandman, IV. ii. 127. 

Black-horse. A large kind of ant ' Large emmet-eggs, or what we 
call Black-horse pissum eggs.' — Modem Husbandman, IV. iiL 90. 

Black-steel. See KarL 

Blast. 'Blasts, blights, and strokes' [of wheat]. — Modem Husband- 
man, VI. L 2. 

Blight. 'In 1743, the long dry spring season did (as they call 
it) blight their pea-crops.' — Modem Husbandman, L ii. 42. 

Blocks. If he plows in wet weather 'at the next plowing, the 
farmer may depend on finding his ground .... plowed up in 
blocks, as we call it, that is, clotty ana rough, that it will be little 
or nothing better for the first plowing.' — Modem Husbandman, i. 78. 

Blood- warm. ' Luke-warm or milk, or blood-warm as we call it.' 
— Modem Husbandman, IL i. 130. 

Blooming. The 'blooming of the feathery seeds' of thistles.— 
Modem Husbandman, IV. i. 105. 

Blossom-time. The time of flowering. 

* Others turn their sheep and lambs together among their beans 
to remain till blossom'time,^ — Modern Husbandman, IL i. 138. 

I. ELLIS. . 7 

Blue-weed. Echium vulgare, L. — Modem Husbandman, VL iii. 39. 

Boar-thistle. Carduus lanceolatus, L. — Modem Hiisbandman. IV. 

• Bodger. * The ^e&^hodgers or dealers.' — Neto Ezperimejds, 49. 
^ HaL has badger in the some aense. 

Boodle. Chrysanthemum segetum, L. — Modem Husbandman, III. 
i 22. See my note to Tusser (£. D. S., Series D.), p. 284. 

Borrage, Wild. Echium mdgare, L. Surrey. — Modem Husband- 
man^ m. i 44. Alflo Wild Burrage-root.— /&. IV. i. 77. 

BoswelL CJirysanthemum segetum, L. — Modem Husbandman, II. 
i 18. 

Bottle, Bottling. See Appling. 

Bottom-leaves. Eoot-leaves. 

The * spreadine: bottom^leavea ' of plantain. — Modem Husbandman, 

lELi. 9i: 

Bongo. 'Turning the cask sideways, on its bouge, immediately 
oork up the lower holes.' — Modern Husbandman, IV. ii. 109. 
♦ [^Bffuge is bulge or b ilge, b elly. — ^W. W. S.] 

Boolting-lintoh. See Oigg ; and Hal., s. v. BoulL 

Bout. (1) n. ' Wheat-stitcheSy or little ridges, composed of two bouts.* 
— Modem Husbandman, I. i. 68. 

(2) V. * About the be^iinning of the month he boiUed it up with 
the same plough ; that is, he laid up the earth in single-bouts, and 
at Candlemas, bouted the land a&;am, in single-bouts, off the last 
bouts. In March he back-^ou^ the single-bout down.* — Modem 
Husbandman, I. i. 74. 

Plowing into bouts. 
Two boutings are better than one four-thoroughing.' — Modem 
Husbandman, ILL. i. 9. 

' Boughting is made by two thoroughs^ that the plough by going 
bcuskward and forward throws up agamst each other.' — Oloss, to 
Pract. Farmer. 

Bont-lands. 'We sow the thetch-seed in two bout-lands .... 
in some parts of Middlesex .... they sow them in three, or four, 
or six, or eight bout-lands.^ — Modem Husbandman, I. i. 37. 

'In two-oou< stitches, or, as we call them, in four-thoroughed 
lands.'— Jrf., L ii. 18. See Bout. 

Boxing. 'What we in Hertfordshire call boxing; that is, if the 
rind is not liquefied so much, by the sap, as to part from the wood, 
on bending down a plaish.' — modem Husbandman, II. ii. 135. 

^Bread- combed. After three years' standing *the honey [in the 
hives] "is apt to grow candied, or what we call bread-combed.* — 
Modern Husbandman, V. i. 106. 


8 OLD COUNTRY AND FARMING WORDS. In Middlesex 'they plow two, three, or four of then 
edze-landB into one broad^-land,^ — Modem Husbandman^ I. L 75. 

' Broad-land ploughing is jmst turning an even piece of gTOUDd 
topsey-turvey, and is the neatest, cleanest ploughing of any other.* 
-^GloM, to Ptad. Farmer. 

Broken -mouthed sheep. 'What we call hrokenrtnouthed sheep, 
that is to say, such who by age have lost most of their teeth.'— 
Country Housewifey 47. Mr. Holland says this is a general tenn. 

Brooldilg. ' Lest their gravelly soil should be bashed and bound 
by brooking or great rains.* — Modern Uuthandman^ YL iiL 21. 

Browse-wood. Young shoots of trees which may be eaten by 
cattle. — Modem Husbandman, VIL ii. 197. [Hence the TOrb to 
browse is derived— W. W. S.] 

Browsy. Full of brotosey brushwood. 

• The knottymossy bodies and browsy heads of oaks.' — Modem 
Husbandman, ViL i. 12. 

' A brottsy bushy head occasioned at first by the cattle's bite.' 
— 7tZ., 47. 

Bry-fly. The gad-fiy : see Briyns in Hal. 

' The horse is exposed to the torment of the bry^fiy, which most 
vehemently draws blood.' — Modem Husbandman, lU. i. 169. 

Buck. (1) n. Polygonum Fagopyrum, L. — Modem Husbandman, 
IV. L 183. See Did. of English Plant-names, p. 69. 

(2) V, ' Many of these kickers are very apt and prone to buck other 
cows ... for which reasons, all cows should have wooden tips 
fastened to the end of their horns, to prevent the great danger that 
weak and underline cows are liable to suffer by those we call 
master cows.* — Country Housewife, 174. 

Buck rains. Heavy rains. ' Harrow in the wheat immediately, while 
the ground is fresh and hollow, lest the buck rains (as the farmei^ 
call them) fall fast and harden the ground.' — Prad. Farmer, 1759. 
19 (ed. 6). 

[The reference is to buck-washing. Buk = wash, soak, &c 
' Upon y^ ensujrd such excess3rue[ne]s of rayne that come was iher- 
witn drowned in y« erthe, and so bukkyd with water, that the yere 
ensuynge whete was at xLd. a busshell.' — Fabyan^s Chronicle, an. 
1368-9, ed. Ellis, p. 480.— W. W. S.] 

Bullimon. 'Sowing beans, pease, and oats together, or what ve 
call Bullimon, for one crop.' — Modem Husbandman, L iL 57. 

The term is more usually applied to a mixture of oats, pease, and 
vetches (E. D. S. Gloss. B. 16, and Tusser), or to a mixture of peas 
'^ and oats (E. D. S. Gloss. B. 21). Gerard applies it to the Buck- 
wheat (Polygonum Fagopyrum, L.). 

Bull-stag. A gelded bull Hal. has huU-seg, 

* An old cow, bull, or bull-stag.* — Modern Husbandman^ Y . i. 6. 

Bnnoh (1). See Jogg. 
(2) See Knot. 



Burgoo. See Loblolly. 

Bum. 'A yery dry hot season came on the young turnips, that 
plainly discovered the crop would set, or what we call bum or 
spoil, if it was not houghed in due time.' — Modem Huabandman, 
IL ii. 42 ; HI. i. 162. 

Cole-seed 'heated (or what we call burnt) in the mow.' — Id,, IV. 
iv. 66. 

Burweed. Galium Aparijie, L. — Modern Husbandman, IV. vL 4. 
Burr, the fruit of the same plant. — Id,, VI. ii. 71. 

Bnzy. 'That tumep-ground, that you give but only one plowing 
to for sowing it with wheat, be sure to plow it as shallow as 
possible, that you do not bury (as we call it in Hertfordshire) the 
sheep's-dung, by too deep plowing.' — Modern Husbandman, I. L 37. 
[Thetches, sown late, are in danger of] ' being buried (as we call 
it), or being so inclosed in dry earth, as to be hindered coming 
forth in due time.' — Modern Husbandman, I. i. 62. 

But. ' In Cheshire . . . they dig marie to dress their ground withal, 
which, being open field-land, lies in bids of grass (according to 
their term).' — Modem Husbandman, TIT, i. 66. 

Butter-flower. Buttercup, — Modern Husbandman, IV. i 106. 

'The worst of grass called the btttter-flower.' — Id,, i. 130. See 
Did, of English Plant-names, p. 79. 

^ Buttons. Sheep-dung. — Shepherd^ a Guide, 148. 

Cadale Hemp. See Hemp. 

Calf-hanlnL ' For a cow that strains in calving, when their ca^f- 
haulm, udder, or bag will come down and swell as much as a 
blown bladder.' — Pract, Farmer, 128. 

[Apparently relates to a puffy swelling which is frequently seen 
under the belly of a cow about to calve, extending from the udder 
to the navel, or beyond. After the first calf the pufflness seldom 
appears. It is, however, not caused by straining. — ^E. H.] 

Callock. Sinapis arvensia, L. — Shepherd^a Guide, 230. . 

Cammock. 'There are two sorts of this stinking weed; the one 
has a honey-suckle head [t. e, a head like clover : see Honeysuckle 
(2) in Did, of English Plant-names'], the other spires up with a sort 
of grassy leaf above a foot high, and smells strongest.' — Modem 
Husbandman, III. i. 45. 

The first of these is Ononis arvensis, L. ; the other I cannot iden- 
tifv. There is much xmcertainty as to what plant was originally so 
called : see Did, of English Plant-names, p. 83. 

Canker. The kernels of wheat may be 'cankered or smutted.' — 
Modem Husbandman, V. i. 54. 

Cap. To cover a sheaf at the top. — Modem Husbandman, V. 1. 28. 


Capped. 'When heavy rains presently succeed the sow-ing of 
clover in fine mould, the surface is apt to hecome what we call 
capped f or, to be more plain, made to run and wash one part oTer 
the other, and so cake and bind the same that the clover sprout 
can't make its way through its crusty top/ — Modem Eusbandman, 
IIL i. 78. 

Cast See Swarm. 

Casting down. 'Plowing his land always in the broad-land 
fashion, by ridging it up, or casting it down, as they here call it'— 
Modem Httsbandmany II. IL 115. 

Catkeys. Catkins. — Modei'n Husbandman, YIL iL 183. 

Catstail. Eehium vulgare, L. — Herts. Modern Husbandman, HL 
i 44. The name was applied by W. Turner (1538) to this plant : sea 
Catstail (6) in Diet, of English Flant^names. 

Cavingg. 'Take a laige handful of oats in their straw, and put 
them upon some cavings of wheat, barley, oats, or pease .... put 
a layer of cavings on ' fstraw]. — Modem Hushandmany L i. 69. 
A oaving-Bieve and caving-rake are mentioned in YL iiL 59. 

• They rake and cavin oats/ — Id,, VI. iii. 75. 
•Threshed and cavined,^ — Id,, VI. iii. 66. 

Hal. has * Caving, chaff and refuse swept from the threshing- 
floor. East.' 

[I take cavings to be the broken ears and bits of straw which break 
off in threshing com. They are first of all raked firom among the 
threshed grain, and then passed through a coarse sieve (called in 
Cheshire a cheeuy-riddle), or rather the loose grain, if there be any, 
passes through the sieve, and the cavings remain behind, to be 
threshed over again, or, more frequently, given to the cows. — R H.] 

Chamleted. [Having the appearance of chamlet 9 Chamlet is the 
same as camlet, a well-known kind of stuff. — ^W. W. S.] 

' Beautiful chamleted and lasting timber.* — Modem Sushandman, 
Vn. ii. 34. 

* Some [ash] is curiously candeted and veined.' — lb,, 39. 

Chap. A chapman. ' If the chap is a ready-money one, and takes 
off a good quantity, is a sharp inspector, and like to continue a cus- 
tomer, then he shall have the better sort ' of soot. — Modem HuS' 
J handman, I. i. 85, where there is an interesting paragraph on ' the 

bites of chimney-sweepers, as they relate to good and bad soot.' 
Also n. i. 61. 

Chapping* ' Keep the bottom and sides [of the pond] from being 
damaged by the tread of cattle, and from chapping by the sim and 
'wmd:— Modern Husbandman, IV. ii. 59. See Chapping in Hal. 

Chanldron. 'The guts or chaiUdron of a calf/ *A chatddron 
pye.' — Country Housewife, 373. See Chaudron in Nares and HaL 

I. ELLIS. 11 

Cheese. ' The common sort of cheese, sold in shops, is what they 
call ne'w-znilk cheese, which, to answer the appellation, should be 
made with all new milk ; but this seldom happens, because it is 
generally made with half skim and half new ; or what is more pro- 
perly called two-meal cheese.' There is also * one called three- 

^ meal cheese, that is made with two parts skim and one part new.' 
— Modem Huabandmariy III. i. Ill, 112. Other kinds are moming- 

^ milk cheese, evening-milk cheese, and fleet-milk cheese. — 
Id,, 124. 

Mr. Skeat notes : ' Meal is the A.S. mdl^ a season ; time : hence 
(1) a season for eating, Mod.£- meal; (2) a season for milking, i. e, 
a milking- time, a single time of milking.' 

[JlfeoZ in Cheshire means a milking. The milk given by the cows 
at night is called the * evening's meal,' that in, the morning the 
* morning's meal.' A ' two-meal cheese ' means in Cheshire a cheese 
made from two milkings, a ' three-meal cheese ' from three milkings, 
and so on. — B. H.] 

Cheesing-time. ^ While the harvest lasts, the men about four of 

the clock in the afternoon sit down in the field for about half an 

^ hour, which they call cheesing-time^ by reason that in this space of 

time they eat a piece of bread and cheese.' — Country Housewife, 

73. See Beaver. 

Ches-seed Weed. Bromtis secalinus, L. — Modem Hmhandman, III. 
i. 50. Chess, Ih., YITE. 304. Chess-grass, New Experiments, 71. 

Chiekweed. Galium Aparine, L., probably from its use when young 
for feeding young fowls. 

* Oliver or chiekweed,' — Modem Husbandman, YUL 302. 

ChUtnm Conntries. ' Hertfordshire in general, most part of Kent, 
Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, Berkshire, Wiltshire, and many other 
counties abounding in chalky, sandy, gravelly, and loamy soils, 
are deservedly caJIed Chiltum countries, as being of a short dry 
nature, and lying in dry situations, contrary to late-lands, that 
for the most part are of a stiffish, wettish nature and situation.' — 
Modem Husbandman, II. i. 27. 

Chipping. Germinating. * The chipping part of the wheat, as we 
call it in Hertfordshire.' — Modern Hvsbandman, VI. ii. 5. 

Chipping-time. The period of germination. * If it [wheat] has 
a good sprouting or shipping^time, it may yet be killed by the ^st.' 
— H>,, L i 2. 

^ Chuckle. * I chuse to buy in [a bull] the most taper-headed, 
rather than too much upon the chuckle, or roimd.* — Modern Hus- 
band7na/n, TV, L 152. 

pMany farmers in Cheshire still prefer a taper-headed buU to one 

with a broad, masculine head. Taper-headed bulls are supposed to 

* beget taper-headed calves, and this form of head generally indi- 

^cates good milking qualities. It is also considered by farmers that 

narrow-headed calves insure to the cow an easier parturition. — 

RH.] • 


Cmquefoil. Medicago lupulina, L. 'Trefoil .... with ns is 
vulgarly and erroneoufily called cinque/oil.* — New ExperimenUj 74. 

Clamp. A mo and. See Hal. 

' A square clamp or dunghil.' — Modem Hushandman^ VL i. 91. 

ClapweecL SHene inflata, L. — Modem Husbandman^ III. iL 53. 

Cliver. (1) Ghlium Aparinsy L. — Modem Husbandman^ ILL L 49. 
(2) Oalium verum, L.— Jd., III. i. 110. 

Clob-weed. Club-weed, Centaurea nigra, £. — Modem HusbandmoHj 
HL i. 121. 

Cloggy. Sticky (HaL). * Onr high cloggy cold situations, which used 
to be called the alps of H ertfordshire, by the late Dr. Brabin.'— 
Modern HuBhandman, Vll. ii. 76. 

Clung. ' When their black earth works very clung and heavy, they 
seldom fail of having great crops.* — Modem Husbandman, L L 46; 
m. i. 29. * Heavy, doughy.'— HaL 

Cock {n. and v.). See Haymaking. 

Cookie. Lychnis Giihago, Lam. — Modem Husbandman, III. L 50. 

CodgeLpea. See Bean-dye. 

Cod-ware. Beans and pease. — Modern Husbandman, II. i. 55. The 
same as Podware or Fodder : see Hal. Cod is a common word for a 
^ pod; and HaL has * Codder, a pea-gatherer. Midx,' 

4 ColBn. The apples 'fill the apple-crust or coffin in every part of 
it.' — Country Houseun/e, 46. See HaL 

"^ Cole, or Colewort, also Eale (IV. l 119). Brassica Bapa^ L. — 
Modem Husbandman^ IV. i. 114. 

• Cole-sheep. Sheep fed on cole. Modem Husbandman, IV. iv. 55. 

Collar. *I collar [my own children] (as the country term is) as 
early as possible ; that is, I bring them up to work as soon as they 
are ahle to do anything, and continue so doing, the better to fit the 
y back to the burthen.' — Modern Husbandman, II. ii. 48. 

[To harness or put the collar on for the first time, hence used 
^ figuratively for making a child work at an early age. A common 
v North-country expression both as regards colts and children. — 
E. H.] 

CoUier-fly. A hop pest. 

* It's called the CoUier-fly^ because it turns black.* — Modem Hus- 
bandman, IV. i. 75. This is a Kent name. — Id,, V. i. 70. 

Colt. See Swarm. 

Comb, Combing. 'Plowing the land across in hacks or combs,* — 
Modem Husbandman^ IV. i. 20. 

I. ELLIS. 13 

' Combing^ or hacking of land, is made by the plough's being 
drawn forward and backward closer than boughting in smaller 
thoroughs, and tho' a little sharp ridge, or sleeving be left, yet in a 
manure, this is neat clean ploughing.' — Glow, to PracU Farmer. 

(Tome. See Qo and Come. 

^Conies. Kabbits. — Modern Husbandman^ IV. iii. 38. 

^oom. * The black coom that is made by oiling or greasing bells in 
a steeple.' — Country Housewife, 287. 
Spelt Coomb in Shepherd's Guide, 298. 

Coomb. Four bushels. * They used to have, in a very dry summer, 
but a coombj or four bushels of barley, to one aero.' — Modem Hus- 
bandman, II. ii 92. 

Coopinj^. * The great expence of coojmig and fencing each tree.' — 
Modern Husbandman, VIII. 74. 

* If a fence or coop was set about each pole.* — lb,, 76. 

Corals. * What we call the corals, or those wheat-kernels that 
would not part with their chaff in thrashing.' — Modern Husband- 
many VI. iii. 59. See Peggings. 

Core. Observe if the skin of tho sheep Ms clear from cores and 
jogs under the jaws.' — Modern Husbandman, IV. i. 127. Hal. has 
* Core, a disease in sheep. Devon,* 

Corning. See Kerning ( 1 ). 

CoBsart Lamb. 'A cossart lamb iu Hertfordshire is one left by 
its dam's dying by disease or hurt before it is capable of getting its 
own living ; or is one that is taken from a ewe that bi-ings two or 
three or four lambs at a yeaning, and is incapable of suckling and 
bringing them all up.' — Shepherd's Guide, 77. 
Sk^re usually spelt Cosset, 

Couch. To droop ; to lie down. 

^ Frosts that will cause the leaves of the tumeps to look yellow 
and couch,* — Modern Husbandman, VI. ii. 82. 

Constn Betty. A mad-woman, or one feigning madness. — Modern 
Husbandman, V. iii. 105. See Hal. 

Cover. ' An early cover or head of grass.' — Modem Husbandman, T. 
L 87. 

* To bring an expeditious cover or head on the wheat-roots.'— 76., 
VL ii 77. 

Cowshit. See Marl. 

Cradle. Barley 'is mown by the scythe and cradle, scythe and 
bale, or bare scvthe.' — Modem Husbandman, IV. ii. 44. 

* A three-ribbed strong cradle* — Id,, 69. 

' The art of cradling com.' — Id., V. ii. 61. 

&i light firamework of wood fixed above the blade of a scythe 
curved parallel with it. It is only used in mowing com. It 


collects the com whilst the scythe is cutting it off, so that it falls 
into a compact and even row. — 'Ei H.] 

Cragg. 'About Woodbridge they make use of a shelly marie, 
which they there call cragg,^ — Modem Husbandman^ III. i. 67. HaL 
has the word. 

• Cram. A food for fattening calves. A 'receipt for making crams* 
is giyen in Modem Husbandman ^ IH. i. 99. 

Creeper Plough. * The two-wheel chip plough .... is called by 
some the creeper plough.* — Modem Husbandman, TIT, i. 161. 

Crook, or Crook-eviL See Wood-evil. 

/ Crow. *The liver, the crow, and the sweet-bread' of a pig. — 
Country Housewi/ey 69. 

• Crow, or Wild, Oarlic. Allium viiieale, L. — Modem Husbandman, 

Crow-needle. Scandix Pe4:ten, L. — Modem Husbandman, IIL L 49. 

Cmmping. Crunching; munching. 

Sheep * take a great deal of pleasure in crumping as well as 
licking [chalk], — Modem Husbandman, TV. i. 120. 

Cuokoo Lamb. 'AH lambs yeaned in April or May, are called 
with us, in Hertfordshire, the cuckoo lambs, because they fall in 
cuckoo time.' — Shepherd's Guide, 79. 

Curdling. ' Here our strong, red, clay bottom produces a curdling 
knotty elm.' — Modern Husbandman, I. ii. 134. 

Cnrdwort. Oalium verum, L. — Modem Husbandman, III. L 110, 
which says it is ' pernicious in curdling milk in the cow's bag.' 

Cnring. Covering 1 (Hal.). 'The cutting, curing, and inning of 
barley-crops.' — Modem Husbandman, V. ii. 11. 

Curlock. Eaphanus Raphanistimm, L. (White C), and Sinapit 
arvensis, L. (Tellow 0.). — Modem Husbandman, II. i. 16. 

Cutting. ' This wheat yields a sharp cutting meaL' — Modem Hus- 
bandman, VI. i. 12. 

>/ Cyderkin. A drink made from apples : probably an inferior and 
weaker kind of cyder. 

* Twenty bushels [of cyder-apples] would have made one hc^^ 
head of cydor, and as much cyderkin,^ — Modem Husbandman, IV. 
iv. 16. See Pomperkin. 

Dame -Wheal 'This is called dame-tcJieat because it was first 
brought to a curiouis gentleman by a woman, that found it to be a 
better sort than any other wheats. — Modem Husbandman, I. iL 70. 

BameL Lolium temtdentum, L. — Modem Husbandman, IIL i. 50. 

I. ELLIS. 15 

Darr {Modem Husbandman, Y. i. 129), or Dan. Beetles. 

' Worms, grubs, dars, and slugs.* — Modern Ilushandinan, I. i. 82. 
Hal. has Dor, which is a more common form. See Horse-bee. 

^Days-maiL A man employed by the day. 

' A day^s-man, as we oiU them in Hertfordshire.* — Country House-' 
wife, 16. 

Be-bark. To take off the bark. 

* They de-bark their [hopj poles, that they may dry sooner.' — 
Modem Husbandman, lY. m. 58. 

BeolininfiT. Backward. See Afternoon Farmers. 

Denshiring. ' If the ground bo very stiff then burn the surface, 
which is called denshiring,' — Fract, Farmer, 85. A contraction of 
Devonahiring : see E. D. S. Gloss. B. 6, sub v. Beat, 

Dewberry-brier. Rub us ccesius, L. — Modern Ilusbandnian, lY. i, 77. 

Diapenta. 'A drink made of diapenta: put two spoonfuls of 
diapenta powder in a pint of sweet wine, or alo, and brew them well 

together At the apothecaries, they sell it for two pence an 

ounce.' — Modem Husbandman^ IIL i. 171. 

[Sqg dia in Index to my Notes to Fiers Flowman. — ^W. W. 8.] 

Dingy. Dungy. * Very rare in books.' — Skcat's Etyni, Did., q. v. 
See Tagging. 

Ditoh-hedge. A hedge with a ditch below it. — Modern Husband- 
many L i. 93. 

Doat. To decay. * If any [elm] begin to doat, pick out such for the 
axe/ — Modem Husbandman, Vii. ii 67. 

Dock. * A strong thick dock or tail ' [of a ram], — Modern Husband- 
man, rV. i 129. 

[When a sheep's tail is cut off or docked, as is the fashion with 
some breeds, it is called its ' dock.' The shortening of the tail has 
a tendency to make the stump grow thick and fat. — B. H.] 

Dog-parsley. Anthriscus sylvestris, Hoffm, — Modem HtLsbandman^ 
IV. iv. 78. 

Dolpliin-fly. 'The dolphinrfly, that eats and destroys beans in the 
g^een pods.' — Modem Husbandman, V. i 70, &c. 

Denny. Poor ; unproductive 1 ' Heath, donny, and other common 
grounds.' — Modern Husbandman, III. i. 164. Perhaps means the 
ground where dunny-leaves (which see) grow. 

Dottard-part. ' The white and rotten dottard-part [of the wood of 
ash] composes a ground for sweet powder.' — Modem Husbandman, 
VEL ii. 43. 
Cfr. Doat. Hal. has ' Dotard, same as doated.' 

Dove Pidgeon. Wood pigeon 1 — Modem Husbandman, IV. liL 40. 


Dosen Cheeses. ' Soft thin cheeses, which in a near countj to 
Hertfordshire they call dozen cheeses, because they sell them by the 
dozen.' — Country Ilousetai/e, 336. 

Draft -raked. A woman 'had the assurance to begin leasing a 
barley field of mine before it was dra/t-rakedJ' — Shepherds Quidt^ 

[I presiune a draft-rake is a large rake with curved iron teelh, 
elsewnere called a hell-rake or heel-rake, which is drawn by one or 
two men about a field of hay or com, to gather up all that is scat- 
tered and left behind in loading the carts. No doubt called draft- 
rake from being drawn behind me workmen. — IL H.] 

Drag- harrow. *In Darby Vale, as soon as they have plowed 
their land once, they sow their pease and beans broad-cast sdl oyer 
the rough ground as the plougn left it, and harrow them in with 
one single drag-harrow, as they there call it.' — Modem Husband- 
man, XL i. 49. 

Dragons. 'To the motbers-in-law {q, v.) three sorts of lambs are 
allowed ; the first headers, the second neaders, and the dra^onSt or 
those last lambed.' — Modern Husbandman, TV. 1. 116. 

Drawer. A plant that exhausts the soil. 

* Great drawers of the ground.' — Modern Htubandman, Y. iii 29. 

Drift. The distance which sheep or cattle are dHven. 

' The damage which a long drift to a distant common often occa- 
sions.' — Modern Husbandman, V. ii. 35. 

Dripping. Showery. 

* If the weather be dripping.^ — Modem Husbandman, TTT, i. 137. 
In the north, showery weatiier is called * a dropping-UmeJ* 

Driving a Hedge. 'There are too many of those villainous, and 
commonly petty farmers, who make no conscience of what we call 
driving a Jiedqe; ih&t is, at every making of a foot-hedge (for they 
cannot well do it in a ditch-hedge) they take the opportunity of 
driving their stakes further into another man's ground than they 
ought to do, which I have known wilfully done, and so hitch a little 
at a time of another man's land into their own bounds.' — Modem 
Husbandman, L i. 93. 

[I have known a farmer to be accused of the very same thing in 
these days, but the term I never heard. — B. EL] 

Duds. ' On each side the upper part of the tail .... in a fat calf 
there are always two knobs or bunches of fat, which the butcher 
commonly calls duds. These you are to feel^ and if they are hard, 
it will die red ; but, if tender, it dies white.' — Modem Husbandman, 
in. i. 103. 

Diumy-leaves. The Coltsfoot, TussUago Farfara^ L. — Modem Hus- 
bandman, in. L 48. Dunny-weed. — lb., ii. 175. Dunny-leaf 
Weed.— /d., IV. i. 71. In Hants the allied Fetasites vulgaHs is 
called Dunnies, 

I. ELLIS. 17 

Dutch Arbel. Popidus alba, L. 

'The low oountry-men sometimes call it IhUck Arhd,^ — Modern 
ffuabandman, YIL i 104. 

Dwindle. A disease of hops. 'The mould or dwindle,' — Modem 
Husbandman, TV, i 94. 

Ean. To yean, to bring forth lambs : a rather general word. 

'When the ewe nas lately eaned,* — Modem Husbandman, TV. 
L 1 15. 

Earing. The * shoot or earing ' of young wheat. — Modem Husband- 
man, m. i, 27. 

Ebnlnm. The juice of elder-berries 'may be so mixed with a 
strong first palewort, as to make a rich liquor, called ehulum,'^ * 
Modem Husbandman, I. ii. 148. 

Eddishes. Stubble-fields. — Modem Husbandman, V. i. 101. 

gjx the north the word is never applied to stubble-fields, but is 
„ tly confined to the second growth of grass after the hay is 
carried. — E. EL] i 

Eddow. 'The next work is to eddow the hedge. Now what I 
mean by eddowing a hedge is this : The work-man ^ts ^omo briars, 
or some long sticks about half an inch, or an inch m thickness, and 
twists them about the heads of the stakes, in order to bind the 
upper part of the hedge firmly together : a good work- 
man wul twist his eddows against tne plaishes, because thus they 
bind the tighter.' — Modem Husbandman, i. 92. Hal. has edder. 

Eddy winds. * The eddg winds ... a little discolour our junipers, 
when they blow easterly towards the spring.' — Modem Husband^ 
man, VTL, ii 141. 

Eff. An eft Land-e^ Water-eff. — Modem Husbandman, III. iL 
79, 80. 

Eyes. See Holes. 

Fanneer. Yeneer. 'This [ash] wood and walnut-tree . . .makes 
the best /anneer.' — Modern Husbandman, VTL, ii 43, 94. 

Fat. See Lean. 

FelL Calved. '.The calf is h,idj fell!— Modem Huslmndman, III. 

Field ware. 'The farmer's com, and other of his field ware,' — 
Modem Husbandman, TL, ii. 136. 

Findy. Plentiful. See Find (1) in Hal. 


' A cold May, and a windy, 

Makes a fuJl bam, and a findy* 

Modem Htuhandmany 111. ii. 9. 

Fire-blight. A disease of hops. — Modem Husbandman^ IV. i. 74. 

Firing. The spontaneous combustion of haj when stacked damp — 
Modem Husbandman, ILL L 87. 

In Gloucestershire the leaves of Plantains (especially P2aiiia^ 
media), and in Herefordshire those of Scabiosa succUa, are called 
Fire-leaveSt from the belief that they retain an amount of nxoistore 
sufficient to fire the rick in which they are found. See JF'ire-Uavei 
in Did. of English Plant^namea, 

Flaek. To beat with a flail. — Modem Husbandman^ YL iii. 71. 

Flag. A leaf. 'This oat has not only a strong large stalk and 
ear to nourish, but also a broad fia^ besides.' — Modem Huehamd- 
many II. i. 38. 

' The bloom came on the ear almost as soon as the fiag burst.' — 
Id., in. i 160. 

y Flap-apple. ' Turnover, or flap-appUy or meat pasties.' — CknaUry 
Housewife, p. 25. See Flap-jack in Nares. 

Flashy. ' A spring, raw, flashy, first grass.' — Modem Husbandman^ 
< Flashy grass diet.'— /<;{., ILL I 172. See Stock-honey. 

• Fleet-milk. See Cheese. 

Fleeting-dish. A shallow dish used for skimming milk. 

* A fleeting^dish or skimmer.' — Modem Husbandman, TTT. i, 133. 

[In the old-fSa^hioned way of cheese-making (in Cheshire, at any 
rate) the whey used to be boiled in a large boiler, which caused a 
curdy cream to rise to the top. This cream was called fieeUngs, 
and was skimmed off with a thin, flat, wooden bowl, and was 
churned for butter. The same ' skim-dish' was used for skimming 
cream off the milk ; but I conjecture that it was called a ' fleeting- 
dish' from its use in skimming fleetings, Fleetings are seldom maoe 
now-a-days. — ^E. H.] 

[To fled is the old spelling of to float,-^'W. W. S.] 

Flitch-ware. ' That which is turned out of the intire round part 
of the [beech] tree.' — Modern Htuhandman, YII. ii. 60. 

Flower. See Mantle. 

Flower-bcmk ^What we call a flxmer-hank; that is, some earth 
that lies next the hedge, thrown oyer the roots with a spade, 
as soon as the hedge is riddered, or prepared for it, so that with 
the original, or first raised flower^bank, the whole rise of earth is 
not aboTO a foot, or eighteen inches from the common level of the 

f round. Now these flower-banks are generally made to inground 
edges or fences, or to those hedges that lie next to narrow lanes, 
which are not wide enough to allow a ditch.* — Modem Husbandman^ 
I. i. 93. HaL hzB floor-hank. 

I. ELLIS. 19 

Fog. Aftermathi or second crop of grass. See Hal. 

* They leaye a great deal of fog to rot on the ground .... he 
leaves such/o^^y grass behind.' — Modern Husbandman, IV. i. 104. 

Foot-hedge. 'A foot-hedge is one that has no ditch belonging to 
it.' — Modem Hmbandman, I. i 93. See Flower-bank. This is not 
the meaning giyen by HaL 

Fork. See Knot. 

Fork-stale. The handle of a fork. 

' Woodmen have observed that [mice] have peeled an ash from 
the thickness of a thumb to a fork^stdU^ a foot above ground.'— 
Modem Huabandman, YIL i. 64. 

[^StcUe or stail is a north-country word for the long straight 
handle of a broom, fork, rake, &c. — B. H.] HaL cites side from 
Piers Ploivman, 

Foss. A trench. 'Cover the tomeps and foes with earth.' — 
Modern Eutibandmauy YL ii 82. 

Fours. See Beaver. 

Four-tlioronglL * Four-thoroughed lands.' — Modem Husbandman^ 

n. ii. 114. 

* Four-thorough stitches or ridges.' — Id,, 116. 

' Four-thoroughing of land is not clean ploughing, but running 
up four thoroughs close together with the plougn ; is best done on 
wneat-stubble stitches in the winter, to sweeten for peas or other 
grain: or broad lands may be ploughed into four thoroughs; a 
good method.' — OIosb. to Fract. Farmer, See Thorough. 

Fox. ' That poisonous damage, called in great brewhouses the /ox, 
which gives the drink a sickish nasty taste.' — Country Housewife, 
p. 377. See below. 

Foxing. * She . . . took out the wort . . . laying it thin enough 
to be out of the danger of foxing, which thick lying on hot wort 
often subjects it to/ — Modem Husbandman, II. i. 130. 

Frap. To strike (Fr. frapper), 

' If [the calf s taU] do not bleed to your desire, frap about it with 
the haiidle of a knife.' — Modem Husbandman, TV, iu. 65. 
' The wind-/rop2'*nfl' engine.' — Id., 127. 

Free Holly. *The smooth-leaved, or, as some* call it, the Free 
Holly.* — Modem Husbandman, vix ii. 93. 

French Wheat. Polygonum Fagqpyrum, L. — Modem Husbandman, 
ni. ii. 12, &c. 

Fresh gronnd. See Hay. 

Frim. Fresh; vigorous. 

'Take care in this month of having your cows in clover or 
lucerne, for the shorter and younger the grass, the frimmer is the 
sap, and the sooner it hoves. — New ExperimenU in Husbandry for 



the Month of April (1736), p. 54. At p. 61 of the same work lie has 

* A/rtn* growing time.' — Modern Hitsbandman, TV. i- 151. 

^Frim is a Cheshire word for tender, or brittlsL Young grass 
would be called /rim. Crisp celery is/rtw*. China is */rim ^aSJ 
— B. H.] Hal. has several meanings for the word. 

Frote. To rub (Fr. f rotter). 

' We froU and rub the bark.' — Modern Hvuibandman^ ViL L 89. 

Frowy. Brittle ; spongy. An ash ' was so frowy and short as to be 
good for nothing else but the fire.' 

'Such an ash . . . grows frowy , short and spungy.' — Modem Hut- 
bandman, YJI. iL 43. 

Hal. assigns a different meaning to frowy , but gives f rough in the 
same sense. 

FuBtian. See Marl. 

Oasooigns. See Wide-g^ascoigned. 

Oellins. Catkins. — Modem Husbandman^ T. iL 127. OoUinJ. — Id.t 
IV. iii. 81. Oollmg.-/d., TU. i. 39. 

Old. 'The gid, or giddiness' in sheep. — Modern Husbandman^ IV. 
iv. 107. 

Oigg. 'A boulting hutch [for sifting flour] or what some call a 
gigg,* — Country Housewife, 188. 

Olean. (1) To discharge the placenta. 

' If a handful of salt [is] strewed on eaoh side of a calf, as soon 
as it could be done after calving, the cow, by licking it [will] soon 
glean,^ — Modem Htubandman, fil. i. 104. 

* To mako a cow glean well.' — Id,, 107. 

(2) The placenta itself 

* To bring away her glean,' — Id,, TV", i. 150. 

[In the north the word is dean, and the placenta is called the 
' cleansing.' It is considered good for a cow to Hck her calf, for 
the slime with which it is covered probably acts medicinally ; and 
it is certainly good for the calf to be licked', for nothing promotes 
circulation and warmth better than the rough tongue of the cow; 
and as cows are fond of salt, it is very customary to sprinkle salt 
on a newly bom calf to induce the motiier to lick it. It is, doubt- 
less, the slime, and not the salt, that does the good, if it rcHoUy has 
any effect at all; but our cowmen have lost sight of that, and 
generally say that the salt counteracts the sickliness of the slime. 
— B. H.] 

[The Welsh glain, glan, is the same word as, and cognate with, 
the English dean. This explains it. See Clean in Skeat's JStym, 
Dict,-^W, W. S.] 

I. ELLIS. 21 

Oo and oome. The vetch 'will go and come sometimes, as we 
call it in Hertfordshire, when it is sown yery early ; that is, the 
frost will so check their growth, as to near kill them, unless milder 
weather happens in their fiftYour, and then they may recover. Thus 
we say, A thetch will go and come.' — Modem Ilushandman^ II. 
ii 81. 

Golden bee. Coccinella septempunctata, 

* The lady-bird, or what we in Hertfordshire call the Golden Bee,* 
— Modem UushandmaUy V. i. 70. 

Golden grain. 'Wheat is named the golden grain^ not only for 
its being nearest in colour to that most valuable ore, but also 
for bringing in the greatest profit to the farmer's pocket.' — Modem 
Httabandman, I. ii. 3. 

Gollins. See Gelling. 

"^Googe-tongne. Ranunculus Flammtda, L. So called in Carmar^ 
thenshire. — Modem Husbandman, III. i. 114. 

* The goose-Umgue herb grows chiefly in marshy g^rounds, is very 
hot on the tongue, and bears a yellow flower, with an indented 
leaf of a longi^ make, somewhat like a j^oose's tongue, that will 

-^not only help to preserve cheese, but give it an agreeable relish, as 
the "Welch say.* — Ih. 

Gore-ihetclL A kind of vetch. 'This thetch is the largest of all 
others.' — Modem Husbandman, V. iii. 74. 

Gould, or Gonld-weed. ChrysantJiemum segetum, L. — Modem Hus- 
bandman, n. i. 18, 19. 

* There are four sorts of it that infest cornfields, as the white, 
red, blue, and yellow, but the last is the common weed.' — Id., IH. 
i. 43. It is hard to say what plants are here meant 

Gragft-cock. See Haymaking. 

Grattong. Stubble-fields. — Modem Husbandman, V. i. 101. 
« Gratten, stubble.'— Hal. 

Granmy. *Oraumy, clogging eartL' — Modem Husbandman, II. 
i, 81. 

Green-fly, or -bug. See Ladleman. 

^ Green - ware. * Tumeps, clover, and other green-ware.^ — Modem 
« Husbandman, lY. iiL 104. 

"^Qreetg. Grits. See Loblolly. 

^jfGrey pea. ' The common and Eouncival Maple pea .... is used 
in many places as a boiling pea ; and where they do this, they call 

^ it a grey pea, as in London, where the women boil it, and cry it 

about the streets for grey-pease.'— Jlfoc^ern Husbandman, U. i, 67. 

/ Grigg (put for grist, a quantity to be ground). 

* A griss of wheat to be sent to the mill.' — Modem Husbandman, 

Gront. The kernel of oats. 

The wheat * kerned only half way, so that it was as thin as 


grouU^—Modem Husbandman, V. 1. 129. See Stroke and Oatmetl 

Orouty. Thick; muddy. 

* Grouty J black, stinking water.' — Jlfodem ffu$bandmanj ILL. iL U. 

Growing stones. Conglomerate. 

' The great stones that we call growing atones, compoeed of Tast 
numbers of small pebbles that lie in litUe cells or holes.' — Modern 
Husbandman, L yiu. 44. 

Orown wheat. Sprouted wheat. 

* What we call grown wheat, in Hertfordshire, is that which is 
damaged in the field by extraordinary wet weather, and the grains 
of which sprout while still in the eox.— Country Housewife, 8. 

Chiess. (1) Barren. Guess-cows are ' those which did not stand to 
their Dulling last year.' — Modem Husbandman, HI, i. 103. 

(2) Dry. ' Cows are not always in milk, as being in calf, or that 
they go, what we in Hertfordshire call guess, or dry.' — Country 
Housewife, 29. See HaL 

Onlling. Kuttiug caused by wheels. 

* Suddon damage [to roads] often happens in winter, by the wash 
of rains and the gulling of wheels.' — Modern Husbandman, HL 
i. 166. 

Onst Taste. 

' The same gust have the more northern people for their oat-meal- 
cake bread.' — Country Housewife, 12. 

Outtery. * If [wheat] is cut too soon, .... the kernel will be 
somewhat shiiyeled and guttery,* — Modem Husbandman, lY. iy. 128 

Hacking, Hacks. ' That ground which was fallowed in April into 
broad lands is commonly stirred this month [May] into hack*,* — 
Modem Husbandmxin, IH. i. 13. 

' Combing is also called hacking, and are synonymous names for 
one and the same operation.' — Id,, yiii. 36. See Combing. 

Hackle. An outer skin or covering. 

*This serpent sheds his skin or hackle eyery year.' — Modem 
Husbandman, HI. ii. 112. 

* The slug slipped his outer skin, or what we call his hadde in 
Hertfordshire.'— M, III. ii. 116. 

Hagtaper. Verbascum Tliapsus, L. — New EieperimeiiU, 56, 

Hairweed. Omenta europcea, L. — Modem Husbandman, IY. iL 5. 
Also called Hairy-bind.— /(2. yiii. 231. 

Hale, V. A.S. helan, to cover ; to protect. The bailey will *come in 
rows, and be the better haled or covered from vermin.' — Modem 
Husbandman, II. ii. 24 ; yiii. 69. 

T. ELLIS. 23 

Hale-to. 'A man -witli one motion, or hale4o^ on each side of 
him, as he stands still, will rake np a parcel of grain in a trice.' — 
Modem Htiabandman, V. ii. 62. 

[May be exphuned as * a draw ' or ' a hanl.' The man, standing 
still, is described as drawing the com towards him £rom yarious 
sides into a heap.— B. H.] See HaU (1) in HaL 

Hale-weed. Cuscuta europcea, L. — Modem Husbandman, IV. L 56. 
Hail-i^eed, hail-seed. — Id,, 63. 

Half-ware. * If Vale-farmers should sow beans and pease together 
^or what the Vale-men call hcUf-warey — Modem Husbandman, L 
ii. 36. 

Halt. ' Abont Buckingham town they call [foot-rot in sheep] the 
halC^Modem Husbandman, IV. i 124. 

Hamel-tree. 'That cross piece of wood, to which the wheel- 
horsee in a coach are fashied, which I call a hamel-tree,' — Modern 
Husbandman^ i 141. Cfr. Hames in HaL 

Haryest-man. A man not regularly employed, but engaged to help 
during harvest. 

'A month^s man, or, as we call it, a harvest-man,^ — Modem 
Husbandman, L yi. 293. 

Hawky. Gravel is ' of a hawJcy voracious nature.' — Pract, Farmer, 

Hay-ma]diL|^. ' Our common method in Hertfordshire here is this : 
about eight a clock, or sooner, the same morning the grass is 
mown, we ted or throw it out as fine as possible : . . . . the same 
day ... it may be turned once or twice, and after that raked into 
vnnd^rows, and ihen put into grass-cocks. The second [day] we 
«... shake it into square leOs .... then put it into bastard^ 
cocks, that are as big again as jmss-cocks. [The third day] we 
cock it up into heaps .... [The fourth day] we put it into 
staddles, load it, and carry it away into a bam, cock, or stack.' 

Headers. See Dragons. 

Heart. ' . . . For want of the ground's being in heart, to enable tbe 
wheat to withstand the cold and chilly seasons.' — Modern Husband- 
man, m. i. 27. 

rLand is said to be in heart, or good heart, when it is rich and 
well-manured. When poor it is in bad heart, — E. H.] 

Hedge -brows. ' . . . Where bushes, or other trumpery, that 
grew near hedges, have been grubbed up, which we call hedge^ 
brows,' — Modem Husbandman, i. 37. 

Hedge-greens. See Baulk of grass. 

Hell-weed. Ouscuta europcea, L. — Modem Husbandman, III. i. 
53, &c. 

Helper. 'The common number of [hop] poles to each hill are 


three, but . . some add a fonrth, oalled a helper : this helper is a 
larger pole than the rest.'— 3fo(fer» Husbandman, IV. iii 60. 

Hemp. Pas8-hemp and Cadale-hemp, two sorts of hemp from 

Kussia. — Modem Hvshandman, V. iiL 87. 

Henting. A furrow. 

' The ploughman goes on plowing throaghont the field, 

without malong any henting, or water-thoroughs.* — Modem Hu^ 
handmany L i. 16. 

' A henting or large thorough.* — Id,, TiiL 23. 

Hincks. See Hook. 

y Hit. To succeed. 

' This pirky wheat is often sown after tnmeps and cole or rape 
crops, and generally hiU weU.' — Modem Huebandman, II. ii. 127. 

Hitch. * To Mtcli out the penny/ to eke out. — Country Houseufiftj 25. 

Hitch'Crop. *The other way is done by way of a hUchrcrop,^ — 
Modem Huahandman, i. 74. 

* A hitch-crop, as we call it' — Id., V. iii. 27. 

' We call such a barley-crop a hitch-crop, as not haTing a r^;a]ar 
tilth made for the same.^—7d., YI. iii. 22. 

/ Hoar, V, To become mouldy. 

' If bread is kept in too moist a place too long, it will rope, or 
hoar, or mould.' — Country Uotuewife, 22. 

1^ Hobby de hoy. 'What we call in the country 'a hohhy de hoy^ 
y^ between a man and a boy.'— Jlfo<icm Euthandman, VI. i. 149. 

Hobhonchin. 'With us the owl is called Hobhouehin,* — Modem 
Husbandman, Y. ii 100. I have heard this name applied in Bucks 
to the Peacock and Bed Admiral butterflies, but not to the common 
white ones. Also Houchin. — Id,, 101. 

^ Hogo. A strong smell ; Fr. haut gout. See Haui-gnst in Gloss, m. 
Cole-seed oil 'is commonly mixed with fresh oil to lessen its 
• hogo, or stinking scent* — Modem Husbandman, TV", iii. 36. 

Hog-pox. The pox in sheep. — Shepherd^s Guide, 324. 

[Tear-old sheep are called hogs in many districts. — R H.] 

Hog^eed. Heracleum Sphondylium, L. — Modem ffusbandman, III. 

^ Holes and eyes. The open spaces in a cheese. 

* Tou may expect it to be fiiU of holes and eyesJ* — Modem Hub^ 
bandman, ifl. i. 115. 

y HoUow-ware. Turned bowls, cups, and other hollow yessels, for 
which sycamore is still generally used. The term also is in use 
among ironmongers for saucepans, &a 

Maple * being of a whitish colour is approv ed of by the turner for 
making hoUow-ware.* — Modem Husbandman, Yll. ii. 79. 

I. ELLIS. 25 

Holy Thnnday. Ascension-day. — Modern Husbandman^ HI, i. 186. 

Honey clierry. A kind of cheiTy. — Modem Husbandman, III. ii. 

Honey-suckle. Trifolium pratense, L. — Modem Husbandman, HI. 
i. 46. 

Called also Bed Honeysuckle; T. repens is Wlute Honey- 
suckle.— 7d., IV. i. 107. 

Hook and Hincks. ' Here [Sandwich, Kent] they cut their driUed 
field-pease with what they call Hook ana Hincks . . . . hy the 
hincluB, whose wooden handle is ahout two feet long, they puU 
up the laid pease with one hand, and cut them with a hooked tool 
'or the same length with the other hand.' — Modem Husbandman^ IV. 
ui. 42. 

Also called Hook and Swipe. Kent. — Id,, Y. i. 61. 

[A liink is something to hook or hitch up with. — W. TV. 8.] 

Hooper's hide. A Herts game. — Shepherd^s Guide, 199. Hal. 
has Hoop^and'hide, 

Hoop-ontward. Cherry trees require ' annually to have 

their hoop^ouiward bark just s lit d own with the point of a knife in 
ApriL* — Modem Husbandman, Vll. i. 74. 

Hopper-eared. * Such land would return an hopper-eared crop at 
harvest, or, in plainer English, a little ear, with a few kernels.' 
— Modem Husbandman, ILL i. 19. 

Homcoot. The horned owl. — Modem Husbandma?i, V. ii. 105. 

Horse-bee. 'If the fly, dar, or horse-bee should happen to blow 
your sheep.' — Modem Husbandman, IV. i. 132. 

Horse-gould. Ranunculus arvensis, L. — Modem Husbandman, III. 

Horse-honghing. * Is so called by reason it saves man's houghinff, 
not that a hough is used by horses, but theii* drawing a plough 
in a particular manner supplies the use of a hough/ — Gloss, to 
Prod, Farmer, 

[In these days the operation is actually performed by horses. 
The horse-hoe is an arrangement of hoes, so set that they cut out 
the weeds between the drilled rows of com; the whole machine 
being drawn by horses. — E. H.] 

Hose. The husks of corn. See Stroke. 

Honchin. See Hobhouchin. 

HongL A hoe. — Modem Husbandman, i. 51. See under Bum and 
Moulded up. 

Hongher. A hoer. See Stub. 
Houghing. Hoeing. See Horse-houghing. 


Hore. In ibis month [May], in some gronnds, ' cheese is Teiy apt to 
hove.^ — Modem ffushandman, UL, i. 120. 

* Hove in cheese is a hollowness with eyes caused by being made 
• from clover.' — OIoss, to Prod, Farmer. 

* The hoving of a cow is otherwise a swelliDg cansed by the wind, 
in clover or lucerne grass.' — Id, -i; 

[Explained in the notes on Lisle (in Gloss. H.) as r^ards cheese. 
A cow IS said to be hoven when her first stomach is distended with gas 
caused by indigestible food. Clover, especially the second crop, is 
very liable to aSect the stomach, and farmers are always very parti- 
cular to let the dew dry off the clover before allowing cows to eat il 
The disease is not unfiequently fatal. — B. H.] 

Hovel. (1) V. *Be sure never to want [i. c. to lack, to be without] 
a hand that can hovel ; that is, a man who is capable of placing 
wheat-sheaves or other com on a hovtHy so as to lie in that advan- 
tageous position as is necessary to prevent the damage of weather.' 
— Modem Husbandman^ V. i. 5. 

(2) n. ' Others place their com on a frame of wood, and call it a 
hovel f whereon they mow their sheaves of wheat.* — Id,y ii. 14. 

HolL The husk of grain or the outer covering of seeds. 

* The outward coat or hull. ' — Modem Husbandman^ ILL. i. 85. 
Also the outer covering of beechnuts. — Id., i 38. 

Hunching. Shoving. The ^ lambs hunching and butting her bag.' 
^Shejpherd's Guide, 272. 

Hnnge. Same as hunch, ' to gore with the horns.' HaL 

' She [the ewe] will Jtunge and beat the lamb with both her feci 
and horns.' — Modem Husbandman, TV", i. 117. 

Hnrlooky Hnrluoky. ' The bottom ... of this field is a whitiah, 

hurlucky, stony earth.' — Modem Husbandman, i. 50. 

^ A shallow chalky surface, whose bottom is a stony hurlockj* — 
Id., n. i 99. Hal. has < Hwrlvk, hard chalk.' 

Hntch-waggon. They ' carry [pease] home in a hufch-waggon, as 
they call it here' [Sandwich, Kent]. — Modem Husbandman^ IV. 

Hyle. Same as Hale, q. v. * They [the Kentish farmers] hyUy as they 
call it [their barley] ; that is, they lay four sheaves on the ground 
two against two, the ears of one sheaf by the side of the ears of 
the opposite one, and so make three tiers with their back-parts out- 
ward, and on all of them three sheaves placed by way of cover to 
make one intire shock of fifteen sheaves.' — Modem Husbandman^ V. 
ii. 17. See Hile in Hal. 

Inground hedge. See Flowerbank. 

Inn, V. To get in the harvest. 

* [He] employs eight harvest-men and two boys to inn his 
harvest-corn.' — Modern Husbandman, U. L 128. 

* Inning barley.'— id., V. i. 45. See /n in HaL 

I. ELLIS. 27 

^ JaeUiaze. A male hare. — Cou$Ury Hatueunfe^ 293. 

Jaok-m-the-hedge. Alliaria officinalisy Andr:^'. 

* Jack'in^ike-hedge . . . that stinks like onions.' — Country ffotue' 
wi/Cy 129. 

"^ Jaok-jnmp-ftbout. 'In the hard, frosty spring of 1740 a poor 
"woman that liyed at Studham, two miles distant from Gaddesden 
[Herts], gathered a herb that grew in the hedge, called Jack'jump' 
about, for boiling it with a piece of meat. It was like mint, and as 
hardly akiy other boiling herb was then to be got, she made use of 
this. Qne child died by it, and another had uke to have had the 
same fate, and the mother narrowly escaped, but the hog that eat 
vr the x>ot--liquor was killed by it.' — Country Houieun/e, 150. This I 
cannot identify. 

^ Jaek Sol * Their common saying [in the Yale of Aylesbury] that 
where Jack Rot comes, he generally takes nineteen sheep out of 
twenty.' — Shepherd's Guide, 165. 

Jade. ' Such [a stallion] gets . . . unhealthy jades . . . She proved 
2k jade in the coUar.' — Modern Huebandman, HI. i. 182. 

Jannock. ' In Shropshire they grind French wheat very fine, and 
make their cakes on a back or bake-stone, which is two or three 
feet diameter, on which they put a sort of batter made of this flour, 
milk, and yeast : and when it is turned, and done enough, they 
butter and eat it, drinking butter-milk with it ; this cake is called 
^ jannock or crumpet, and is what old Parr of this country eat aU 
4- y/" his life.' — Modern Husbandman, m. i. 31. See Anack. 

Jogg. A swelling. 

' Hogs . . . jogged under their throats .... We discharge by 
cutting, or runnmg a red-hot iron through the bunch or jogg,* — 
Modem Ilusbandman, HL ii. 73. See Core. 
HaL has ' Jogging, a protuberance on the surface of sawn wood.' 

Joniper, adj. * When women chide their husbands for a long while 
^^^"^ ' together it is commonly said, they give them a juniper lecture ; 
which, I am informed, is a comparison taken from the long lasting 
v^ of the live-coals of that wood, not from its sweet smel l ; bu t com- 
parisons run not upon all-four.' — Modem Husbandman, . Yii. ii 142. 
See Jumper in Diet, of English Flant^names, p. 281. 

Jnsiockfl. 'They turn [the hay] against the wind, that breaks 
the jussocks, which otherwise hang together* and would fall heavy.' 
— Modem Husbandman, TV. iL 76. 

[Tufts of grass that have escaped being thoroughly tedded (see 
Haymaking). By turning the hay against the wmd it does not 
fall over so completely, and the jussocks lie very much lighter, and 
the wind blows through them and dries them. If turned unth the 
wind they would be blown flat down and would not dry. — R H.] 

Kane. A weasel. — Modem Husbandman, IV. 1. 190; iii. 86; "VT. 
i. 15. Misprinted Bane at viii. 397. 


Keil-pins. Nine-pins. See Kails in Skeat's Eif pn. D iet. 

* Keil-pins or sketUes.' — Modern Husbandman, YTL ii. 185. 

• Keilt. Yeijuice 'is useful for washing the eyes, because it heals 
and strengthens sore and weak eyes, kills the scurvy in them, and 
eats off keils.* — Modem Husbandman, YIL ii 156. 

Kerf *The furrow made by the saw/ — ^E. D. S. Gloss. B. 16. 

* In this work [felling] cut your kerf near to the ground, but 
have a care that it suffer not in the £Edl, and be ruined with its own 
weight.* — Modern Husbandrnan, VII. ii. 67. 

Keni) Kerning. (1) To form com, or kernel. 

* A better heming of the blossoms.' — Modem Husbandman, I. L 47. 

* Unless wheat blooms well, it cannot hern welL' — Id., in. i. 150. 

(2) ' That excellent quality more incident to a grayelly earth than 
any other, which is, its proneness to kerning or covering.' — Modem 
Husbandman, II. i. 31. 

* Kerning ground is that which, drest well, will produce a great 
quantity of corn, as gravel does.' — Ghss, to Pract. Farmer, 

"^ Kernel. (1) Wheat, barley, pease, &c. 

* Nothing comes up to kernel* — Modem Husbandman, HI. L 140. 

(2) Grains of wheat. 

*Long heads [of wheat] full of plump milky kernels.' — Id., 

Kerroon Cherry. O.Fr. corone, Fr. couronne. 

* The word kerroon is a corrupt name for crown, imparting that a 
^ kerroon cherry is the host of cherries, as by the crown is meant the 

best of any thing.' — Modem Husbandman, V. ii. 29. 

* They were " cried about the streets by the name of black herr o ons" 
• at Richmond, Yorkshire.' — Id., V. ii. 20. 

Ellis thought it a Herts kind.— 7(f., V. ii. 28. 

Kettle-gaUop. 'A small beer which we call kettle-gallop; that 
•^ is to say, we put the groimd malt and hops into water and boil 

them together, then s^in out the liquor, and work it witii yeast 
for small beer.' — Country Housewife, 131. 
See Gallop in Skeaf s Etym, Did. 

Kioker. * When you perform this sort of plowing, called hacking 
or combing, you are to lay the hacks up sharp, tibat you leave no 
kicker but what is broke by the tail of the plough .... if the 
ground is not hacked clean, you will leave a large kicker, which 
will be most of it whole ground.' — Modem Husbandman, V. iiL 27. 

Kid. A pod. Ellis, general. Hal. has * JKrf-ware, beans, pease, &c.' 
Also synonymous with key. 

The seed of hornbeam * ^ws in kids or keys like the ash.' — 
Modern Husbandmany VH. ii. 98. 

Kid-faggots. *The brush to be made into kid-faggots* — Modem 
Husbandman, YIL, ii. 196. 

[Faggots are called ' kids ' in the north. To tie wood into faggots 
is call^ * kidding ' it.— E. H.] 

I. ELLIS. 29 

Kiln of lime. 'A hundred miles to the northward of London . . . 
they fetch five quarters of lime from the- kiln, which they call a 
kiln of itTne, hecause it is all they bum at once.' — Modern Husband' 
man, VI. i, 21. 

Kiver. A shallow tub or pan. 

* The largest [kiver for milk] cost five shillings, and the smallest 
three shillings, all made of oak with broad a^en hoops.' — Modem 
Huabandman, IV. i 164. See Lead. 

* Kneading-kiveTj or trough, or tub.' — Country Housewife, 19. 

The spawn of toads ^ appeared in a chain, like what 
they used to call kniUknoU,^ — Glandville (of Edgware, Middlesex), 
in Modem Husbandman, IV. ii. 68. 

Knitting. (1) Eecovering. 

* Many have knitted that were but just touched with the rot.* — 
Shepherd's Guide, 155. 

(2)A method of castrating rams. 

* When [the ram] is five years old, he is to be knit and fatted off.' 
— Modem nusbandman, IV. i. 129. 

* Knitting, by some, is thought the best way of gelding.' — Id., 
VL ii. 101. 

^ (3) Conceiving. 

* At five weeks end let her take buck, that the former brood may 
go ofE before she knits, about a week.' — Pract, Farmer, 139. 

Knot. * The knot commences its formation from the first spiring of 
the wheat, and it is from this bunch, or knot, that the forks make 
their shoots, that is, the one, two, three, four, five, or six stalks, 
that afterwards grow up ; and if this first and lowest knot is once 
bit, it is dangerous, on account of the diminutive or second shoot 
or ktiot that succeeds it, which is never so strong as the first, and 
then the ears grow in a small proportionable, dwindling bigness.' 
— Modem HvAbandman, I. i. 88. 

Knotgrass. (1) Gentaurea nigra, L. * Knotgrass or Clobweed.* — 
Modem Husbandman, IIL i. 121. 

(2) Avena elaJtior, L. * Ki%ot or couch grass.' — Id., IV. i. 63. See 
DuA, of English Plant-nximes, p. 292. 

Knotted. In flower. Clover, when fit for mowing, is ' known by its 
being full knotted.^ — Modem Husbandrnan, III. i. 83. 

Knuckle-6TiL See Wood-eviL 

Knnrr. A gall. * Oaks bear a knurr, full of a cottony matter, of 
which the y an ciently made wick for their lamps.* — Modern Hus- 
bandman, VJLL. ii. 34. 

Ladleman. ' An insect seldom or never misses attacking our green 
cherries with, so much dili^noe and fury, as to spoil great num- 
bers of them, by eating mto their very stone ; and oecause of 


this hollow operation, we call them ladlemmt or the green fly, or 
hu^.'—Modem Hu$handman, lU. L 184 : YII. i. 74. 

Lady-finger-grass. Also, though less frequently, Lady's finger. 

Lotus comtculatus, L. In general use throughout the book. 

' I give the several weeds and grasses those names they are called 
by in our county and parts adjacent' — Modem ffuabandman, TL L 

Lainge. Supple, flexible. HaL has lin^, and Ellis also has lango 
(in. i. 95). See Leather. 

Lameneit. ' In Devonshire they call the foot-rot [in sheep] lam»- 
neu,* — Modem Husbandman, IV. L 128. 

Land-eS See EfEl 

Langley - beef (A corruption of langue-de-bceuf,) Hdminihia 
echioideSf L, * Here called Langley^hee/.* — Pract. Farmer, 65. 

Lay. Untilled land. ' When oats grow on a lay, or what we call 
fresh ground.' — Modem Husbandman, Y. i. 56. See Lea in %eaf 8 
Etym. Did, 

[Old pasture land is called ' leys,' especially in the north of 
England. When such land is broken up it is called ' ley-plough- 
ing.' The first crop is usually oats, which are called * ley-oats.' 
One frequently hears the expression * oats on leys.' — "BL. K.] 

Lead. A leaden milkpan. 

' Divide [the milk] into several pans, or letids, or kivera.' — Modem 
Husbandman, III. i. 129. 

They were * leaden shallow stands, made of mill'd lead, &8tened 
in their deal frames, with a cork-hole in the middle of each, for 
letting out the milk, and leaving the cream behind.' They were 
first invented at Leighton Buzzard. — Id,, IV, L 164. 

Leaf. (1) 'Hog's fat or leaf.* — Country Houiewife, 146. 

[All hog's fat is not leaf. Leaf is a word, in constant use in the 
North, meaning the layer of fat which lies inside the body of the 
^ pig on each side, from which the lard is made. — B. H.] 

(2) A disease in sheep. See Wood-6vil« 

Lean. ' A lean crop instead of a fat one, as the usual terms are.' 
— Modern Husbandman, TL. i, 5. 

Leather. The udders of some cows ' have their leathers thick and 
fleshy ; others thin and lainge.' — Pract. Farmer, 125. 

Leet. See Haymaking. 

Leg. The trunk of a tree. See Scantling. 

Lent-grains. Barley, pease, and oats ' are called lent-grains, as being 
to be sown about Lent-time.' — Modem Husbandman, II. L 35. 

K> ' 'A Zent-crop.' — Id., IL i. 113. See Thatches. 

[Cfr. UnU-seede (P. Plowman, 0. xiii. 190 : very rare).— W. W. S.] 

I. ELLIS. 31 

Leralto. ' When [the bees] are swarming and dancing a levcdto in 
the neighbouring cloud.' — Modem Husbandman^ IH. ii 172. See 
Lavolta in Nares. 

LeystalL A privy. 
^ * Houses-of-offioe or leysicUhJ* — Modem Htishandman, TV, ii 73. 
HaL has * LaystdU, a dnnghilL' 

longe. See Lainge. 

v^ Lirry. A pretext, a trick. 

' Almost eyery shepherd . . . -will plead .... ** Pray, Master, 
don't go upon new wnimsies.'' This is the common lirry J — Modem 
Htuhandmany YL i. 101. Cfir. Liripoops in Hal. 

List. A stripe or streak. 

* A black buU with a brown KH along his back.' — Modem Hus» 
handman, HE. i. 94. 

Idve keepers. ' These live keepers^ as we call them, are a live piece 
of an upright pole, that is out oft within a foot, or eighteen inches 
of the ground, at the time the hedge is made, and left by all such 
workmen who are masters of their business, as many are in 
Hertfordshire.' — Modem Husbandman, i 101. 

IdYery-eaxtlL 'A rich sandy black loam, called by its owners 
livery^earth/ — Modem Husbandman, V. iL 10. 

Load. Five bushels. 

• * A load, as we call five bushel in Hertfordshire.' — Modern Hus^ 

handman, II. i. 92. 

' At Hemsted market we call a five-bushel sack of wheat a load, 
for being the largest usual quantity that sack-carriers or corn- 
porters commonly carry on their backs.' — Id., TV. iv. 129. 

[The load varies in weight in different places and with different 
kinds of produce. It is usually four local bushels (not five). — E. H.] 

V Loblolly. 'Whole greets [grits] boiled in water till they burst, and 
then mixt with butter, and so eaten with spoons, which [was] 
formerly called loblolly, now burgoo.' — Country Housewife, 206. « 

London dressiiig. ' What we in Hertfordshire call London dressing, 
that is, soot or horn shavings.' — Modem Husbandman, YL iii. 25. 

Lop. Shoots lopped off the heads of pollard trees. 

' This lop [ash], when green, bums the best of any, which makes 
the oountiy lo Ucs r hime it, and say She's fire for a queen.' — Modem 
Husbandman, Vll. i. 61. 

Lord. In mowing a thin crop of wheat with scythes, ' the foreman 
is commonly our head ploughman, who is therefore called hrd, 
because he ought to have honour and encouragement given him 
that he may go on faster ; for, where such a one is too slow, the 
whole company does the same, and the farmer is brought under 
great \o&a,— -Modem Husbamdman, Y. i. 23. 

Lose. To make worthless. 

'They may sow [yellow Lammas- wheat] (as they .term it) till 


they loH it; that is, till it degenerates into a most poor thin 
kernel.' — Modem Husbandman, VI. i 17. 

[Any kind of wheat, or other grain, degenerates if sown too long 
on the same ground ; so that farmers make a practise of changing 
their seed every few years. * Thev may sow [wheat] till they ioK 
it,' of course implies the sowing of wheat on the same £gum.— K H.] 

Xaid-fweet ' Sweet cisley, by some called tnaidsweet, that grows 
like a kex in wet meadows.' — Country Mouaeun/e, 252. There eeems 
some confusion here: Sweet cisley is Mt/rrhis odorata, L., but 
Maid-sweet is Spxrcea Ulmaria, L., which is probably intended. 

Kalmey. See Haumy. 
^ Kanger-meat. Food for cattle. 

' The best sort of pease for manger'meat.* — Modern HushandmnHf 
L ii. 41. 

. Hantle. ' If a little wheat-bran is boiled in our ordinary beer, it 
will cause it to mantle or flower in the cup, when it is poured out* 
— Country Housewife, p. 187. 
HaL giTOS this as an Ezmoor use of the word. 

HarL * There are four several sorts, viz. — the Fustian, the Ccncghit, 
the Black^steel, and the Shale.* — Modern Husbandman, TIT, i. 66. 

Kaster. The chief, the leader. 

* You may draw out what under-line plants you please, and only 
leave the master thriving one.' — Modern Husbandman, YJLl. L 15. 

'Master-shoot, the leading shoot.' — Id,, 16. 

* The wuMf«r-roots of a vigorous tree.* —Id,, Yil. ii 63. 

Haster-oow. See Buck. 

[In most herds of cattle there is generally one cow to whidi all 
the others give way. She is, in fact, master, or rather mistress of 
all the rest ; and in travelling £rom one pasture to another she 
generally leads the way and the rest all follow. — ^R. H.] 

"^ Matikin. ' Hub the bottom of the oven with ... a wet mop, or 
what bakers call a mxiukin.* — Country Housewife, 190. 

[A word well known in the north. It is a mop made of a 
number of shreds of coarse linen or blanket, fastened to the end of 
a long straight handle by a chain of two or three links. Its use is 
to clean out the wood ashes from the bottom of a brick oven before 
' setting in the bread ; ' for which purpose it is dipped in water and 
^ pushed backwards and forwards over the bottom of the oven. 
— R. H.] See Mavlkin in Hal. 

Hanmy earth (spelt malmey in New Experiments, 24). See Hor- 

* The chalk and mould were so mixed together, that in Hertford- 
shire we call it a maumy earth,* — Modem Husbandman, I. i. 36. 

' A chalk or a maume,* * Chalk, maume, or loam.'— /d., U, i, 101. 

1. ELLIS. 33 

y Haw. The stomach. < The maw of a suckling calf or kid ' when 
prepared for curdling milk. — Modem Hwibandmauy HI. 1. 122. Hal. 
has Mawshin. 

Hawhank (mowhook )). ' Owners of hedges should be obliged to 
trim them up, by cutting their outsides with that we caU in Hert- 
fordshire a mawhavk^ whic^ is a piece of an old scythe, fixed in a 
long handle, that a man may reach their tops with.* — Modem Hub- 
bandman, TTT. i. 167. 

[This instrument is stdU in use in Cheshire ; but I am not aware 
that it has any particular name. — B. H.] 

Haw-siek. ' The most general sickness in sheep proceeds from a 
defective stomach, which shepherds inJBuckinghamshire call maw- 
sick,'— 'Shepherd^ 8 Chuidcy 186. 

May. * All wheat should mayy or look yellowish, in April .... 
When it rnaya in April, it is right, but wrong if in May ; for then 

it should thrive and shoot into ear, instead of maying or 

yellowing.' — Modem Husbandman, III. i. 27. 

May weed. Anthemis Cottda, L. — A full description of the noxious 
qualities of ' this horrid, stinking, yenemous, rampant weed,* will 
be found in Modem Htuhaiidman, II. i. 17 ; III. i. 51. 

Mid-Hay. The middle of May. — Modem Hmhandman, IV. i. 61. 

Mine. 'The Middlesex farmers about Harrow, Stanmore, and the 
ach'acent parts, make it their business to get a great deal of 
sullidge out of the bottom of drains in roads, commons, and other 
places, which they here call a mine,* — Modem Husbandman, VI. 

^Mobbum bread. *A Cheshire servant-maid . . . told me in 
November, 1746, that in that part of Cheshire where she had 
lived, thej eat .... bread made with half rye and half wheat- 
meal, which thev there call Mobbum bread ; but in other parts of 
Cheshire, towards Manchester, she says, they eat sour cake, that is 
to say, oat-cake-bread.' — Country Housewife, 18. 

Months -men. Men employed for a month. 

* He commonly employed six months-men every harvest.' — Modern 
Husbandman, V. i. 8. C£r. Days-man and Harvest-man. 

Moor-eylL A disease in sheep, the same as Wood-evil. In Buck- 
inghamshire ' they call it the moor-evil, because they conceive it 
is bred in a sheep or lamb by its lying on moory cold groimd.' — 
Shepherds Guide, 321. 

Moor-grass. Nartliedum oasifragum, L. — Shejjherd^s Guide, 321. 

'^Morrice-bell. 'Tie a mornce-bdl about the neck of a catch'd rat.' 
— Modem Husbanoman, IV. i. 185. 

Mother of com. Clover * is in some parts where I have travelled, 
called the mother of corn, because it kills weeds, prevents exhala- 
tions, hollows the earth, and leaves so many large long roots 



beliind it, as to become a sort of dressing to it' — Modem Hutband- 
man, 11. i. 7 ; III. i. 160. 

Hothers-in-law. Sheep which suckle lambs not their own. — Modem 
Husbandman, IV. L 115. 

Honlded ap. Earthed up. 

' He had them moulded up, as we call it, which is drawing the 
earth with a hough upon the pea-roots.' — Modem Husbandman, L 51. 

HoWy n. A stack. 

' A cock or mow ... If hay is cut over ripe ... it will become 
black in the mow,* — Modem Husbandman, I v. i 102. 
* The mow or stack.'— id., 104. 
Also Mow-cock. 'The mow-cock or stack.' — Id., 109. 

How and bag ap. A harYest-man makes a bargain ' to have leave 
in SeptemDer or October .... to mow and bag up, as the term is, 
so many half-acres of haulm, or stubble, for his firing.' — Modem 
Husbandman, VL ii 93. 

How-bum. To become heated when stacked. Hay that had been 
spoilt by heating in the bam, was allowed to lie another year, and 
' contrary to their expectation, became sweet by being motv-^umed.' 
— Modem Husbandman, IV. i. 100. 

' Coarse sedgy hay, [if made] but little, will mow-hum^ become 
sweet,' &c. — Id., 101. 

[Cattle and horses are very fond of a little mow^bumi hay ; bat 
it soon satisfies them — ^and is not yery wholesome if given in large 
quantities. — R. H.] 

Howmen. Men employed for mowing. 

< Indi^erent mowmen* — Modem Husbandman, Y. iii 51. 

Howstead. 'Previous to the mowing wheat-sheaves, in bams, a 
mowstead should be prepared to lay them on.' — Modem Husbandman, 
Y. i. 2. Hal. gives this as a Devon word. 

[Evidently what, in most places, is called a 'stack-bottom,' 
which consists of a number of rough pieces of wood, branches of 
trees and such like placed under the com to raise it a little off the 
damp floor of the bam. — B. H.] 

Hack, t;. To manure. 

* They plow well and muck welL' — Modem, Husbandman, IV. ii. 81. 

Hndgel-hole. 'The common method is now to sprinkle all over 
the wheat-seed mudgel-hole or dunghil-black water.' — Modem Hus- 
bandinan, I. i« 9. Bee Mudgelly in HaL 

Hark. Lees. ' The lees or murk of the pressing ' walnuts. — Modem 
Husbandman, YII. ii. 124. 

Hastin. Rye and wheat sown together. — Modern Husbandman, V. 
i. 38. Hal. coUs this Maslin, 

I. ELLIS. 35 

Vab. To nibble. 

* Althoiug^li the aheep may nab and eat [very young wheat] 
they'll do U little or nohaxm:—tihepktrtl^$ Guide, 232. 

HaiL See On the ntiL 

y Haked SnaiL A slog, t. e. a snail without a shelL In general uBe. 
* Slugs or naked enaiU.* — Modem Huebandman, Y. iiL 13, &o. 

"^ Sappy. Strong. ' Good nappy ale.* — Modem Husbandman, V. iii. 

Hatnre. The pudendum of a mare. — Modem Husbandman, III. 
L 176. 

^ Hiokanockaas. Senseless persons. 

' The same that happens to seyeral nickanockaas in the West of 
"RnglATiH.* — Modem ntuibomdman, L 7. 

^ Sigardiee (A.-N. nigardie). Stin^ness. 

* They had a peak against hun, on account of his nigardice as 
they termed it.' — Modem Hu$bandma/n, YI. i. 28. 

Higet Pmg'it]. ' This hough-plough, or niget, as it is called in Kent.' 
— Modem ffwbandman, IV. L 16. Hal. has * Nidget, a part of a 
plough. Kent* 

Sightingale Haggot. 'The nightingale maggot that turns to a 
black- wing'd insect^ that feeds upon and corrupts the flower ' [flour]. 
— Country Housewife, 193. 

Hoteh-geers. ' If they have an iron cock with notches at the end 
of the beam of their plough, or what some call notch^geers* — 
Modem Husbandman, YL i 68. 

Oak-apple. Oak-gall ; a general name for it. 

'The oak-appU, as we caU it in Hertford8hire.'»Jtfo(20m Hus- 
bandman, yrt iL 36. 

Oak-bee. The cockchafer. 

The canker-worm ' is thought to be blown and bred by the darr 
or oak-bee.^ — Modem Huebcmcman, YI. i. 67. Hal. has Oak-web, 

Oatmeal Kernel. A thin ear of wheat. 

< A thin, or what we caU an oatmeal kernels* — Modem Husbandman, 
IV. i 46, 62. 

Odd Man. A man who does ' odd jobs ' on a farm. 

' What we call an odd man, or one that is to set his hand to any 
common business.' — Modem Husbandman, IV. ii. 132. 

OflU. 'Light offal kernels.' — Modem Husbandman, UL L 165. 
<Thin ojfa^ wheat.' — Country Housewife, 2. 

[OfEal wheat is the lighter grains winnowed out from the mar- 
ketable samnles, but still useable for feeding fowls. Hie oflal 
of an animal has, agriculturally, no particuhir reference to the 



inteetineSi but means the portions which, in selling an anfmal bj 
weight, become the butcher's perquisite, such as the head, feet, 
skin, internal fat, liver, &a MaAet prices are often quoted as 
* sinking the offal,* that is, selling the carcase but giving the above 
portions in. In Cheshire I have even heard all the joints of a pig 
which are not bacon, hams, or hands, called * offal pork.* — R H.] 

V Old Han's Beard. Clematis Vitalba, L. 
^ * What we in Hertfordshire call the old man's heard* — Moder% 

'•w^ ir Husbandman. IV. L 67. 

On the Hail. In dry weather ^ carts are drawn, as we call it, or 
the nail, without damaging their arable lands.' — Modem Hu^nd- 
man, VI. i. 73. 

Ormots. Furrows 1 In Middlesex * . . . they begin to sow their 
Hotspur pease in October, as the ormots, as they call them here, 
and the masters in drills, are two feet asunder.' — Modern Htuband- 
man, II. i. 61. 

^ Oris. Remnants; remains. — ShephertTs Guide, 213. 

^ Oven Honey. The dregs of the honeycomb which are drawn out 
of an empty comb when placed in a warm oven. 

' It is not worth sellinp^, . . . being what we caU wen honey* — 
"^ Modern Hushandman^ V. i. 112. 

Paddle. (1) n. an instrument for digging up thistles. 

* The iron thistle paddle.* — Modern Husbandman^ HI. i. 47. 

(2) V. to dig up thistles. ' To paddle up thistles.' — lb. 

Panie. *A lingering panic death.' — Modem Hushandvuin, III. 
ii. 80. 

Pass Hemp. See Hemp. 

Pay-rent What will pay the rent. 
* A Day rent crop of turnips.' — 

pay -rent crop of turnips.' — Modern Husbandman ^ IV. i. 39. 

Peacoek's TaiL [Maple] 'wood is of more value than ordinaiy 
woods are, for theur diapered knots and curled grain, that have 
given it the name of the peacock* » tail* — Modem Husbandman, VII. 

PeaL * Set them on a peal, and lay them to bake at the oven's 
mouth.' — Country Housewife, 75. See Peel (6) in Hal. 

[The oven-peal, or peel, is a flat board fixed to a long handle 
used for putting bread into a brick oven. It is * feather-edged,' so 
that the bread slips off pretty easily, and can easily Se pu&^ed 
under the loaves in order to lift them out when baked. The long 
handle prevents the baker getting too near the hot oven's mouth.— 
R. H.] 

Pecked. Peaked ; pointed. 

* This we shoot down in our fields in a round pecked heap.'— 
Modem Husbandman, IV. i. 92. 

I. ELLIS. 37 

' Tlie grass-roots strike their pecked or spreading roots down.' — 
Pract. Farmer, 82. 

Pecked-aned. With sharp-pointed buttocks. 

' Be sore you never make choice of a ram that is peeked-arsed/ — 
Modern Husbandman, IV. i 129. 

Ped. They * bring the milk home in wooden peds^ in the shape of 
old-fashioned upright chums.' — Modem Huehandman, lY. i 164. 

Peeked, PeekisL Peaked ; pointed. The plaice-worm has * a peehish 
heed and taA:— Shepherd's Guide, 151. 

Adder's-tongue has * a peeked leaf or stalk.' — Id,, 193. 

Peeler. Spoiler ; robber. Barley and wheat ' are both reckoned great 
peelers of the ground.' — Modern Husbandman, L L 73. 

' All the oat tribe are great peelers or robbers of the goodness of 
the earth,'— id., n. i. 38. 

Pegg^g. 'Putting a bit of Hellebore root in the grisly part of 
the ear, which is called pegging,' — New Experiments, 62. 

Peggings. ' What we call peggings, being composed of those corals 
that were swept off the heap of wheat after throwing.* — Modem 
Husbandman, VI. iii. 60. 

* What we in Hertfordshire call peggings . . . being what comes 
from the underline or blighted, or other wheat ears, most of which 
contain in them very thin little kernels, that will easily part from 
their chaff.' — Country Housewife, 2. 

Pelt-rot. A disease affecting new-shorn sheep. — Neio Experiments^ 

Penk. ' The minnow, or, as some call it, the perik,* — Modem Hus- 
bandman. III. ii. 87. 
[In Shropshire, pink. — ^W. W. S.] 

Penny-grasA. Bhinantlnis Cristorgalli, L. 

The ' seeds, growing in a round flat shape, [it] by some is called 
Penny-grass.' — Modern Husbandman, IV. i. 103. 

Pepper-wheat. A disease in wheat caused by Vibrio tritici. 

* What we call Pepper-wheat' — Modern Husbandjnan, II. ii. 32. 

Periwig. 'Thetches, when they are sown thick and grow well, 
commonly run into a periwig matting growth.' — Modern Husband- 
man, II. i. 72. 

Phill-taorse. A shaft-horse. 

^ The chains or traces of the hindmost or phill-horse are put on an 
iron hook,' &c. — Modem Husbandman, I. 39. 
Fillhorse, Shak., a corruption of ThilUhorse.—^y^ , W. S.] 

Picks, or Fix. See Swipe. 

Piky. Peaked ; pointed. See Pike, sub v. Spnrwood. 

* Long piky roots.' — Modem Husbandman, III. i. 87 ; IV. i. 35. 


PinMipple. A fii^sone. 

* Cones, or what we call jnn«-app{ef .' — Shepherd't (hUde, ISC 

Pirky. Early; forward. 

< Being of 9^ pithy nature, the kernel at harvest is ready to start 
out of its ohan.* — Modem JSwibandman^ YL L 15. 

*A Lammas, sown in November, December, or January, may 
Tery likely be chilled and killed when a pirky wheat-seed, sown in 
those months, might thriye/ — Id,^ I. ii. 2. 

* Aylesbury |)»rAy wheat-seed.' — Id,, TL L 131, &a 

* The Aylesbu^ red p%rk$.'—Id., IV. i 48. 

It is caUed Pirk-seed in the heading of Chap. XIV. (IL L 131). 

Pish. An expression of contempt here used as a noun. 

' They made a pUh at it.' — Modem Huabandman, ITT. iL 52. 

Pissum, an ant: PiMom-banks, ant-hills. — Modem HtubcmdmoHy 
II. ii 93. Pismire.— id, VI. ii 107. 

/Pitch]- and -ohuck. Htch-and-toss : a Herts game. — Shspfienfs 
Guide, 199. 

Plaise. 'A worm (fluke) about the breadth of one's finger-nail,' 
which infects the head and liyer of sheep. — Prod, Farmer, 137. 

PlaiBh. To pleach. January is a good month ' iotplaishing hedges.' 
— Modem Hu^bcmdman, I. 89. 

'A standing hedgQ plaiehed in a clever manner.* — Id., L 91. 

* Stumps and plaishee,' — Id., I. 91. 

' The plai$h or live stick must be bent easily and warily.' — Id^, 
I. 92. 
Also spelt Plash (KL ii 140, &c.). See Backing. 

[Always called plash in the north. The stems of the hedge are 
cut half-way through, so as to allow them to be bent down in order 
to thicken the bottom of the hedge. The cut stems send up num- 
bers of vertical branches, and an old hedge Ib thus renewed. — 'Si H.] 

Plash. (1) See preceding. 

(2) To splash. — Country Housewife, 307. 
PLOUGHSy kinds of. See Modem Husbandman^ FV. iii, chap. 1. 

Poachy. Swampy. 

* The land ... is very wet and poachy in the spring.' — Modem 
Husbandman, IV. iv. 25 (in a letter to the author; no locality given). 

* Land is said to be poached when it is trodden with holes Dy heavy 
cattle.'— Hal. 

Pole. The yellow wild thetch (Lathyrus praiensiSf L.), ' where it 
crows thick, hangs so together, that a person may shake a p(de of it 
&gether.' — Mod^ Husbandman, IV.^ii. 77. 

Y PoUard. Fine bran. 

' Dry com, pollard, rasping of bread, and other food ' (for fowls). 
— Modem Husbandman, ill. li. 100. 

V Pome-pirk, Pompirkin. A drink made from apples (Fr. pomme). 

I. ELLIS. 39 

' The produce of ... . cyder, and what we call pcmpirkin, or 
cyd&rkinJ'— Modem Husbandman ^ IV. iv. 15. 

' J^ome-pirkj which they generally prefer to any of the best small 
beer.'-. Id,, V. i 101. 

^ Potw * Dog-parsley ... is excellent rabbit-meat, for it will not pot 
a tajne rabbit' — Country Housewife^ 151. 

[Cause the animal to be pot-bellied, which frequently happens 
wnen tame rabbits are fed on food which is too succulent. — B. j3.] 

^ Pouleh. Pulp. 

' Tomeps when they haye thawed, are apt to rot, stink like 
carrion, and be of a poulcK* — Modem Husbandman, YL ,ii 83. 

Poimd Cherry. An ' excellent purple sort ... so big as to weigh 
down a guinea, which has given it the name of a pound cherry,* — 
New Experiments, 101. 

Pout. A poult or pullet. 

* Turkey-potrf*.' — Modem Husbandman, HI. ii. 146. 

[Pronounced poot. Female chickens and young female turkeys 
are inyariably so called in Cheshire, Lancashire, Scotland, &c. — 

Pucker. A small ridge. If the reaper uses * sweeping horizontal 
strokes .... he will beat up the straw in puckers.'* — Modem Hua- 
handman, VI. iii. 54. 

•^ PufBn-pea. * A forward hog-pea, called here [Rickmansworth] the 
puffin-pea' — Modem Husbandman, IV. iii 44, 

Pug. See Sheep. 

Purloin. A purline. See Purlins in Hal. 

The * purloins of bams, granaries, stables, gateways,' &c. — Modem 
Husbandnum, IV. i. 186. 

Quaggy. Shaky ; giving way under the feet. Cfr. ^rwa^-mire. 

* Quaggy bog-earth.' — Modern Husbandman, IV. iv. 42. 

Quashing. (1) ' When the butter is come, which you may know 
by its quashing.' — Modem Husbandman^ IIX L 130. 

(2) Boys ' rejoice when they find a nest of [pheasant's] eggs to 
quash with their feet' — Id,, IV. iii 85, 

[(juash, as apnlied to the pheasant's eggs, no doubt means ' break 
up,' ' squash ; out as regards the butter, this can scarcely be the 
meaning. It alludes to some difference of sound heard when the 
butter comes, for the sound alters very much. — E. H.] 

Quick-beam. Pyrua Aria, L. — Modem Husbandman, Vii. iL 91. 

Bagweed. Senedo Jacobcea, L. — Modem Husbandman^ III. L 47. 

EaUy. To recover or revive. 

'After the first mowing or cutting of [vetches] they do not rally, 


as we call it, t. e, they do not grow again to much profit' — Modern 
Husbandman, I. 60. 

' The cloyer raillied (as we call it) by yertue of a good shower of 
rain or two.* — Id,, VI. ii. 45. 

Ban-dan. ' Ran-dan, the coarsest wheat flour that is made.' — Modern 
Huibandinan, VI. ii. 65. 

[Randan in Cheshire is very fine bran, or any coarse flour mixed 
with fine bran. — R. H.] 

Bapperee. * These gypsy-men or rapperees! — Modern HusbandmoM, 
V. iii. 101. Rapparee, an Irish bully. 

Bashy. • A rashy, sharp gravel.* — Modern Hn^handmany I. i- 72. 

* A rashy, loose gravel.*— Zd., IL i. 104. Cfr. * Rash, brittle.*- 

Bath-ripe. Early ripe. — Modem Husbandtnan, II. ii 29, &c 

Battle-gra88. Rhinanthus Crista-galli, L. — Modern Hmbandinan, 
TV. i. 95. 

Beap, n. * As wheat is cut, its reaps are laid even one by another.' 
— Modem Husbandman, V. i. 27. HaL has * Heap, a bundle of com. 

Bed and White Bock. Some species of Eumex. — Modem Hus- 
bandman, m. i. 39. 

Bedding. Kaddle, ruddle. 

* Some will mark [sheep] only with redding,' — Modem Husband- 
man, IV. i. 134. 

Bed-weed. Papauer Rhceas, L. — Modem Husbandtnan, TV. i. 67. 

Bennet. Galium verum, L. — Modern Husbandman^ III. i. 110. 
Called also Bennet-wort Qrass. — Shepherd's Guide, 116. 

Bidder. To clear. (I) * When the hedge is riddered, as we call 
it, that is, when ail the superfluous wood, that is not to be kept 
in the new hedge, is taken out.* — Modem Husbandman, L i. 92. 
See Flower-bank. 

(2) Ridd^ring is also applied to cleaning wheat by means of a 
large sieve or wheaUridder. — Id,, VI. iii. 60. 

* To riddsr or riddle it.*— Jd., VL iii. 72. 

Bidge. * He began to plow ... by first making a low ridge and 
plowing on each side of it . . . and as he plowed (as we call it) 
round the ridge,' &c. — Modem Husbandman, 11. L 26. 

Bidging Tip. See Casting Down. 

Biggie. A spelling of wriggle, 

* By the plowman's scrubbing, he riggles the plough, and thereby 
makes it go the easier.* — Shepherds Guide, 3. 

Bight Season. * What the Vale-men call a right season, which is, 
when their black earth works very clung and heavy, they seldom 
fail of having great crops.' — Modem Husbandman, I, 46. 

I. ELLIS. 41 

Sim. * The rim or middle ' of a haystack. — Modem Hiisbandman, 
TV. i. 103. 

[The old word for midriff. See Bim (2) in HaL : A.S. hrim.-^ 
W. W. S.] 

Bingo-roots. Eryngo-roots, roots of Eryngium maritimum^ L. — 
Modem Httshandmany Y. iii. 120. 

"Bxp. * The cuttings or rip s [o f turnip-seed] are to be laid in rows.' 
— Modem Husbandman, TV. L 42. 

Bedded. Made of rods. 

' Rodded hurdles made close with hazel-rods.' — Modem Husband' 
man^ IV. iv. 64. 

Boddled. ' Raddled hurdles.' — Modem, Husbandman, IV. i. 82. 

See Baddk (4) in HaL, who also explains it as a northern word 
signifying * to weave.' This may be the meaning here, or it may 
be a misprint for rodded, 

Bog^r-beam. * In summer-time when the meadows are flooded in 
the Tale low ground . . . there comes up a weed about two inches 
lon^, called there Roger-beam^ that grows in flat bunches, with 
yanous turned leaves somewhat like house-leek, and is found to be 
another cause of the sheep's rotting, because they ^^reedily eat this 
cold, watery, glewy vegetable, that never is seen ui arable hmd, 
nor anywhere else in dry summers.' — New Experiments, p. 43. 

Bonelewort. At Sidbury, Devonshire, * they chop rue, wormwood, 
and rondewort,^ and give them to sheep as a preventive of rot. — 
Bhepher^s Guide, 144. I cannot identify this or the preceding. 

^ Bot. * The Irish rot their butter.' — Modem Husbandman, III. L 137. 

[This refers to a practice which used to be, and perhaps still is, in 

vogue in Ireland of burying butter in peat bogs until it becomes 

y/ rancid and cheesy. It was called ' bog-butter.' Cream cheeses are 

V sometimes buried in the earth for a short time to ripen them.— B. 


Bound BnsL ' The sedge or round rush.' — Modern Husbandman, 
IV. i. 101. 

Bound the Bidge. See Bidge. 

Bonnd Work. ' He plowed up the surface of a Chiltum meadow 
with a two- wheel pecked share-ploueh, that had a fin fixed on the 
right side of the share ; and, as tnis plough went first, a foot-plough 
immediately followed, and turned up the next virgin-mould on the 
^rass-turf , and so on till a broad-land of feet in breadth was 

finished ; and thus he proceeded till all the field was done. This 
we call round work, because the ploughman begins in the middle of 
so much eround as he intends for one broad-land, leaving, as usual, 
a water-thorough on each side of it.' — Modern Husbandman, I. 16. 

Bowen. The after-math. — Modem Husbandman, IV. ii 77. Hal. 
has rowens as a Suffolk word. 

«^ Bowii^) Bowy. Others make a strong brine, 'and therein put 


^ pounds of fresh butter, and it will preserye them from rowings- 
modem Husbandmanf tU, i 136. 

' If butter is made of olorer ... it is apt to be rowy.* — Id., lY. 
ui. 78. 

Busty. A misprint for roshy 1 

' Sedge or rtuiy stalks that grow among the grass.' — Modem Hut- 
bandman, TV, i 101. 

Bying-sieYe. ' A brass or iron wire round hand-sieve, which we call 

a rying-gieve This practioe of Tying, or cleaning better thsn 

onunary.' — Modem Husbandman, YL iii. 64. Hal. has ' Bie, to 
siere com.' 

Salley. Sallow, a willow. — Modem ffusbcmdman, YII. L 93. 
Rural, SaUies.— i(2., IV. ii 41. 

Sammy (i. e. saimy or seamy). Greasy. Cfr. Seam. See Beanweed. 

Scab. A disease of turnips. — Modern Husbandman^ IV. iiL 27. 

^ Soald-b«rry. Fruit of Rubus fruticosuBy L. — Country Housewife^ 

Scantling. 'Younger trees which have their bark smooth and 
tender, clear of wens and b unch es . . . about the scantling of their 
leg.^ — Modem Husbandman, Vii. ii. 65. 

Soraled. Confused. Wheat blown down ' lay tcraled and confused.' 
— Modern Husbandman, IV. i 49. 

* Scraled about by winds.'— /d, V. i. 66. See Scraud (3) in 

V Seam. (1) ' The pure fat part of a porker, which we call lard or 
seam) — Country Housewife, 81. See HaL [Welsh saim^ grease.— 
W. W. 8.] 

^ i^)^ quarter of com. 

'Fiye quarters or seams oi oats.' — Modem Husbandman, YL 

Seed-eot. A basket out of which seed is sown. 

' Let a man directiy sow his wheat-seed, out of a seed-cot, all over 
the land.' — Modem Husbandman, YI. i. 81. Cfr. Seed-cod in HaL 

^ Shaekle-hammed. Bow-legged. Colts broken too young are often 
' weak-backed, shackle-Jiammedy' &c. — Modem Husbandman^ TIT , i 
180, 182. 

^ Shaddens. ' Any time after they have done breeding (else the honey 
will be corrupted by the sJiaddens in the comb}.' — Modem Husband' 
man, Y. i. 107. [Bits shed, or scatto:^ pieces. Cfr. Shade (4) in 
Hal.— W. W. S.] 

Shading. Grayel is ^ binding, drying, and shading.* — New Experi- 
mewts, 2. 

I. ELLIS. 43 

Shale. See HarL 

Shaver. ' Cunning as these shavers aro.' — Modem Htishandman, II. 

i 61. 

< Cunning shavers or oontriyers.' — Id,, Y. iiL 47. 

. Sheep. * The first year we call the ewe a lamb ; the second year a 
ewe fug or ieg; the third year a thaive; and the fourth year a 
sheep. The weather we call the first year a lamb; the seoona year 
a vjeaiher pug or Ug ; the third year a iherrug ; and the fourth a 
sheep,* — New Experiments, 52. 

Sheep-lioe. Ticks in sheep. — Modem Husbandman^ lY. L 133. 

Sheer. ' Let the shepherd take a sheer fall of broom.' — SIiepherd*s 
Guide, 330. 

•#- Sheib. * Blocks for pu llies and sheffs, as seamen name them.' — 
Modem Husbandman, YTL ii. 40. 

Sheim. ' The skeim or prong-plough.' — Modem Husbandman, III. 
i. 56. 

The * triangular hough-plough.'— /d., Y. i 68. Cfir. Shim (1) in 

^Shend. ' Make two shends on both sides his backbone, from his 
head to his tail, and anoint with the aforesaid grease.' — Shepherd! s 
Quids, 329. 

[This probably means a parting or division of the wooL In 
^ applying ointment to a sheep it is usual to open out the wool in 
hues, BO as to reach^the skin. — 'Si, H.] 

Shepherd's Poaoh. Capsella Bursorpaetorisy L. — Country House^ 
wife, 362. 

Shermg. See Sheep. 

Shield. * An aged boar requires at least twelve hours boiling, to get 
y the ihidd tender and soft.' — Country Housewife, 118. 
"^ < The ihidd, the best part of the brawn.'— /d., 119. 

ShoaL ' The top of this land will shoal and run into a fine hollow- 
ness even by yery small frosts.' — Modern Husbandman, Y. iii. 7. 
Chalk is ' drying, shoaling, and sweetening.' — New Experiments, 2. 

Shock (of com). In Herts it contained fifteen sheaves, in Kent and 
other ^aces ten. — Modem Husbandman, YL L 25. Also used as a 
verb (Y. i. 27). See Thrave. 

Shootixig-time. The time when the wheat shoots into ear. 

Wheat grew ' several inches high in one week, at sJuxiUng'time,* 
— Modem Husbcmdman, lY. L 52. 

Shreading (shred, to cut or prune). * It may take root, and hasten 
to a sudden tree, especially if seasonable shreading be applied, which 
has sometimes made them felms] arrive at the height of twelve feet 
by the first three years.' — Modem Husbandman, ylL ii. 71. 

Shrew-mouse. * This creature is rightly named the shreuhmouee, for 



where it gires a sheep or lamh a bite, it is a shrewd ono indeed.'— 
Shepherd's Ouide, 108. 

Side. Giddiness in cattle. 

* A bull .... died of the nd^. or giddiness.' — Modem ffusband- 
man, TV. ir. 76 (from ' a Warwickshire gentleman '). 

Side-span. ' Side-span [sheep] as we call it, by tying a fore-leg to a 
hind-leg, with an allowance for length of string.* — Modem Husband- 
man ^ YI. iL 97. Hal has spancelf a word now in use in Irehind 
(co. Waterford, &c.) : it is also spelt epenchel. Gfr. Siddong in HaL 

Size - lands. ' The aize-landft of Middlesex.' — Modern Husbandman^ 
I. 68. See Broad-land. 

Skimmiug. He sowed ' the same seed after brining, skimming* <&c. 
. . . the Mmmingt he sowed by themselves.' — Modem Husbandman^ 
V. iii. 67. 

[It is customary in many places to put wheat which is to be sown 
in brine, partly to destroy the germs of parasitic fungi such as 
smut, and P<u^ly to separate the liffht grains which are not likely 
to germinate. These latter float and are skimmed off. — B. H.] 

Skit, Diarrhoea. See Hal. 

* The tkit or looseness in sheep.' — Prod, Farmer, 134. 

Slake. ' In May . . . when the webs and slakes lie on the ground.' 
— New Experiments^ 46. 

SlaneB. * Dig your trench with slaties.^ — Modem Hushayidman, IV. 
ii. 40. 

Sleeying. See Combing. 

x/ Slipooat. A kind of cream cheese. — Modern Husbandmany ILL i. 
117. Hal. giyee a recipe for making it 

Sliver. Slice, slip. 

' If a sliver or long substantial piece is taken off the sappy part ' 
of an ash-tree. — Modem Husbandman, YII. ii. 43. See H^T 

Sloat A bar : still in use in Cheshire. 

* The shats^oi a gate or hurdle. ' — Modem Husbandman, HE. L 78. 

* The open five-«/oW hurdle.' — Id,, IV. iv. 65. 

/ Sluts-pennies. If dough is not properly kneaded, 'there is often 
what we call sluts-pennies among the bread, that will appear and eat 
like kernels.' — Country Housetm/e, 21. 

Smat. 'That pernicious disease incident to a wheat-crop when 
dressed with dung, called Sfnut.* — Modem Husbandman^ II. iL 66. 

Also Bmut-balls (IV. iy. 130) and Smuttiness: *that stinking 
black sickness called smuttiness,' — Id,, V. iii. 59. 

Snail-horn. A crooked horn. 

< If a lamb is gelt at a week or fortnight old, it will cause it to 
haye a thin, short, and what we in Hert&rdshire call a snail-horn, ' 
-^Shi^herds Ouide, 94. See Hal. 

r. ELLIS. 45 

Snarle. An entanglement. See Snarl (2) in HaL ; also Snarreh 

* I found [the Hairworm, Oordius aquaiicui] to twist itself all np 
into a close «nor?e/— Glandville in Modern Huahandman, IV. ii. 73. 

Snarlings. * The worst sort of hemp, called snarlings' — Modem 
Husbandman^ Y. iii. 88. 

SoUar. Sallow, willow. 

* The old saying — 

'* Be the oak ne'er so stout, 
The ScUar red will wear it out." ' ^^ 

Modem Htuhandman, YTL i. 98. 

Somen. The rails of a cart (Hal.). 

Beechwood is employed * for somers and joysts,* &c. — Modem 
Htuhandman, YIL i. 34. 

Sorrance. Soreness. Hal. has sorance. 

The itch in sheep, says Adam Speed, is ' a grievous offensiye dis- 
order, or aorranceJ — ShepkercPa Outde^ 328. 

Sow-bng. * Suw-bvg or wood-louse.' — Country HovsewifSf 157. 

Sown under Furrow. 'They sow [horse-beans] first broad-cast 
oyer the ground, and then plow them in : this, as we call it, being 
Bown under furrow.^ — Modem Hiuhandman, L ii. 60 ; H. i. 9. 

Spall * Spalt or brittle.' — Modem Husbandman, VII. L 56. See 
HaL [Used in Cambridge.— W. W. 8.] 

Spew. See Swarm. 

Spe wy. '"Wet spetffy grounds.' — Modem Husbandman^ II. ii. 122. 
I Where water from some higher ground oozes from the surfieice. — 
E. H.] 

Spike-leayes. Lavandula Spica, DC. 1 * Boil some Lavender and 
Sptke-Uaves,* — Modem Huabandmany UX. L 178. 

Spindle. The young shoot of com. See Spendle (3) in Hal. 

* The spindle of the wheat.' — Modem nushandman, HI. i. 28. 

* The wheat was upon the epindle, and had not shot into ear.' — 
lb., ni. i 163. 

Spinny. *A spinny^ or spring of underwood.' — Modem Husband- 
man, IV. iv. 18. [A thicket; Latin, aptnetvm; which becomes 
espin^ in French. See eepine in Gotgrave. — W. W. S.] 

Spire. To grow or shoot See Cammock. See Spire (1) in Hal. 

* They will . . . spire quickly after they are in the ground.' — 
Modem Husbandman, m. ii. 37. 

Spirtle. Sprinkle, scatter. 

The rain 'bashes the earth and epirUes it upon the grass.' — 
Shepherd^ s Guide, 117. See Hal. 

Spit A common and scarcely local word for a spade's depth in 
digging. See Spit (1) in Hsd. 


In Jannaxy the monld ahonld be thrown oat of ditdies below 
hedges ' a ipU or two deep.' — Modem Huabandman, L 90. 

Spoil See Bum and Stunt 

Sprain. To sprinkle. 

' The other had a BeedVman to tprain his pease in eyerjr thoron^ 
or fdrrow.' — Modem Husbandman^ Li. 5L See Spreint m Hal. 
' Spraining the seed is by a man's hand.' — Id,, YL L 48. 

Spring. Toung growth. 

< A spinny or spring of underwood.' — Modem Huthandman^ lY. 
iy. 18. 

Spurring. By ' spurring up a gate or stile-post before they are quite 
damaged, he may save a landlord a considerable charge.' — Modem 
Husbandman, YL i. 126. See 8per (1) in Hal 

[When a gate-post is broken near the ground it is frequently 
repaired by sinkine a piece of wood in the ground alongside the 
post, and nailing the upper part, which projects above the ground, 
to the post. This is called a spur, — B. H.] 

Spnrwood. Spearwort, Ranunctdus Flammula, L. 

At Sidbury, Devonshire, ' they have a weed called Spnrwood or 
Spearwort, mat they say runs up like a pike, and as the sheep 
feed in their low grouncb there, they eat this weed, and it tends 
much to the rotting of them.' — Shepherds Quids, 144. 

Squab. A young gosling.— New Experiments, p. 95. ' An unfledged 
bird.'— Hal. 

Sqnirrel-taiL Used as bait for trout 

* Squirrd'taU, having a red head streaked down the back, and a 
broad taU.' — Modem Husbandman, HI. iL 82. 

Staddle. See Haymaking. 

Stale. See Fork-stale. 

Stalk. A stack. 

' Glover-cooks or stalks,* — Modem Husbaatdman, 11. i. 97. 

Stare. To stand on end. Cf. ' Stare (3), stiff.'— Hal. 

* It will damage and lessen her [the cow's] milk, cause her hair 
to stars,' Ac. — New Experiments, 57. 

V Stealing the Bloom. * The field hog-pease ran into bloom a-pace, 
by means of the very hot season, and so did the field horse-beans, 
that brought both into a sudden podding ; which when it so hap* 
pens, in Hertfordshire we call it stealing the bloom, and is accounted 
a sure sign of a plentiful crop.'-^ifo(2ern Husbandman, TV, iiL 46. 

St. Foyne. Saintfoin is always written thus. 

Stibbony. ' Stihhony or glass of antimony powder.' — Modem Hws 
bandman, IY. i 187. 

Stirree. The second tilth or fallow. 

' The next time, or first stirree, plow it again in the very same 

I. ELLIS. 47 

manner ; but the third time, or second tHrreCf the atitchefl shonld 
be plowed into bouts.* — Modem Htubandman, HI, L 9. See Twy- 

* The first stirree, or second plowing. * — Id. , IV. i 18. Cfr . Stirring 
(1) in HaL 

Stirree-time. — Id., 69. 

Also as a yerb. ' They stirree it the beginning of this month.' — 
Id,, IV. i. 21. 

Stitch. A ridge. 

* Stitches or ridges.' ••Wheat-stubble vtUches' — Modem Evshand- 
man, I. i. 61. 

* Wheat lying in the a^i^cA-shape lies too high and dry.' — Id., YL 

* It lay in the »<*<c^-posture.' — Id,, 48. 

Stock. (1) ' To hear stock (as we call it in Hertfordshire), that is, 
to lay out and expend money, from time to time, for years to- 
gether, without getting any.' — Modem Hushandmani TV. ii. 95. 

(2) To root up trees. * Stocking or felling it down.' — Id,, VII. 
ii. 96. 

Stock-lLoney. ' Those bees that swarmed the year before, we take 
^ up now, and then it is called stock-honey.* Tina is known * by its 
Ba&, flashy mealy nature.' — Modem Hiuhandman, V. L 106. 

Stolch. ' In wet weather cattle would be apt to stolch and dirty the 
grass, and make it unfit for feeding.' — Modem Hushandma/n, II. i. 
81 ; ii. 132. Cfr. < Stulk-hoU, a miry puddle.'— Hal. 

^ Strake. A streak. 

'Mix beaten salt regularly with [the butter], .... else the 
buttermilk, whey, and salt will shew themselyes in straJces,^ — Modem 
Husbandman, III. i 131 ; IV. i. 95. 

Strangnllion. A disease in horses. — Modern Husbandman, III. ii. 75. 
[Probably * strangles,' a yery infectious disease of the throat and 
glands. — B. H.] 

Stretcher. A shoot of hazel. 

* Its stretchers, sprays, and withs.' — Modem Husbandnum, VH. 

Striking. ' What we call striking, or, in plainer terms, the gluti- 
nizing of the green ears [of wheat] by the fall of . . . honey-dew.' 
— Modem Hushandman, tV. ii. 124. See Struck and Stroke. 

StroakingBb The last milk drawn from a cow in milking. 
^. * Pour quarts of stroakings warm from the cows.' — Modern Eva- 
handmcm. III. i. 118. See HaL 

Stroke. * In the latter peirt of June, or the beginning of July, . . . 
^reen wheat is most liable to receiye the stroke, as &e fietrmer calls 
it ; that is, the honey-dews, which are of a sulphureous glutinous 
nature, will then faR on the green ear and stalks, and so close and 
glow up the tender Tiose of the ear, that the unrii)e wheat kernels 
cannot expand themselyes into a fall growtli and bigness ; which is 


one Teaaon why wheat-kemeLs are often seen no bigger than &e 
^TGuJt of an oat.' — Modem Husbandman^ 11. i 2. See Striking and 

Struck. Blighted. 

' Wheat mildewed, blighted, or what we, in Hertfordshire, call 
ffrttdt.' — Modem Hutibandman^ IV. i. 45. See Striking and Stroke. 
Cfir. < No planets strik^: Hamlet, I. i. 162. 

Stab. ' Tumeps may be hoaghed ill if the hougher stubs them, as 
we call it, t. e. if he houg^hs them so shallow as to only cnt off the 
heads, and leave the roots in the ground.' — Modem Husbandman, Y. 
I 86. 

Stnimified. Stanned, numbed. — 8?iepher(Vs Guide, 290. 

Stunt To dwindle or lessen. 

Lambs 'stunting or dying by the operation' of castrating. — 
Modem Hushandmany HE. ii. 50. 

Turnips will ' bum, stunt, and spoil' if they grow too thick. — 
Ih., V. L 78. 

^ Suokler. A person who takes young lambs to bring up. — Modem 
Husbandman, TV. L 116. 

Sugar-plum Laud. ' This is a thin, short, chalky surface, which 
commonly lies on a hurlock or rag-stone ; that is to say, a whitish, 
huxl substance, between a chalk and a stone, which is of a most 
hungry nature.* — Modem Husbandman, VL ii 19. 
' What we call a sugar-plum chalk.' — ^YL iii. 34. 

SulL A plough. 

' The two-wheel great west-country sulh as they there call it-.' — 
Modem Husbandman, I. i 18; lY. i. 19. [AS. sulk; the south^n 
and western word for plough ; Dev. sjooi.— W. W. S.] 

Sullidge. (1) Slush. 'K lime, pond, or highway suUidge and 
dung are mixed together.' — Modem Husbandman, I. i 39. 

(2) Sediment. ' Take out all blacks and stUlage ' from the brine. 
— /d.,IV. i. 169. 

[It means swUlage, washings. — ^W. W. S.] 

Swarm of Bees. ' In a right year for their increase, there are many 

/ hives that have four swarms ; that is, from one hive a stvarm, a 

•^ cast, a colt, and a spew, . . . The swarm is the first and greatest 

nimiber, the cast is the next greatest, the colt the next, and iJie 

V spew the least of alL' — Modern Iffusbandman, TV. i.- 182. 

These words are all used as verbs in Modern Husbandman, TV, ii. 

Swift. The land newt. Essex, — Modem Husbandman, III. ii. 81. 

Swipe. They cut pease * with their two instruments, called, in the 
^ hither part of this country, next London, su;ipe and pix : with the 
^ pix, or picks, a man hawls a parcel to him with his left hand, and 

f. cuts them with the sunpe in the other hand.' — Modem Husbandman, 
TV. iii. 41. 

I. KLLIS. 49 

Swopping. Bariering; excliaiigm^. 

'Selling or noopping a certainty for an uncertainty.* — Modem ^ 
Htuhandman, L L 127. 

' Two persons sufopped their horses/ &c. — Id., I. L 131. 
* To stoop or change.' — Id., L ii. 31. 

[Used constantly in the north fbr ' exchan^g.' The proverb 
'ezchanffe is no robbery* becomes in Ghesimre 'icoppery'g n o • 
igbbery/— B. H.] 

Tagein^. 'What we, in Hertfordshire, call tagging a sheep or 
Iamb, is cutting or clipping away, with a pair of shears, the dingy 
wool' from the hinder parts.— /SA^p^cTf Guide, 351. See Tag 
(4) and cfr. Taged in Hal. 

Tails. The awns of grain. 

' Tails or ails.' — Modem Husbandman, YI. iii. 71. 

Taint. * The taint or glow-worm.* — Shepherd^s Guide, 306. 

Tang. A disagreeable taste or taint — Modem Husbandman, III. i. 
127, &c. 

Taiei. Vida sativa, L. Middlesex. — Modem Husbandman, Y. 
iii 72. 

Talker. A thrasher who imdertakes a definite task of work. 

' A iasker who threshes out his i23iate of S^^^ ^ ^® usual cus- 
tonLary limited time every week.' — Modem Husbandman, TV, iy. 125. 
Also Taaker-servant. — Ib„ 131, Ac. 

' TTia task is commonly to thrash five and twenty bushels of wheat ' 
in one week, and clean it for market.' — Id., YI. i. 144. See Hal. 

Ted. See Haymaking. 

Teg. ' Lambs and tegs* — Modem Husbandman, IY. iv. 109. See 

Thaive. See Sheep. 

Thetches. Fitches or vetches, Vicia sativa, L. 

* In Hertfordshire we call them thetches,^ They ' may be sown 
for an early crop about lilichaelmas, and then they are called 
winier-thekhee,^ — Modem Husbandman, L 55. 

Smportant as showing th =pK and corroborating fill-hoTse = 
-Aorw. See Thorough.— W. W. S.] 

An early kind of vetch is ' much sown about Warminster, in Wilts, 
where they call them Lenten Thetches, being . . . sown in March or 
April, and therefore called by that name.' — lb., 57. 

Thetch-hay. Dried vetches. — Modern Husbandman, L i. 59. 

Thorongh. A furrow : as thetch = fitch, vetch. 

' The next thorough or furrow.' — Modem Hvsbandman, I. 47, and 
in very many other places. See under Henting, Sprain, &c. 

The land ... * should be back-bouted, or what we call thoroughed 
down.' --Id., Y. i. 87. 




' Thorcughing down is drawing tbe plough once thorough the 
bought, to lay it plain for wheat or barley.' — PradL FariMT, 

Thrave. ' If every throve [of wheat] contained four ahociu, and 
ererv shock contains six sheares, as it does in some countries, and 
you had at the rate of thirty thrave to the acre.' — Modem EwAm^d- 
man, lY. iy. 96. See Hal. (3). 

Throating. ' When they mow beans against their bending, thej [in 
the Yale of Aylesbury] call it throating, that is, mowing them 
against their bending.' — Modem Husbandman, Y. L 68. 

Throw. Cast 

They * sow it broadcast twice in a place, by crossing the <Afov.' 
— Modem Husbandman, V. iii. 7. 

Tiekle-back. Stickleback. — New Experiments^ 92. 

Tieks. ' Here they call the small common field-horse-bean email 
ticks, and the larger sort, great tieksJ — Modem Husbandman^ L 

Tills, or Dills. Ervum Lens, L. — Modem Husbandman^ L 124. 

Tilth. In common use throughout. 

' A fine tilth is necessary. . . . Dry tilth loamy grounds.* — Modem 
Husbandman, IV. iy. 56, 57. 

* TiUh or tilt is ground reduced by the plough and hairow to a 
fineness or powder.* — Pract, Farmer. 

[The best definition of tUth is < the condition in which land ia left 
by tilling it'— B. H.] See Hal., and Tempest, 11. i. 162. 

Tod. Fourteen pounds. * Two stone.' — Hal. 

' Wool worth a guinea a tod,* — Modem Husbandman^ IY. i. 135. 

Ton^e-pad. A ready talker (gipsy). — Modem Husbandman^ Y. 

Topping. Foremost; leading. 

' The yery topping formers.* — Modem Husbandman, Y. iii. 45. 

/ Trannter. ' The word iraunter^ for aught I know, is more particu- 
larly used in Hertfordshire than elsewhere ; for I hardly oyer heard 
it mentioned in any other of the southern counties. The word 
p traunter I take to mean, strictiy, any person that bu^ wheat in 
^ sacks to sell again in sacks.' — Modem Husbandman, IY. li 103. HaL 
has ' Tranter, a carrier.' 

v^ Treddle. The excrement of rabbits. — New Experiments, 25. Hal. 
has ' Treddle, the dung of a hare,' and * Tridlins, the dung of 

Tront-fly. 'The caddis or trout-fly.* — Modem Husbandman, ILL 
ii. 84. 

Trumpery. Weeds. 

* Burrs, crow-needles, cockle, darnel, or other trumpery.'-^Modem 
Husbandman, ITT, i 156. 

I. £LLIS. 51 

TmnclieonB. Cuttings 1 or of&eta ? 

' Tronsan, a truncheon or little trunk ; a thick slice, luncheon, or • 
piece cut off.* — Cotgrave. ' . 

Alder *will thrive but poorly when raised from truncheana,* — 
Modem Husbandman^ VII. i. 109. 

Try-fEillowing. See Twy-foUowing. 

Tiixnep-faniL ' Most of our Chiltum farms are called tiirnep- v^ 
/anru of late, by some, by reason our inclosed fields and soils are, 
for the CTeatest part of them, proper for this purpose, and because 
of our farmers, dose application to improve tneir land by this 
fiunous root.' — Modem Huahandman, I. 71. 

Twine-grass. Vicia Gracca, L. 1 

* Wild thetch or twine-grtus,* — Modern Husbandman, VI. ii. 48. 

Twisl The * bind or twist * of dodder. — Modem Hvsbandnian^ IV. 
iii. 129. 

Twy-f allowing. ' The first stirree, or second plowing after fallowing 
in April . . , is by some called Twy-fallomng.* — Modern Husband- 
man J ITT. i 13, 

* The first plowing is called fallowing ; the next in some places is 
called TrylTwy] Fallowing y with us a stirree; the third plowing 
by some is called Try Fallowing^ with us a second stirree.' — New 
ExperimentSf p. 3. 

Tyne, or Tyne-grass, w Wild Thetoh-grass. (1) Ficia Craccn, 

L. — Modern Husbandman^ I. i. 142. (2) V, hirsutay L. — Id., III. L 48. 
Also Tyne-weed (F". hirstUa, L.).— VIII. 302. 

XJncap. To uncover a shuck of wheat at the top. — Modem Hmhand- 
man, VX i. 28. 

Underline. Underling ; inferior ; weak. 

' There is a great difference in pirkv wheat-seed. Some is rubbish 
in comparison of others. Some may be attended with . . . underline 
corns.' — Modern Htuhandman, H. ii. 127. 

* The fourth skimming is ... to be churned alone, for making an ^Q^^,p^*i 
underline butter (as the daiiV-men call it), worth a penny a j)ound ^^^^ ^ 

v^ less than the prime sort, made with all the first three skimmings. ' ^'^'^ - 
— Modem Husbandman, IV. i 167. He says this 'still is caUod ^r>A»KitLt 
underling butter in Aylesbury vale,' — Id., 170. See Buck (2). 

Yale-lands. See Chiltum Countries. 

Vines. * Tlie vines or binds ... of Hellweed.* — Modern Ilnshand- 
man, IV. L 66. 

/Visney. * No cherry makes so cordial a sort [of cherry-brandy] as 
the Kerroon ; and, to my taste, if a couple of ingredients are added 
• to it, I think Visney itself is not so pleasant.' — Modem Husbandman. 
"" V. ii.30. 

* The liquor call'd Turkish Visney, that used to be sold at London 
'^ for twenty shillings per gallon.' — Id., VII. i. 71. 

E 2 


Wad. A heap or bundle. 

* Cock [vetches] in little wads, ad we do clover-grass.*— iTodfrii 
Husbandman, IV. lil 61. Cfr. Wad (3) in HaL 

Wallop. • Boil the cream a wallop or two to preserve it* — Modern 
Hiuhandmany III. i. 128. 

* She would stir [the cream] till it boiled a xDollop or two.' — Id,^ 

IV. i. 169. 

[A wallop is a boiling movement here : see OaUop in my &ffnu 

IHd.^Vr, W. S,] 

Water-wood. A tree which grows best near water. 

*An alder, a withy, a willow, or other waUr-wood hedge.' — 
Modem Huabandman, II. ii. 139. 

WHEAT, The following are the names of varieties of wheat 

mentioned byjEUis : — 

Holland Wheat, a large sort so called at Taunton, Somerset j 
Dugdale Wheat * in Essex called Bold rivei, by some Cone-wkeai 
[in Huntingdonshire Dunever Wheat — New ExperimentB, 86]; 'in 
Somersetshire are two sorts of bearded wheat, called Blut-haU and 
Grey-ball,* — Modem Husbandman, V. iii. 5, 6. 

Eggshell Wheai, Lammas Wheat. — ^V. iii. 44. 

Firewheat, from its red colour; HerU White (London); iZad 
Lammas, — Id., VI. i. 1. 

« Duckbill or Dugdale Wheat : In Essex they call this Orey-poU 
Rivet; in Huntingdonsh. Dunover Wlieat; in the West-country 
Grey-poll and Blue-poU Wheat; in Herts Duek-biU or DugdaJU 
Wheat:^Id,, VI. i. 10. 

Egg-shell or Mouse-dun Wheat, — Id,, VT. L 14. 

Knot-wheat, Pendul-wheat, Duke-wheat. — Id. 

Grandsire Wheat.^Id.i VL ii. 25. 

Wheat-ridder. See Bidder (2). 

Whey-butter. * When butter is wholly made with whey-cream, it 
is thon justly named Whey-butter.^ — Modem Husbandman, IV. i. 170. 

[See note to Fleeting-diBh. Such butter is still called Whey- 
butter in Chedure. It has a somewhat peculiar flavour, and is very 
soft—E. H.] 

Whip-beam. Pyrus Aria, L. 

' It serves the plough-boy to make himself a horse-whip.' — Modem 
Husbandman, Yll. ii. 91. 

White-ash Herb. ' A herb which grows amongst grass.' — Cowdry 
Housewife, 129. * WliUe-Mh, is much rejected by cattle.' — lb, 318. 
This t cannot identify. 

White Bonnet. See Bennet-weed. 

White Sincles. ' White aincl^ are very bad for sheep in pastures 
and in fallows/ — Shepherd's Guide (p. 144), quoted firom *an old but 

good writer, J... B ' This may be Pinguicula vulgaris, L.. an 

old name for which was Yorkshire Sanicle, of which sindes may be 
a corruption. 

I. ELLIS. 53 

WMte-wood. Populus alba, L. 

' The common name among [the low country men] is Whitetvood, 
firom this colour, that the banc, leaves, and body retains, beyond all 
others that grow in this nation.' — Modem Husba/cdman, VlL i. 104. 

'T he Yale- men distinguish it by the name of white-wood,^ — /d., 
Vn. ii. 187. 

[In Cheshire white-wood generally means every other kind of 
timber except oak. — R. H.] 

WAOoL A corruption of weevil ? y 

* WhooU, or wevils, or maggots* in wheat — Country Houeewi/e, 7. 

Wide-gascoigned. A horse should have ' a large space between his 
buttocks, or what is called vjide-gaacoigned,'' * Thin gdacoigna,^ — 
Modem Husbandman, III. i 173. 

Wiggs. * Wiggs or cakes.' — Modern Husbandman, V. i. 7. 

* Wi^B sop'd in ale for supper.' — Country HouBeunfe, 72 : there '^ 
are recipes tbr making them at pp. 75, 76. 

Wild Curds. * From the whey, if set on the fire, will arise wild 

curds by putting new milk and sour butter-milk to it.' — Modern ^ 
Husbandman, III. i. 138. 

[L recollect that in the making of fleetinga (see note to Fleeting* 
dish) the first which rose to the surface, soon after the whey 
began to boil, were much the richest and the finest in texture. 
They were kept by themselves for making butter, and were called 
' cream fleetings.' By boiling a little longer a somewhat coarser 
and more curdy fleetings rose to the surface, which were called the 
* second fleetings,' and were kept for the farm men to eat at supj^r. 
A little butter-milk was then added to the whey, which, being 
boiled a little longer, yielded a coarse curd, which was skimmed on 
for the calves, and was generallv called * calves' fleetings.' This is 
what is meant by wUd curds: — K, H.] 

Wilk, or Wilker. To wither. 

* Before the arpent [orpine] was thoroughly wilked and dried,' — 
Modem Husbandman, III. ii. 179. 

*To wilk and wither.'— /d., V. i 68. 

* To wilker and deaden.'— /8/iep^cr(f« Guide, 302. Cfr. Welke (1) 
in IlaL 

Winchester. A measure for com. 

Wheat was sold in 1734 at ' three shillings and eightpence per 
Winchester, . . . The Winchester or legal bushels.' — Modern Husband- 
man, VI. iiL 102. 

Wind-row. See Haymaking. 

Winter-proud. ' If a mild winter and spring should succeed, the 
wheat would run vnnter-proud : that is, it would grow so early rank 
as to spend its strength of growth too soon.' — Modern Husbandman, 

n. ii2. 

Withering. A disease in cows. 

' That fatal malady that some call withering, that is to say, her 
bearing comes out behind.' — Country Housewife, 359. 


Wood-eviL A disease in t^e^i^,— Shepherd! a Guide, 314- 

* The Husbandman's Jewel's Receipt to cure the wood^enl m 
sheep and lambs. This author calls it the j^otighth, oriatrnMe- 
evil, or crook. It hath (says he) a name from the neck ot 1^ 
growing crooked, by reason of the same disease; some caU it the 
wood-evil, and others the leaf. Some suppose they get it 1^ 
feeding upon wood, or some leaf upon the ground.' — bhephentt 
Guide, p. 320. See Moor-eviL 

Wood-seer. The * cuckoo-spittle.' 

* On the twentieth day of June, 1740, a sort of spittle wm seen 
on grass, which, about Stanmore in Middlesex, is called trood-icfr, 
occasioned, as they say, by the weather, which, at this time, was 
cold nights, foggy mornings, and very hot days ; this P«>™ * 
token to them for hastening their mowing, for, on this sign, thej 
believe the grass-hopper will breed from this spitty matter, and 
then they wUl eat up the fine short bottom-grass, and beconw so 
numerous as to jump before the scythe in swarms.' — Modem Hus- 
handTnan, IV. i. 96. HaL has Wood-soar, 

Wyth. To bind. Cfr. With (1) in Hal. 

* Others . . . will drive in one stake, and vn^ihe it about the tree. 
—Pract. Farmer, 152. 

TeUow Creese. Ravunctdus arvensiSf L. — Modem Htubandnum, 
IV. i. 56, 67. 

Yellowing. See May. 

Yellows. A disease in horses. — Modem Husbandman, III. iL 75. 

Yelm. A handful. 

'Wheat straw made into yelms as if for thatehing.'— Cj>ii«<fy 
Housewife, 231. HaL has * to lay straw in order fit for use by a 
thateher.' See Helm (2) in Lisle, Szplained in Skeafs E^tn. 
Diet,, Sw V. Glean. 

Yelt. * A ydt or young sow.' — Country Housewife, 133. HaL 

[In the north always called gilt, — B. H.] 

^ Yest. Yeast. This is also the Cheshire pronundation. — Modem 
Husbandman, IH. ii. 22. * Yest, froth.'— HaL 

^ Yetted. Wetted 1 

Goslings should have 'bread, bran, pollard, yetted barley.'— 
Country Houseioife, 164. 

J To yet may be connected with Mid. Eng. yeten, to pour. — ^W. W. 
Hal. under yote has ' to pour in.' Grose has ' yded, watered, a 
y west country word.* 

Yoke. To bind. 

' The natural oil or grease in the [wool] helps to yoke (as they 
-h call it) or make it mix with Irish or other wasted wooL' — Modem 
Husbandman, TV. i. 136. 

Yonghth. See Wood-eviL 




Bt EDWARD LISLE. (1767). 



By EDWAKD lisle. (1757.) 

Abb. The wool of the sheep's back * is finer, and makes, in druggets, 
the thread called a5&.' — p. 600. 

[' Tramaserioenin, seolcen a5,' t. e. silken abb ; Wright's Vocah.f L 
40, L 4. Wright adds in a footnote : ' The yam of a weaver's warp 
is, I belieye, stUl called an dbhJ See abb in HaL— W. W. S.] 

Aftemiass. 'Aftermath; lattermath; second crop of grass mowed in 
aiitomn.' — Olo$8. 

Backside. ' Farmyard/ — Olosa. 

Back-wind. See Wind. 

Barton. 'The yard; the farmyard.'-— ^^«9. See Hal. 

Bearing. The pudendum of a cow. — ^p. 323. 

Beggars-plush. ' The hair [seemed] to stare more than ordinary, 
or look like beggara^pluah.^ — ^p. 267. Ofr. Beggara-vdvet in HaL 

Ben-leather. 'Fit to make ben4eather for the soles of shoes.' — 
p. 266.— See bend^leatJier in HaL 

Bonnets, Bents. ' Spiry grass running to seed.' — Gloss. Cfr. K D. 
S. Glos& B. 19. 

Bennetting time. ' When the pigeons eat the grass seeds.' — Oloss. 

Berry. The grain of com. 

'Such ground as bears sour grass, however it may bear a 
burden of straw, will not bear a plump bery, but a thin coarse 
sort, which will not fill the bushel, as fiuier rin^d or floured com 
will do.' — ^p. 64. 

BeylBB. ' Mr. Clark [of Leicestershire] said a cow-calf would make 
very pretty beef at three years old, but, if killed sooner, they called 
it &eviM.'— p. 259. 

[Probably beef-iih, ». e. beef- Hke— not quite bee^ but like it — ^W. 


Black-bnmt See Bnmt-ear. 


Black-lags. 'They have a distemper in Leicestershire frequent 
among the calves, which in that country they call the hlack-Uigi, 
but Mr. Glenn, who Hves at Utoxcester, in Staffordshire, calls it 
wood-evil. It seems it is a white jelly, and sometimee a bloody 
jelly settling in their legs, from whence it has it's name of Hack' 
legs ... I find by Sir Ajnbrose Phillipp's shepherd, it is of the 
same nature with the wood-evil in sheep, which, ne says, are also so 
affected.*— p. 347. 

[Youatt {Cattle^ p. 474) describes two ailments known to veteri- 
nary practitioners as WoodreviL The first, Caused by browsing on 
ihe young buds of trees, * and particularly on those of the ash and 
oak. These buds are tempting to cattle at the conunencement of 
the sprin&r, but they are of too acrid and stimulating a character to 
be eaten ^tb impilnitjr in any oonrnderaUe quantitiis.' Tbe symih 
toms — somewhat serious — are then given in detail, and this seems 
to be the disease described bvLisle as oakered (which see). The 
seoond wood^evil rooken of by Youatt seems to be the disease which 
is also known in Hants as Biack-'legs» *■ Some veterinarians give the 
name of wood^evil to complaints allied to rheumatism, or being 
essentially rheumatic ' {Cattle, p. 474). — B. H.] 

Bladder. 'There is a distemper that falls on a bullock in the 
spring .... occasioned bv the overfiowine of the blood, which 
they m their countiy call uie bladder; the ouUock will be taken 
with a swelling of his lips, and running of his mouthy and swelling 
of his eyes, and running of them.' — ^p. 343. 

Bloodwort. Polygonum avieularcy L. — p. 388. 

Bond. The band with which a sheaf is bound up. 

' The sheaf opens wider and lets the rain into the hondsJ* — p. 209. 

Brashy. ' Full of small stones.' — Gloss, See Brash (1) in HaL 

Break. 'When the straw breaks or starves three or four weeks 
before harvest.'— p. 171. 

Brit. ' To shed ; to ML'^Oloss, ' Britied com.*— p. 108. ' BrUt- 
ings, shed seed.' — p. 284. 

[See Brittene in Hal. Icel. brytja, to chop meat ; brjdiay to break. 
Not 'to fall * but ' to shed,* hence * to let fall : ' brit is only a vanant 
of brecJc—W. W. S.] 

Bnmbeak, bumbate. ' To cut up the turf, and burn it on hillocks 
on the land.'— Gloss. 

[Corrupt forms of bumbeai. In Kennetf s MS. Gloss, we read : 
' To burnbeat land, to cast up turfs or pannes of earth upon esse or 
ashes of tur^ with any other stubble or ruobish, and burning all 
together for a compost upon dry heathy land. 8taff,^ See Beat in 
E. D. S. Gloss. B. 6.] 

Burnt-ear. Ustilago in corn. — p. 150. 
'Black-burnt wheat.' — p. 161. 

Bars. Welsh cattle ' are thick-hided, especially thfi bursj L e. the 
oxen.'— p. 267. 

II. LISLE. 59 

Bnide-headed. ' The eara being long and heavy were bvMle-Jieadedy 
that is, did hang their heads downward into tiie sheaf.' — ^p. 212. 

Chap. To crack. 

' Ground that is subject to over-heat and chap much.' — p. 13. 
See Chapping in Hal See Chop. 

Chase-row. ' In planting quicksets a single chase is a single row ; a 
double chase means another row planted below the first, not directly 
underneath the upper plants, but under the middle of the inter- 
mediate spaces.' — (tloss. 

Chest. ' The smutty ears are perfect in the rJtests, and almost so in 
the fulness of the grain, even so far that the cJiests of many ears did 
strut:— 'p. 164. Spelt Chesses.—^. 208. 

Chissnm, v. *To put forth roots; to grow.' — Gloss, 

Also as a noun : * The com is checked in its chissum, ' — p. 54. 

Chitt. *To sprout out; to grow.' — Gloss. See Hal. (1). 

Cheeky. ' Chalky ; dry ' [applied to cheese], — Gloss. 

Chop. The plums in a cold summer ' did all chop in several places, 
and gum issued out of the cJwps: — p. 445. See Chap. 

Clay-pea. * The Burbage-grey or popling-pea is much sowed in the 
deep lands of Somersetshire, and there called the day-pea,* — p. 193. 

Cleaning. The placenta of a cow. — p. 327. See Alean in Ellis 
(p. 20). 

Clung. ' The chaff of the chesses is clung, and wants to be mellowed 
in order to make it thresh the better.'— p. 208. See Hal. 

Ceary. * Black coary earth.' — ^p. 4. 

Cored. ' A sheep which is cored, after it has been so a year^ will 
have a water bladder, as big as an egg, under its throat.' — ^p. 395. 
See Core (2) in Hal. 

Conples. ' Ewes and lambs.' — Gloss, 

Covering. ' Covering is when the lime is first laid on the land, it 
may be a peck at a place, and so covered over with earth.' — ^p. 36. 

Cow-garlio. Allium vineaHey L. — p. 467. 

Cow-lease. See Lease. 

Cmmple. Barley apt ' to crumple, to bend down, and to break in 
the straw.* — p. 172. 

Cnes. * Shoes for oxen.' — Gloss, 

Cuedy shoed; ouing, shoeing; cue, v. to shoe. — p. 317. 

Drag. To bush-harrow ? See Thwarted. 

Dredge. ' Many in this country (in Hants) sow half barley, half 
oats [for malt], and call it dredge: — ^p. 243. See Hal. 


Dmnk. * Though tuniip-«eed requires a speedy shower of run to 
bring it up, yet much rain, when it is first sown, makee it drunk' 
—p. 466. 

Barfh. ^To one, two, three earths; to plough the ground once, 
twice, or thiioe ; to sow after one, two, or three plonghingSw' — Qlon. 

Bdge-grown. 'Coming up uneven, not ripening all t<^ether.* — 

Blbow-wind. A wind blowing sideways. See Wind. 
Ehn. Thatch, p. 207. ' See Helm.'— 6;/aM. 
Ersha. ' Stubble.'— (Wo«. * Barley-«r«^.'— p. 92. . 

Faee-wind. See Wind. 

Falling. Happening, as applied to weather. — ^p. 91. 

Fallows-ttale. Ground that has been ploughed some time, and lies 
in f aUow. 

Farding-bag. 'Their first stomach, called the/ardttu^&o^' [spoken 
of oowBj.— p. 249. 

Fillies. The felloes of a wheel. 

' The fiUiet so worn, that the spokes shall be ready to start out of 
their sockets.* — p. 44. 

Fillimot See FoUomort. 

Finnowy, Vinnowy, Vinnewed, Vinney. ' Mouldy.' — GUm, 
Finnows, molds. — ^p. 241. Finnowyness. — ^p. 64. 

Flue. ' Weak ; sickly.'- (^tow. See Flu in Hal. 

Foldness. See Oundy. 

Foliomorty Fillimot. 'Colour of dead leaves; reddish yellow.' — 


Fowle. ^ThAfowle or loore,' p. 348. Foul in the foot is a general 
term for an inflammatory disease between the claws of cattle. See 

French grass. Onobrychis sativaj L. — p. 508. 

Fret. Peas and vetches if given before Candlemas ' often give the 
horses the /ret.'— p. 413. Ofr. Fret, to ferment. — Hal. 

[Succulent green food like vetches given so early in the year as 
Februarv 2nd, would be too cold for the stomach, and would be 
extremely likcdy to cause indigestion. — ^E. H.] 

Frowe. Brittle. Hal. hBafrotigh, 

' The arms of an ash-tree are commonly put in if they be not too 
froioe/ — p. 44. 

Fntty. * Musty. ' — Oloss. 

II. LISLE. 61 

Gale. ' A gcUe or bull'— p. 315. See Gale (1), Hal. 

Gnash. * Cnide ; raw.' — Gloss, 

* The first spring-grass, which was luscious and gnash.' — ^p. 250. 
[A mistaken spelling of Nesh (I), Hal.— W. W. 8.] • 

Ooar-vetohes. ' Early ripe, or summer vetches.' — Gloss. 

Go through. Said of a cow that does not ' stand to her bulling.' — 
p. 332. 

Grete. • Mold.'— (?Zr?«r. ' Mold or staple.'— p. 82. 

[Same as Mod.E. grit ; properly gravel. See Grii in my Etym. 
l>ict.—W. W. S.] 

Grip. (1) * To lie in grip; to lie on the ground, before it is bound 
up in sheaf.' — Gloea. 

(2) * To grip, or grip up'; to take up the wheat, and put it into 
sheaf.'— Q^to»«. See Grip (2), HaL 

[Properly a furrow, small ditch. Grip (1), HaL Hence to lie on 
the ground.— W. W. S.] 

Gripe. * ArmfuU, from gripe [grip].' — Gloss. See Grij) (5), HaL 

Gully-place. A gutter, where clover would not grow so well as on 
the diier ground. 

'I was mowing broad clover where some of it in gxdly-places 
was short.' — ^p. 217. 

Gundy. A *.sort of itch * or * scab in sheep.' * The gundy or fold- 
ness of the tail,' &c. — ^p. 403. 

Hacking. (I) ^Hacking ia breaking the clots abroad after [the 
lime] is sown.'— p. 36. 

(2) To make peas into sheaves. ' In hacking them, to make the 
wadds small is a preservative.' — p. 196. 

Habn. Straw, haulm. * The com here runs much into halm* — p. 7. 
See Helm. 

Halt. ' The aftermass .... makes a halt cow fat.' — p. 28. 

Hanbeiy. * A disease that fell on the roots of their turneps, which 
they [in Norfolk] called the hanbery, alluding, it seems, to the like 
distemper in a horse's heel, which was a watry excrescence, that 
would sometimes grow to the bigness of one's fist.' — p. 279. 

[Properly spelt Anbury. See Mllis (p. 1) and HaL] 

Hants. A Wiltshire farmer 'said they were called with them 
fiants sheep; they were a sort of sheen that never shelled their 
teeth, but always had their lambs-teetli without shedding them, 
and thrusting out two broader in their room every year .... 
There were such a sort of horses called hanU horses, that always 
shewed themselves to be six years old.' — ^pp. 360, 361. 

Hari. Barley *harled or fallen down.' — p. 171. 
* If com harUs or lodges.' — ^p. 212. 


Hatk. * Thev have in Wilts a disease on their cows, ivhich they 
call a ha$k or husky cough.' — p. 343. 

rSee Hooze, Hal. The A.S. for cough is hwosta; whence Hifod 
(Ual.), and by corruption hoak^ kutk^ kusk-y, Hatk seems due to 
confusion with Aar«A, formerly harik (HaL) and hatk (HaL)L— W. 
W. 8.] 

Hfttmfki 'The haseaeks in calves' (p. 347), a disease affecting 
the throat The result of worms in the bronchial tubes ; called 
also Husk, Hoak, and Hoose. 

Hayn, or Hayn up. ' To hedge in ; to pieserre grass grounds &oin 
cattle.' — OlotB. See Hayn in HaL 

Heal. * To cover in ; to JiecU seed with harrows, to cover it in.' — 
OloBB, GCr. ' Healer, a slater or tiler.'— HaL Also hde. 

Heave. 'Cheese made between hay and grass [i,e, daring the 
winter months] is apt to heave,* — p. 354. 

[The cheese ferments, and the pent-up gases heave or * lift up ' the 
surface until it becomes almost round and frequently bursts. — ^R H.] 

Hedge-peak. Sloe, Prunus spinosa, L. — p. 432. 

Hee-grass. ' Stubble of grass. ' — Gloss. 

Heirs. * Young trees in coppices.' — Oloss, 

Helm. (1) * Halm, or straw prepared for thatching.' — Gloss, 
(2) ' To helm, to lay the straw in order for thatching.* — Ghu, 

p^ot the same as halm at alL Halm = Lat txtlamtis : Mm a 
mistake for yelin, due to confusion with halm. See Ydm in K D. 
8. Gloss. 0. 6.— W. W. 8.] 

Hint. * To lay up ; to put tojijether.' — Gloss. 

* Well put up together' [said of straw]. — ^p. 412. 

Hog-fold. ' Fold of young sheep.* — Gloss. 

Hog-sheep. * Young sheep.' — Gloss, 

Hood. The outer coat of a seed. — p. 126. 

Hooded grass. Bromus mollis^ L. — p. 304. 

Hoose. See Hassacks. 

Horse-lease. A horse-pasture. ' See Lease.' — Gloss, 

[It is customary to reserve a pasture for horses during the 
summer where they are turned out at night : and in the course of 
time the field acquires the name of Horse-leys or some similar 
name. On my own fSarm in Cheshire I have a field known as the 
Horte^patture ; and on a neighboiuing femn there is one called the 
Horte^lace, — E. H.] 

Hosk. See Hassacks. 

Hulls. * Chaff: the hull, the nnd:— Gloss, 

Husk. See Hassacks. 

II. LISLE. 63 

In prool Thriving. * Peas less in proof J — p. 196. See Prove. 

JoiBt-xniirraiiL A distemper in calves; called also the Quarter- 
evil,— p. 342. 

To joist. ' To take in cattle to keep at a certain price per head or 
score.' — GlosB. Cfr. Agistment in HaL, and Oisting. 

Kern. To com. 

'I told in those chests [see Chest] five compleat groins fall 
kerned,' — p. 159. 

[Quite right. The A.S. corn becomes cyr7i in derivatives — whence 
cipm~an, to kern; cyrn-el^ a kernel (small com). — ^W. W. S.] 

Xid. A pod. — p. 95. 

KimeL To produce good corn. * This ground kmielled y&TY fine.' — 
p. 110. 

Kittle. ' Subject to accidents ; uncertain.' — Gloss, 

Knee-bent. In wet years the straw of corn *is apt to lodge and 
crumble down, which in the country we call being knee-hent,^ — 
p. 147. 

Knot. 'Fine, clean' [spoken of malt]. — ^p. 242. Knot-fine. 'Very 
fine. To knot fiiie, to turn up fine under the plough.' — Gloss, Cfr. 
Not (5) in Hal. 

Knot-green. ' Red-straw wheat most be gathered knot-green^ that is, 
whilst the knots in the straw are green. — p. 208. 

Knotted sheep. ' Sheep without horns.' — Gloss. 

[A pedantic or ignorant misspelling of Noited. See Not (2) in 
HaL, and not-heady Chaucer's not-heed. — ^W. W. S.] 

Lark-spurred. ' I had an ewe .... that broke out most miserably 
about her eyes, and had a watery running, with a swelling, with 
which she was blind .... My shepherd said, He believed she was 
lark-ajmrred, I asked what that was; he said, at this time of 
year, when the larks build their nests, if a sheep should come so 
near to a lark's nest as to tread on it, the. lark will fly out, and 
spur at the sheep, and if the spur made a scratch any where on the 
eye or nose, it was perfect poison, and would rankle in such a 
manner as this ewe's eye did : this, said he, is certainly true, and 
other shepherds would tell me the same.' — pp. 405-6. 

Lease, Lea, Lay, Ley. 'Grassy ground; me&dow-ground ; un- 
ploughed, and kept for cattle.' — Gloss, 

Linchets. 'Grass partitions in arable fields.' — Gloss, Cfr. Linch 
(2) in Hal. 

Lobgrase. Bromus mollis^ L. — ^p. 305. 


Lodge. Wheat * whose straw is so arge that it is not sabject to 
lodge : * weak straw ' will fall down and lodge,* — ^p. 100. 

Hal. has ' lodged : said of crass or com oeaten down by wind or 
rain. West.* 1 haye heard the term similarly applied in oo. 
Ghdway. See Knee-bent. 

Loore. * Cows will be so sore between their daws that they cannot 
stand ' . . . this in Dorsetshire is ' called the loore.' — ^p. 348. HaL 
spells it lure. 

Lop-heafj. Lopping or lapping. 

* Wben [the ears] are in shock, they spread and lay oyer, being 
lop'heavy.* — p. 209. 

Lugg. ' A pole in measure, 16^ feet.' — Gloss. A chain-acre. — ^p. 114. 

Had. 'if it be sowed witb wheat it will be mcui, and come to 
nothing : ' spoken by a Wilts, man. — ^p. 100. 

' The wet spewy clay .... is mad by much rain', if heat and 
winds follow.' — ^p. 117. 

[The same word as E. mad. The original sense is ' damaged : ' 
cfr. IceL meiddr, p. p. of m«i%a, to damage. This is given in my 
Etym. Did., s. v. Mad.—W. W. S.] 

Maiden. A main unbranched shoot 

'The grains would hasten m) to spindle with a maiden spear, 
without tiUowing.' — p* 134. aaiden-ear and Uaiden-stem, p. 
163. Cfr. Maiden in UaL 

Malm. Soft, mellow. * A heavy mcdmisk sort of clay.' — p. 99. 

See Maum (1) and (3) in HaL, and similar words in £. D. S. 
Gloss. B. 1, 2, 7, 16, 17. 

Malt-raahed. 'Overheated; burnt' — Qloss. 

Mamocks. * Leavings.' — Gloss. 

They ' will make mamocks, that they will leave and not eat'^ 
p. 247. See Mammock (2) in Hal. 

Mangonism. Manuring. 

* Though experiments have been made of nitre, blood, soot, &a, 
all which have been found ereat forcers, so as to bring forward the 
leaves and branches of a plant, yet it may be the flowers or fruit, 
either in bulk or number, may not equally succeed by such 
mangonism.'-^'p. 136. 

Hal. has * Mangonize, to traffic in slaves.' 

Meliorate. ^ To enrich, to make better.' — Gloss. 
Mixen. 'Dung; dunghilL' — Gloss. 

Molder. To crumble. 

Clay ' after the first frost, thaws and molders,* — ^p. 3. 
[A better spelling than common E. mould. — ^W. W. S.] 


Moref. 'Roots.' — Gloss. More-loote. 'Loose at root.' — Gloss, 
Here, (v.). To take root. — ^p. Ido. 

[A most interesting word, (1) because it is cog:nate with Sanskrit 
f/Ma, a root: and (2) because Sanskrit mUla stands for an older 
form, mura ; so that the proY. £. more retains the original r, which 
in Sanskrit is altered to I, ' ifuZa, the root of a tree.* — Benfey's 
8kL Diet., p. 719.— W. W. 8.] 

Morgan. Anthemis Cotula, L. — ^p. 452. See Diet, of En(j. Plant- 

Mow. 'If com come into the bam greenish, and is trod in the 
mowy it will be mow-burnt,* — ^p. 181. See Hal. 

Muok. ' Dang.' — Gloss, It is used as a verb at p. 380. 

Murrain-berry. Black Bryony (Tamtts communis, L.). — p. 403. 

Mib. The point * The nib of any seed.' — p. 95. 

Miekt. In the nick of time. 'The time being nicktJ — p. 3. 
'Nicking the seed-season.' See £. D. S. Gloss. B. 16, p. 87, and 
p. 6, line 6. 

HuieL To insert the nose. Cfr. Nozzle in HaL 

' The hogs would nuzzel, and make holes in the straw.' — ^p. 331. 
Nusling, p. 444. 

Oakered. ' [ asked the farmer if I might not piit [some yearlings] 
in the coppice till midsummer ; the farmer said, not yet, by any 
means : for fear they should be oakered, that is, lest they should 
bite off the oak-bud before it came into leaf, which might bake in 
their maws and kill them.' — ^p. 425. See note on Black-legs. 

Oils. 'Barley oils, the beard or prickles.* — Gloss. Oyls, p. 221. 
= AOs, E. D. S.. Gloss. B. 16. 

Oughts. ' Leavings.*— GIohs. A misspelling of Otis. See Skeat's 
Etym. Diet. 

PeaL ' Loose its hair.* — Gloss. 

Pebble-vetch. ' The pebble^etch is a summer-vetch, dilTerent from 
the gear- vetch and not so big; they call it also the rath-ripe 
vetch.*— p. 125. 

Pert. ' A pert smooth drink.' — p. 243. 

Picked. Pointed, peaked. 

* Upright, piiJced, and sharp.' — ^p. 274. 

Pined. ' Pined or musty oats.' — ^p. 185. 
Pitch. ' To waste, sink in flesh.'— G^Zma 


Pitoher. A man who pitches the sheavea on to and off from the 
' It is good hushandry to haye two pitcher$ to one loader.'— p. 217. 

Plaioe-worm. The fluke in sheep. — ^p. 395. So called from its 
resemblance in shape to the flat fish called a plaice, as its synonym, 
fluke, refers to its resemblance to the fluke or flounder. 

Plashing. Pleaching, a way of mending a hedge. — ^p. 436. See 
Plaiah in Ellis (p. 38). 

Film. To fill, to swell (Hal.). 'The grain will j^Zm no farther, bat 
dry away and be very thin.' — ^p. 103. 

* Full plfmmed or hardened. — ^p. 147. 

* To plim a horse.' — p. 259. 

* The plimming of meat in boiling argues the youth of it.* — ^p. 261. 
See Plump in Skeuf s Etym, Did. 

Plump. * The berry [of com] is thin, and wants to be plumped! — 
p. 208. Cfr. Plim. 

Poaoh. ' The deep lands lie all the spring and summer nnder water, 
or so much in ti, poach that the grass is chilled and cannot grow.' — 
p. 356. See Poach in EllU (p. 38), and poached and poaching 
m Hal. 

Fook. ' In making the whe&i-pooks in Wiltshire, the sheaves are 
set,' &o. * In a pook may be put a load or two.' — ^p. 211. See Pook 
(3) in Hal. 

Posse. A possibility, capability. See Tillow. 

Potted. ' The first lamb an ewe brings is generally potted, that is, 
pot-bellied, short, and thick.'— p. 367. See Pot in EUis (p. 39). 

Prove. To thrive. See In proof. 

' She was thick-hided, and such beasts would not prove* — ^p 266. 

Por-lamb. • Male lamW—Oloss, Cfr. Pur in Hal. 

Parse. 'A purse or nest of birds.' — ^p. 189. 

Quarter-eTiL See Joint-murrain. 

Quatt To sink 1 * If rain should come, such [light] ground will 
quatt, and the furrow will fill up and lie soggy and wet.' — ^p. 118. 
Cfr. Squatt. 

ftoilt. The swallow. He * puts them down the calf s throat beyond 
the jMtft.'— p. 347. See Quilt (2) in Hal. 

Kafty. ' RuBtj.'— Gloss. Said of bacon. See Hal. 
Bashed. * See Malt'— (?Zo«s. 

Bath-ripe. ' Early ripe ; rather, sooner.' — Gloss, * Earlier ripe.'— 
p. 193. See Pebble-vetch, 

II. LISLE. 67 

Ushank. Geranium Rohertianum, L. 
* Bedshankf that is, herb-iobert.* — p. 345. 

Sedweed. Papaver RfioRoSy L. 

'Which we call rtdwudj' — ^p. 46. 

Ifteed. The stalk of wheat. 

Much ' was broken off near the root, the rted being grown stifL' 
—p. 452. Cfr. Reed (1) in HaL 

Seeks. Ricks. 'Hay-reeA».'— p. 12. The old spelling: see Reek 
(3) in HaL 

Big. *The sows will rig over or under hedges.' — ^p. 482, See 
Hal. (5). 

Bime. * Hoar-frost.* — Gloss, 

Bind. The oater covering of grain. — ^p. 92. See Berry. 

Beading. Boating, as pigs do. ' The damage the farmer's hogs did 
me in reading about.* — ^p. 331. 

Bowet, Bowen. ' Winter-grass.' — Gloss. 

Bndder. A sieve (Hal.) : same as E. riddle. 

'They said .... the rudder would easily separate^ tills and 

Bugged. ' Barley [when put aside for malt] will be apt to come 
rugged, L e. put forth a single root at a time, instead of pushing 
forth all its roots in a manner at once.' — ^p. 240. 

Seudd. A short sudden shower. ' A sctidd of rain.' — p. 3. 

Shaking. ' A weakness which seizes the hinder quarters [of sheep] 
so tiiat they cannot rise up when they are down.' — p. 398. 

Sheep-Blate. ' Sheep-walk, sheep-lease.' — Gloss, 

Sheer-point. There ' fell a rain that might possibly go to the sheer- 
point,' — p. 610. 

[Perhaps the dearing^up point; a rain to be followed by sun- 
shine.— W. W. S.] 

Shoveling. ^Shoveling is the cleansing the furrows and throwing 
[the lime] on the land.' — ^p. 36. 

Shrink. 'The com shrinks or blights.' — p. 167. 

Shntes. * Young hogs, or porkers, before they are put up to fatting.' 
— Gloss, Also shecU or sliocU, Hal. 

Skenting. Scouring in sheep. — ^p. 399. See Skeni in HaL 

Skillins. ' SkUlins or penthouses.'— p. 319. Cfr. Skillun in Hal. 

Sleek Smooth. 

' In hot dry weather the oat-straw will be so sleekf that it will be 



troublesome loading and tying it together so as not to slide off iram 
the cart, or to tunxg to the side/ — ^p. 218. 

Slink. To cast a calf. 

A cow ' after she has alunh her calf, will be apt to make some of 
the others dink also.' — p. 332. 

[It is a common belief amongst cow-men that a cow which caatB 
her calf influences others to do the same ; accordingly she is geaer- 
ally remoyed from tiie others, and charms are frequently resorted 
to to ayert the misfortune. That abortion is to some extent eni- 
demic is an acknowledged fact ; but the reason is, no doubt, t£at 
the same cause, perhaps the presence of ergot in the pasture, is 
acting upon the whole stock of cattle. — R Hj 

Bogginff. Soaking. ' If sucb wet clay-land had . . . lain soffging 
mVie wet.*— p. 60. See iluatt. 

[Soaking. Same word, as I could proye. The A.S. for tuck is 
both sAcan and s^gaUf and soak is connected. — ^W. W. S.] 

Spalt. * To turn up ; it spcUts up from below the staple, i. e. the bad 
ground turns up in ploughing from below the good mold, which is 
difficult to be ayoided when &e land is ploughed dry.' — Gi<f$B. See 
8palt (1) in Hal. 

Spear. The shoot of wheat, &c. — p. 92. 

Spewing. Boggy, oozing. * Spewing grounds.' — p. 12. 

Spindle. * Should they sow early, it would run up to spincUe,*— 
p. 90. See Hal. (3). 

Spiry. The oats 'looked vpii^y and weak.' — p. 113. Cfr. Spear, and 
Spire in Hal. 

Spriggy. ' When the ends of the wool on the backs of the sheep 
twist and stand spriggy,* — ^p. 392. Cfr. Sprig (2) in HaL 

Spuming. Spreading dung or lime. 

' Spuming is throwing it abroad on the earth just before sowed.' 
—p. 36. 

Squatted. By treading, the ground would be ' so squatted that the 
wheat might not get through.'— p. 380. Cfr. Cluatt and Squat (8) 
in Hal. 

Squatting. ' He dared not to meddle with them then, because they 
were big with lamb, for fear of squatting their lambs.' — ^p. 403. 

Staffold. ' 1 made my wheat-reek on staffolda,* — p. 223. 

* If [the wheat] be designed for a Teeik^Btaffold,' Ac^-^-p. 208. 

[A stand on which to place the rick, so as to raise it from the 
ground ; in some places called a staddle. — R H.] 

^A rustic mistake for icaffold, a fine English word of French 
origin. The rustic naturally substituted me ut of his fiMnilmr 
Bieddle or staddle, Cfr. hed-stead, hed-steddte. — W. W. S.] 

Stale-fallows. ^ See Fallows.' — Gloss. 

II. LISLE. 69 

Staple. Mould. 

* A shallow greie or aidple.'—'p. 70. 

Stare. See Beggan-pliulL. 

Starky. Hard. (A.S. dearc, £inn, strong.) 

' If the ground be so dry and aiarky,' — p. 53. 

The * chaff itarky and not tough.'— p. 206. See Hal. 

Starve. See Break. 

Strings. The tendrils of peas.— p. 198. 

Stmt. To stand out, to stick straight up. 

' When the ears atruty and the chests stand open, it is a sign the 
grain plims well, and is full.' — p. 164. 

The petals of peas ' expand themselves in so strutting a manner.' — 
p. 198. See Chest. 

Suant. ' Kindly, even, regular. Probably from the French word 
suivanJt.^ — Qlou, Flourishing, p. 173 ; well, p. 239. 

[Not from the Mod. French tmvantj but from the Old French 
$uanty which is the same word, but an older form. It occurs in £. 
pwr^suaiU, Cfr. E. pourauivant, later spelling of same. M.E. 
stwyngej P. Plowman, Text C, pass. xix. 1. 63. To derive 9uani from 
suivant is impossible. It is like deriving the Latin ille from the 
French U; it is the other way about. — ^W. W. S.] 

Swag. See Sleek, and Swctg (2) in Hal. 

Swigging. A Dorsetshire method of castrating lambs. — p. 370. 

Tail-soaked. ' Having had a cow tailsoaJced, or with a worm in her 
tail'— p. 349. 

S[^ows in marshy ground are subject to slight attacks of palsy, 
the ignorant hei^man, and frequently the cow-leech himself, 
attributes the disease to a worm near the extremity of the tail, 
where there is always a slightly softer place. This soft place is 
supposed to indicate the presence of the worm, and various remedies 
are resorted to, frei^utotly of a superstitious character, such as 
making an incision in the soft place and inserting a piece of rowan 
tree rVouatt, CatUe, p. 302). Other diseases are sometimes attri- 
butea to the supposed worm in the tail, the belief in which is very 
general. B. H.] 

Tallow. The inner fat of a cow. 

It is ' common for a young cow to be fat on the back, but very 
rarely to tallow well on the inside. . . . The cow thrives in tallow J 
—p. 262. 

Tamed. ' £y that time the ground will be tamed ' (spoken by a 
WUts man).— p. 100. Cf. Kad. 

Taw. ' If the leather be not well tawed, that is, dressed thoroughly 
with alum and salt.' — ^p. 45. See Taw (1) in Hal. 


Teg. A young sheep. — ^p. 388. See Hal. 

Thief. * Young ewe.' — Oloss. 

' Young ewe of the second year, called also a two-teeth.'— p. 361. 

Thorough. ' To go thorough^ not to prove with young.' — GUm. Go 
through.—j^ 506. Cfr. Ok> through. 

Thwarted. Hanowed across. 

< Qround which I had ploughed, ihtffarted, and dragged.'— p. 101. 

Tillow. * To spread ; shoot out many 8pire&' — Gloss. 

*They lose the henefit of the autumn-fi^ow* and can d^end 
only on the spring-tt^^ou?. .... The large seed has a po$$e in it to 
send fortii more iiilowB than the poor seed.' — ^p. 90. Gfr. Tiller (IX 

Tilli. Lentils. — ^p. 125. 

TUt, or Tilth. ' To give land one, two, or three tilts, is the same as 
to plough to one, two, or three earths. See Sarth.' — Gloss. 

Tilt, or Tillage. ' To be in good tilt is to be in good order, or in 
good tillage.' — Olosi. 

Tine. * Tooth or spike. To give two tinings, &c., to draw the harrows 
oyer the ground twice or thrice in the same place.' — Gloss. 

Tod. ^ Half a tod, i. e. seven pound of hay.' — p. 261. 

Trig. * Firm, even.* — Gloss. 

'A man will keep so much the greater awe over [oxen when 
ploughing], and will make them trig.* — ^p. 318. See HaL 

Trumpery. * The trumpery of weeds.' — ^p. 102. 

Trundles. Sheep -dung. — p. 16. Hal. has ^ Tnmdle, anything 
globular; * also ' Trindles, the dung of goats,' &c. 

Truss. Swollen. 

' I observed myself the cod to be truss, and extended round as 
big as my fist'— p. 265. 

Tupp. ' Ram. Tupping-time, ramming-tim&' — Gloss. 

Turning. * Turning is mixing the earth and lime together.' — ^p. 36. 

Two-teeth. See Thief. 

Tinnow. ' Mouldiness.' — Gloss. See Finnpwy. 

Wad. A sheaf of peas. 

* Turn the w<»ds in rainy weather after hacking the peas to pre- 
vent britting.'— p. 196. See Hanking (2), and cfr. Wad (2) in Hal. 

Warp. ' Miscarry, slink her calf.' — Gloss. See Slink. 

Weaning (Leicestershire). ' About the beginning of May was com- 

II. LISLE. 71 

monly the time that their barley took its weaning, that is, when the 
leaves of the barley begin to die, haying till that time been for the 
most part noniished by the milk and flour of the com ; but then it 
begins to put forth new roots, and new leaves, and to betake itself 
wholly to its roots for nourishment.* — ^p. 146. 

rin Cheshire it is said that the young plant, which then has a 
sicUy appearance, is ' being weaned,' and is ' pining for its mother.' 

^RTeepiog. Oozing. 

' A hungry, or weeping^ or cold sort of clay.' — ^p. 12. 

"Wefher. A disease in cows. — ^p. 346. 

WIND, ' If there be a strong dhow-wind at the time of sowing, there 
must be half a bushel extraordinary allowed to an acre, whether 
oats, barley, or wheat, but a face or baeh-unnd signifies little, nor 
the elbow-wind neither to peas or vetches.' — ^p. 113. 

Winter-pride. Forwardness of growth in winter. 

' Sow old wheat at the first and earliest sowings, if you fear 
winter-pride,' — p. 108. 

Wire. The 'stem or wire* of peas. — ^p. 116. 

Wifhwind. Convolvulus arvensis, L. — p. 460. 

Wood-eviL See Black-legs. 

Woodseer-groTind. ' Loose, spungy ground.' — Oloss, 
'Loamy, ferny, loose.' — ^p. 140. *Poor.' — p. 165. 

Woodsheer. 'The proverbial rhime holds not good of cold hill- 
country lands, tho' consisting of strong clays, which yet is very 
true, when applied to Leicestershire, and other deep lands warmly 
situated : 

" I came to my wheat in May 
And went sorrowfiil away : 
I came to my wheat at woodsheer 
And went from thence with a good cheer." 

For, in cold hill countries, whoever sees not the ground well stocked 
with green wheat by the beginning of May, will never see a good 

crop The word woodeTieer is understood for the froth which, 

about the latter end of Mav, begins te ajspear in the joints of plants, 
and is more commonly called cuckoo-spit.' — ^p. 164. 

The meaning, however, of woodsheer here seems to correspond 
with that of wood-sere in Hal., 'the month or season for felling 
wood.' See also E. D. S. Tusser, 51/6 (p. Ill), and Gloss, p. 350. 

Yeaaing, Lambing. — p. 363. 
Yellows. A disease of cattle. — p. 246. 



Intebprktations and Significations of several Eustick Terms 


SEVERAL Instruments and Materials used in this Mystery of 
Agriculture, and other intricate expressions dispersed in 
our Kural Authors. 


London : Printed far Thomas Drino, over against tlie Inner 

Temple-Gate in Fleet Street, 1681. 



This dictionary, above any other part of this book, may be thotight 
superfluouB because^t being intended only for the nse of husbandmen, 
they aboye all others beet understand the terms, and their seyeral signi- 
fications i\ so that herein we seem to instruct those that are beet able to 
teach us; which might be true if they all spake the same language: 
but|there is such a Babel of confusion, as well in their terms and names 
of things, as there is in the practice of the art of agriculture it self, 
that remoTe a husbandman but fifty or an hundred miles from the place 
where he hath constantiy exercised his husbandry to another, and he 
shall not only admire their method and order in tilling the land, but 
also at their strange and uncouth language and terms, by which they 
term their utensils, instruments, or materials they use, so much differing 
from those used in the country where he dwells. 3 

Also our seyeral authors that have written of this subject, very 
much differ m the appelation of seyeral things, they generally speaking 
in their writings the language of the place and age they liyed in ; that 
their books read in another part of the country or in succeeding times, 
seem either fieibulous or intricate. Wherefore, that our authors and this 
present tract may be the better understood, and |hat one conntrynuui 
may understand what another means in a remote place ^ I haye here 
giyen you the inteipretation and signification of such words and terms 
that I remember I haye either read or heard ; which I hope may satisfie 
and supply that defect of such a dictionary that hath been so long com- 
plained of. If any terms are wanting, or not rightly interpreted, I desire 
you to consider the place you liye in, where perhaps may be some terms 
used or so interpreted, that are not so in any other plaoe of England, 
which may I hope sufficiently excuse my ignorance of them ; or elae 
they may be terms so uniyersally understood, that they need no inter- 
pretation ; as Wheat, Bye, Cart, Waggons, &a 



"^ An Aereme of land is ten acies. [' A law term.' — HaL] 

>/ A WeLili Acre is nsnally two English acres. 

Afteimath, the after-grass or second mowing of grass, or grass or 
stubble cut after com. 

[Agive. * That they [hops] may cool, agive^ and toughen.' — p. 153.] 

Alp, a bulfinch. [See Hal.] 

Anes^ or Awnes ; the spires or beards of barley, or other bearded 

^ [Apple-pounce. Scald vessels intended for cider 'with water wherein 
a good quantity of apple-pounce hath been boiled.* — ^p. 141.] 

To Are, to plough ; from the latin word, aro. [From A.S. erian^ 
cognate with Lat arore. — W. W. S. See Ear, and Are (4) in HaL] 

An Ark, a laii^e chest to put fruit or com in, from the latin word 
arra [area]. 

Arders, fallowings or plowings of ground. 

Aumbry, a country word for a cup-board to keep yictuals in. 

Aver, signifies a labouring beast, from whence comes the Law word, 
averiOf cattle: and 

r Average, the feeding or pasturage for cattle, especially the edish or 
roughings. [C£r. Hal.] 

Bag, or Bigg, the udder of a cow, in some places is called the Oow^s 
Bag, [See Bigge.] 

Balks, ridges or banks; and sometimes poles or rafters over out- 
houses or bams. 

[The Cheshire name for a hayloft, which in old buildings was 
frequently made by putting rough outside slabs of trees loosely 
over rough poles. At present they are properly boarded and nailed 
over square joists — but still retain the name. — B. H. See Hal. (1) 
and (2).] 


"^Barm, yeast or rising used in fermenting ale, beer, bread, &c [See 

Barth, a warm place or pasture for calves or lambs, &c. 

Barton, a back-side. [See Oarth.] 

Baven, brush faggots made with the brush at length. 

A Beok, a brook or rivulet. 

•^ Beeitingi, the first milk from the cow after calving. 

Beetle, or Boytle, a wooden instrument wherewith thej drive 
wedges, piles, stakes, &c. 

[Bell. ' Towards the end of July hops blow, and about the begin- 
ning of Aug^ost they bell,* — ^p. 151.] 

^ [Bellenge. ' It is said that beilenge, leaves, roots, and aU, cleansed 
very well, and steeped in dear running water for twenty-four hours, 
and boiled in the same water till the water be almo^ consumed : 
then when it is cold, this same plant being taken and laid in the 
haunts where wild geese, duck, maUard, bustard, or any other 
fowl affecting the water usually firequent, that these fowl wuL' feed 
on it, and be stupified or drunk therewith* — p. 251. This plant I 
cannot identify.] 

Beverage, drink or mingled drink. 

A Bigge, a pap or teat. 

A Bill is an edg-tool, at the end of a stale or handle ; if short then 
it is called a Hand-bill ; if long then a Hedging-bill, 

A Billard is in some places used for an imperfect or bastard capon. 
[Suas. HaL] 

' A Binn, a place made of boards to put com in. 

V [Blanch. ' If you have a desire to have [lettuces] white, or blancJi 
them, as the French term it.' — p. 164.] 

Blast. Com is said to be blasted when it is poor and thin in the ear, 
with little flower in it. [' BUuting hath commonly been mistakea 
for mildew.' — p. 16.] 

Blight See Kildew. 

^ Blith, yielding milk. 

Bole, or Boal, the main body of a tree. 

Booie, in some places used for an ox-stall or cow-stalL [See Hal.] 

Boot, necessary timber or wood for necessary uses; Plough-boot^ 
Hottee-bootf Fire-boot, [Also Cart-boot^ p. 11.] 

Bonds, Weevils, or Popes, insecte breeding in malt. 

Bow, an ox-bow or yoke. 


[Bow-fhrush. 'la winter-time the field-fares and how-thrushes, 
wliich usually fly in great flocks, are easily taken.' p. 250.] 

[Boytle. See Beetle.] 

[Brack. See Breok.] 

^ Bragget, a drink made with honey and spice, much used in Wales, 
4r Chefihire, and Lancashire. [W. hragodJ] 

Brakfin, or Brake, fern. 

A Brandrith, a trevet or other iron to set a vessel on over the fire. 

Brank, Buck, or Frenok^wlieat ; a summer grain, delighting in 
warm land. [Polygonum Fagopyrum, L.] 

A Breast-plongk, a sort of plough driven by main force with one's 
breast, commonly used in paring the turf m bum-beating. 

A Breok or Braek, a gap in a hedge. [A break or breacJi.] 

Brim, a sow is said to go to brim when she goes to the boar. 

To Brite or Bright barley, wheat, and other grain ; and hops are 
said to brite when they are over-ripe, and shatter. 

^Bright is fedse spelling : the proper word is brit. — ^W. W. S.] 

Browse, or bronoe, or bmtte, the tops of the branches of trees that 
catUe usually feed on. 

Buck. See Brank. 

A Bndt weaned calf of the first year, because the horns are then in 

BnloMn, a calf. [Put for bull-kin, a Httle bull.— W. W. S.] 

Bnllen, hemp-stalks pilled. 

^ Bnllimony, or Bnllimong, a mixture of several sorts of grain, as 
oats, pease, and vetches. 

To Bum-beat Vide Ben-ahire [and BreastplongL] 

Bushel, in some places it is taken for two strike, or two bushels, and 
sometimes more. 

[dado. See Cosset] 

Caddow, a jackdaw. 

[dale. See Cole.] 

A Carre, woody moist boggy ground. [The brown sediment 
(humate of iron) deposited in water from ooggy ground is called 
can* in Cheshire. — Ti. H.] 

^ Casiiigs or Cowblakes, cow-dung dryed and used for fewel as it is in 
many places where other fewel is scarce. 


Cast, to warp. ' Fell [oak] in December or January, when the 
tree is clearest of sap, by whidi means the timber mil not be so 
much subject to the worm, neither wiU it ctut, ri/t, or itnne^ as it 
will if cut in the summer.' — ^p. 110.] 

Catoh-land, is land which is not certainly known to what parish it 
belongeth, and the parson that first gets the tythee of it enjoys it 
for ibat year. It seems there ia some of this land in Norfolk. 

To CaYe, or Chave, is with a laige rake, or sucb-like instrument, to 
diTide the flreater from the lesser; as the larger chafC from the 
com or smiuler chaff. Also larger coals from lesser. 

Chaff, the refuse or dust in winnowing of com. 

Champion, lands not inclosed, or large fields, downs, or places with- 
out woods or hedges. [See Glosa to E. D. S. Tnsser.] 

{^^\ V Chees-lip, the bag wherein house-wives prepare and keep their runnet 
^ or rennet for their cheese. ['CAeese^ope, rennet: north.' HaL] 

Chitting, the seed is said to chit when it shoots first its small root 
in the earth. 

^A Ciderist, one that deals in cider, or an a£fecter of cider. 

Clogs, pieces of wood, or such like, fastned about the necks or the 
legs of beasts, that they run not away. 

A Cook, is of hay or com laid on heaps to preserve it against the 
extremities of the weather. 

Codware, such seed or grain that is contained in cods : as pease, 
beans, &c 

^ Cole, Cale, or Keal, Coleworts, from caulis, 

A Cole-flre, is a parcel of fire-wood set up for sale or use, containing 
when it is burnt a load of coals. 

Collars about the catties necks, by the strength whereof tbey draw. 

A Comb, in some places it is said to be a valley between hills, and in 
some places a hill or plain between valleys. 

[Not in the latter sense : Welsh cumi, a hollow. — ^W. W. 8.] 
^ Come, the small fibres, or tails of malt. 

[The tails or sprouts of malt are an article of commerce, sold 
V under the names of malt-combs or rnxdi-culma, — B. H.] 

[Coming. See Sennet] 

Compas, or Compost, soil for land, trees, &c. 

^ A Coomb or Conmb of corn, is a measure containing four bushels or 
half a quarter. 

Coppice, Copise, or Copse, the smaller sort of wood or under* 


^^A Cord of wood is set out as the coal-fire, and contains by measure 
four foot in breadth, four foot in heighth, and eight foot in length. 

A Cosset lamb or colt, or Cade lamb or colt, that is a lamb or colt 
fallen and brought up by hand. 

[Cow-blakea. See Casings.] 

[Cow-cloom, cow-dung. — p. 184.] 

^ A Cowl, a tub or pail. 

A Cradle, is a frame of wood fixed to a sythe for the mowing of 
com, and causes it to be laid the better in swarth ; and it is then 
called a Cradle-Sythe, 

Crap, in some places Darnel is so called, so in some it signifies 

[' Darnel ' here almost certainly = Lolium perenne, L. See Crap 
in Dkt, of Ung, Plant-nameaJ] 

A Cratch, a rack for hay or straw. Vide Back. 

[Creeking, croaking. ' The raven or crow creeking clear.' — p. 312.] 
"^ A Croeke, an earthen pot. 
^ A Croft, a small enclosure. 

[Crome. See Crow. 

^ Crones, old eaws [ewes]. 

A Crotch, the forked part of a tree, useful in many cases of 

A Crow or Crome of iron ; an iron bar with one end fiat. 

Culver, a pidgeon or dove ; thence culver-house, 

A Cyon [scion], a young tree or slip springing from an old. 

Dallops, a term used in some places for patches or comers of grass 
or weeds among com. [See Hal] 

[Damnify, to spoil. If *the wet or rain lodge on* a branch, it 
'usually damnifies the next bud.* — ^p. 133. See HaL] 

Darnel, Cockle-weed, injurious to com. 

[Probably Lolium temuhntum, L., which is sometimes, though 
rarely, called Oockle. See Did. of £ng, Plant-namea,'] 

To Denshire, is to cut off the turf of land; and when it is dry, to 
lay it in heaps and bum it. 

[' Quasi DevoTuhiring or Denhighshiring, because it seems there to 
be most used, or to have been invented.' — p. 62. The former is the 
correct derivation. See ElliSy p. 15.] 


To Delve, to dig. 
A INke, a ditcb. 

A Doke, a word used in Essex and SafTolk for a deep dint or furrow. 
[See Hal.] 

A Dool, a green balk or mound between tbe ploughed lands in 
common fields. 

Dredge. Oats and barley mixed. 

[Drink-eorn, grain used in tbe preparation of malt The open 
country * yields us, 'tis true, the greater part of our drink-oom' — 
p. 15.] 

Dug of a cow, that is, tlie cow's teat. 

To Ear or Are, to plough or fallow. 

[Eegrass. See Eddiih.] 

[Eeit See Oft.] 

Eddish, Eadiih, Etch, or Eegrass, tbe latter pasture, or grass that 
comes after mowing or reaping. 

To Edge, to harrow. 

Egistments [agistments], cattle taken in to graze, or be fed by tbe 
week or month. 

Elden, that which in some places is called ollet or fewel. 

The Elder, the udder of the cow or other beast 

\/ Eming, ninnet wherewith they convert milk into cheese. 

[EtcL See Eddish.] 

[Eye, nest, brood. ' When you have found an eye of pheasants.' 
—p. 262. 

Frob. a corruption of F. nid, nest, by loss of «,— W, W. S.] 

To Fallow, to prepare land for ploughing, long before it be ploughed 
for seed. ThiiB may you fcUlow, twifaUoWy and iri/aUow; that is 
once, twice, or thiice plough it before the seed-time. 

>/ A Farding Land, or Famndale of Land, is the fourth part of an 

A Fathom of wood, is a parcel of wood set out, six whereof make a 

To Faulter. Thrashers are said to favUter when they thrash or beat 
over the com again. 

v Feabea, or Fea-berries, gooseberries. 

Ill* WORLIDGE. 81 

FemLy, boggy, mouldy, as feanij cheeae or mouldy cheese. 

[Nothingto do with /en, a bog, but a variety of vinewed or vinny, 
mouldy.— W. W. S.] 

Pimble Hemp, that is the yellow early hemp. [See Diet of Eng, 

[FiiL * A spade with a langest or^» like a knife.* — p. 231.] 

FlaggB, the surface of the earth which they pare off to bum, or the 
upper turf. 

A Pleaokf a gate set up in a gap. 

Floating, or drowning or watering of meadows : also floating of a 
cheese, is the separating the whey from the curd. 

A Fogg, a thick mist, and in some places signifies long grass 
remaining in pasture till winter. 

^FoiBOn, Fuzzen, or Fozen, nourishment, natural juyce, str(3ngth, 1 
plenty, abundance, and riches. [Cfr. Tempest, II. i. 163; iy. 110. j 
— W. W. 8.] 

Foifty, musty. 

A Fobs, a pit. 

To Foyl, that is, to fallow land in the summer or autumn. 

Frith, underwood, or the shroud of trees. 

A Frower, an edge-tool used in cleaving lath. 

A Fudder [fother] of lead, a load, or spiggs of fifteen hundred 

[Ptuosen. See Foison.] 

[Ckunmer. See Oimmer.] 

A Oarth, a yard or back-side. 

A Oawn, or Ctoan, a gallon. 

•^ [Oennet-moyl, a kind of apple. ' Trees grafted on a gennet-moyl or 
cider-stock.* — ^p. 121.] 

OenninB, young shoots of trees. 

A GiU. Vide Beok. 

A Oimmer lamb or Oammer lamb, an ew lamb. 

A Oeo^ or OofTe, a mow or reek of corn or hay. 

[Girt (n.). See Suesingle.] 

[Ooaa. See Oawn.] 

A Oooly a ditch. 


To Oore, to make up mows or reek. 

OoBS, or Ctorte, furzes. 

v/A Oration, eddish or ersb. 

A Oripp, or Oripe, a small ditch or cut athwart any meadow or 
arable land to drain the same. 

Croats, oats after the hulk are off, or great oat-meaL 

A Orove, or Ghroove, a deep foss or pit snnk into the ground to search 
for minerals, Ac 

Ombbage [grub>axe]. See Kattoek. 

To Hack, is to cnt up pease or other Jiawy stuff by the roots, or to 
cut nimbly any thing. 

[HaoUe) a cover for hives. ' Here needs no hackle to defend the 
hive from rain.' — p. 183.] 

To Hale, or Hawl, to draw. 

[Hand-biU. SeeBiU.] 

"^ [Hare-pipes. Snares for hares. ' Setting of Jiare-pipes' to lessen the 
number of hazes. — ^p. 216.] 

Hatches, flud-gates placed in water to obstruct its current. 

A Hattoek, a shock containing twelve sheaves of com. 

. [Hant-gnst ' Many are of opinion that [English Tobacco is] better 
than forreign, having a more hatU-guat, which pleaseth soma* — ^p. 
166. Cfr. Hogo in EUU, p. 24.] 

^ Haver, oats. 

A Haw, or How [hoe], an iron instrument for hacking up of weeds. 
An Haw is sometimes a dose of land. 

"^ Hawm [haulm], is stalks of pease or beans, or such like. 

[Hawmy [haulmy], long-stalked : the grass is 'grown so Tiawmy* — 
p. 19.] 

Hawneys, ropes, coUers, and other accoutrements fitted to horses, or 
other beasts, for their drawing. 

Hawy. See Haok. 

< [Hayes, [nets]. * Coneys are destroyed or taken ... by hayes, or 
by curs, spaniels, or tumblers^ bred up for that purpose.' — ^p. 216.] 

Head-land, that is which is ploughed overthwart at the ends of the 
other lands. 

A Heok, a racke ; a salmon-^c^, a grate to take them in. 

Heckle, an instrument used in the trimming and perfecting hemp 


and flax for the spinnw, by dividing the tow or hurds [hards] from 
the tara 

[Hedging-biU. See BilL] 

Helm, is wheat or rye straw unbroised by thrashing or otlierwise, and 
bound in bundles for thatching. 

«^ Heps, the fruit of the blackthorn. 

IPrunus spinaea, L. ; more usually applied to that of the dog-rose 
(Ilo$a canina, L.).] 

Heyn, young timber-trees that are usually left for standils in the 
felling of copses. 

Hide-bound^ a disease whereunto trees as well as cattle are subject. 

rWhen the rind is too tight for the tree. ' Under the correction 
of nis patriarchal lioencer to blot or alter what precisely accords 
not with the hidebound humour which he caUs his judgement.' — 
Milton, Areopagitica, ed. Hales, p. 32. — ^W. W. 8. 

In Cheshire not only applied to larees and cattle, but to land 
which carries a sod so tough, and old, and sour that it needs plough- 
ing up. — E. H.] 

Hillock, a little hill, as a hop-hill, Ssc, 

Hogs, in some places swine are so called; in some places young 

A Holt, a wood. 

Holms, places in the water, as 'FYa.Viomes, Steep holmes^ in Seyein, 
MilAoTTietf, &c. 

Hook-land, land tilled and sowed every year. 

A Hopy a measure of a peck. 

< 'Hojfj^, wherein they carry their seed-corn at the time of sowing : 
also the vessel that contains the com at the top of the mill. 

Hovel, a mean building or hole for any ordinary use. 
"^ Hoven, cheese that is raised or swelled up. 
Hover-gronnd, light-ground. 
[How. See Haw.] 
Hnll, or Hnlls, the chafif of com. 

Hnrdles, made in form of gates, either of spleeted timber or of 
hazle rods, either serve for gates in enclosures or to make sheep- 
folds or the like. 

Hnrds of flax or hemp, are the worser parts separated from the tare 
in the heckling of it, whereby may be made linnen-doath. [Also 

Hutchf a vessel or place to lay grain or such like thing in. Also a 
trap made hollow for taking of weasels, or such like vermin alive. 

Q 2 


net, (rr OilM. Vide Anet. 
An Imp, a young tree. 

A Jack, a term sometimes used for a Iiorse [i. e, block] wheTeon they 
saw wood. 

>/ Jamook [jannock], oaten bread made into great loaves. 

A Jog, a common pasture or meadow. [ Weai^ Hal.] 

[Jnkuur-time [roosting-time]. ' Imitating their [pheasants'] notes at 
their juking'time^ which is usually in the morning and in the 
eyening/ — ^p. 252.] 

^UUUnMy that id land sown with the same grain as it was sown with 
the precedent year. [HaL has Junamy7\ 

Inter, a term used by some for the fertile coagulating nature of the 

Karle Hemp, that is the latter green bemp. [See Diet, of Eng, 

[Keeler. SeeBwilL] 

Kell, or Kiln^ whereon they dry malt or hops. 

r A Keeve, a fat wherein they work their beer or ale before they 
tun it. 

A Kidorow, a j)lace for a sucking calf to lye in. 

A Kit, a pail. 
/ Knolls, turneps. 
V A Krimnel, a powdring tub. [1 KimneH. See Hal.] 

), Layer, Lioare, places where cattle usually repose themselyes 
imder some shelter, the ground being enriched by their soyl. 

[Langest. See Fin.] 

A Lath, a bam. 

Lannd, or Lawn in a park, plain and untilled groundi 

A -Leap, or Lib, half a bushel, thence comes a seed^^op. 

To Lease, or Lease. Vide to Olean. 

[Lib. See Leap.] 

[Licare. See Laire.] 

A Lift> a stile that may be opened like a little gate. [See HaL (3).] 

To Look, is a term used by drivers in [moving] tbe fore wheels of a 
waggon to and fro. 


JsOgi a term used in some places for a cleft of wood, and in some 
places for a long piece of pole, by some for a small wand or switch. 

To Xop, to cut off the head-branches of a tree. 

A IsTLg. Vide PearoL 

Lynchet, a certain line of green-sword or bounds, dividing arable 
land in common fields, 

Xads, a disease in sheep. 

y A Xaah, or Mesh, ground-corn or such like, boiled in water for 
cattle to eat. 

[Maslen. See Xislen.] 
"^ Kast^ the firuits of wild trees, as of oaks, beech, &c. 

Kattock, a tool wherewith they grub the roots of trees, weeds, &c., 
by some called a gmb-axe or rooting-ctxe, 

^ A Maund, a basket, or rather a hand-basket, with two lids, to carry 
on one's arm. 

A Mayn Comb wherewith they comb horses' manes. 

A Meak, wherewith they mow or hack pease^ or brake, &c. [See 
Make (4) in HaL] 

[Heath. See Math.] 

Mere, the same as Lynehet. 

[Kesh. See Mash.] 

A Met, a strike or busheL [See Hal (1).] 

^ Meth, a small kind of metheglin. [Spelt Meath at p. 190. A 
Welsh spelling of mecid, W. medd.\ 

A Midding, a dung-hill. 

Mildew, a certain dew falling in the months of June and July ; 
which being of a yiscous nature, much impedes the growth or 
maturation of wheat, hops, &o., imless a showre of rain wash it 
off. It is also very sweet; as appears by the bees so mightily 
inriohing their stores thereby. 

Mil houses, watry places about a mill-dam. 

/ Mislen, or Maslen, com mixed, as wheat with rye, <&c. 

A Mizeiiy a dung-heap. 

The Mocks of a net, the mashes [meshes] of a net. 

Mogshade, the shadows of trees, or such like. 

Mores, or Maurs, &om the British word maur a hiU, in the Northern 
parts signifies high and open plaoes, and from the word moTOMe 


signifies in other parts low and boggy places. [From A.S. nir, a 
moor.— W. W. 8.] 

Mounds, banks or bounds. 

Mnck, dung or soiL 

MuUock, dart or rubbish. 

More, the husks or chaff of fruits, out of which wine or other 
liquors is pressed. 

y Muft, the new liquor or pressure of fruits, before fermentation. 

A Mimy, a quaguine [quagmire]. 

A Haile, in some places eight pound, in some seven pound, being of 
a hundred. 

Heat, a heifer, or any of the kind of beeves, 

A Heat-herd, a keeper of neat, beeves or cows. 

^Heaving, yeast or barm. [A corruption of heaving. — W, W. S.] 

A Hope, a bulphinch. [Same as alp, with n prefixed, as in the 
word above.— W. W. S.] 

[Oiles. See Ilea] 

Ollet, fewel, the same with Elder [Elden]. 

Omy-Land, mellow land. 

[Oose. See Orewood.] 

Ope-Land, the same with HodMand, 

Orewood, sea-weeds or ooee wherewith they manure their land. 
Ost, Oost, or Eest, the same as Kell or Kiln, 
An Oz-bdose, an ox-stall. 

A Paddle-staff, a long staff with an iron bit at the end thereof, like 
a small spade, much used by mole-catchera. 

Palms, the white excrescencies of buds of sallies or withy coming 
befbre the leaf. 

Pannage, the feeding of swine or other cattle on the mast or other 
herbage, in forrests, woods, &o. 

A Pannel, Pad, or Paok-saddle, kinds of saddles whereon they 
carry burthens on horseback. 

Pease-bolt, peasehawm, or straw. 
^ Pedware, pulse. 
Penstooks. See Hatohes. 


A Pereh, or Lug, is fifteen foot and a half land measure, but is 
usually eighteen foot to measure coppice wood withal. 

A Piggin, a payl with one handle standing upright. 

A Pike, a fork or prong of iron. 

A Pile, a parcel of wood, two whereof make one coal-fire. 

^<A Pifloary, a liherty of fishing, or a place where fishes are confined. 

[Pitcher. ' PUcJiers or sets' of willows, &c. — p. 106. 'Willow 
plants or pitcJierB,' — p. 267. J 

A Piteh-fork, or Piok-fork, the same with Pike. 

[PlaaL ' If the places where these fowl usually haunt be frozen, 
you must make plcuhes,* — ^p. 245.] 

A Plough, a term used in the western parts for a team of horse or 

[Plump. See Bide.] 

'^ Podds, the cods or shell of cod ware or any other seed. 

Pollard, or PoUinger, an old tree, usually lopped. 

To Poll, to beat or thrash. 

[Popes. See Bonds.] 

Pregnant, full as a bud, or seed, or kernel ready to sprout. 

[President (precedent). * In Wiltshire in several places there are 
presidents of St. Foyn, that hath been these twenfy years growing 
on the land.'— p. 22. Also p. 94.] 

A Prong, the same as Pike. 

Pnokets, nests of cater-pillers, or such like vermin. 

A Paddock, or Porrock, a small inclosure. [Also paddockyparrock.] 

[Unillet. See Sike. There is a small, narrow field on Norton 
Priory estate (Ches.) called the * quiUet.'— E. H.] 

^ To Bee, or Bay, to handle com in a sieve so as tlie chafiy or lighter 
part gathers to one place. 

Beed, is either the long grass that grows in fens or watry places, or 
straw bound up for thatching; by some is called helm. See Helm. 

A Beek [rick ; reek is the old form] of com, a mow or reap of corn 
so laid for its preservation out of any bam. 

A Beek-staval, a frame of wood placed on stones, on which such 
mow is raised. [See Staval in Agric Svrvey words.] 

Bice, the shrouds or tops of trees, or fellings of coppices. ' [See 
Bice (2) in Hal.] 


[Sidder. See Bndder.] 

A Biddle. Vide Bndder. 

A Bide of hade or such like wood, Lb a whole plump of spriggs or 
frith growing out of the same root. 

The Bidge, the upper edge of a bank, or other rising land. 

[Bift See Cast] 

To Bipple flax, to wipe off the seed-yessels. 

v^ Bising, yeast or barm, so called from the manner of its rising above 
the ale or beer. 

A Book, an instrument generally used in some parts for the spinning 
of flax or hemp. 

A Bod. See Peroh. 

A BoUer, wherewith they roll barley, or other grain« 

Bougll, the rough coppice-wood, or brushy-wood« 

BougUngs. Vide Edish [and Average]. 

Bowen, rough pasture full of stubble or weedsu 

Budder, or Bidder [riddle], the widest sort of sieves for the separate 
ing the com fh>m the cnafE. 

[Bunner, a grinding stone in a mill. — p. 240.] 

Bunnet, a certain sowr matter made use of by country house-wiTea 
^ for the coming (or coagulation) of their cheese, 

[Scrape. See^Shrape.] 
[Scuttle. See Skepe.] 
"^A Seam of com, eight bushels; a seam of wood, an horse-load. 

A Sean, a kind of net or rather siene, jrom the river Sein in France. 

[What next ? It is the F. seine, a net; from Lat. iogena, Gk« oaYip^, 
See Littr6.— W. W. S.] 

A Seed-lop, Seed-leap, or Seed-lip, the hopper or vessel wherein 
they carry their seed at the time for sowing. 

A Seen, or Spene, a cow's teat or pap. 

To Sew, to drain ponds, ditches, &c ; or a cow is a aew when ber 
milk is gone. [Hence E. <ew-cr.— W, W. S.] 

Shake-time, the season of the year that mast and such fruits Ml 
from trees. 

A Shard. Vide Cbp. 

[Shatter, to scatter. * Shattering a little straw, brake, or hawm 
lighUy over them.* — ^p. 14. See also Brite.] 

A Shaw, a wood that encompasses a close. 

lir. WORLIDGB. 89 

A Sliawle, or shovel. 

A Sheat, or Shutt, a young hog. 

To Sheer [shear], is used in the northern parte for to reap. 

A Shippen, a cow-house. 

Shook, several sheaves of corn set together. 

A Shrape, or Scrape, a place baited with chaff or com to intice birds. 

To Shroud, to cut off the head-branches of a tree. [See Frith and 
Kice, and Shrood in Hal.] 

Shutt. See Sheat 

A Sike, a quillet or furrow. 

Sile, filth. 

A Site, or Scite, a principal manner, or farm-hous(>. 
[Seite is 17th cent, spelling for «^e.— W. W. S.] 

Sizdng. Vide Bising. 

^[Skaddons. 'If you take away any part of their combs in the 
spring, they are then full of skaddms, which spoil the honey, and 
alflo destroy the breed of your bees.' — ^p. 195.] 

Skepe [skep], or Scuttle, a flat and broad basket, made to winnow 
com withal. 

To Skid a wheel, to stop the wheel with a hook at the descent of a 

Skilling. Vide Shed. 

^ A Skre^ [screen], is an instrument made of wyre on a frame for the 
dividing com m>m dust, cockle, ray, &c. : also it is usually made of 
lath for the akreining of earth, sand, gravel, &o. 

Slab, the outeide sappy planck or board sawn off from the sides of 

A Sled [sledge], a thing without wheels, whereon to lay a plough or 
other ponderous thing to be drawn. 

[The thing itself and the name are in common use in Cheshire : 
literally, a Sedge. It is formed of a small slab (see Slab) with the 
round side downwards. Into the flat upper surface a square staple 
is driven. The plough is then lifted on to the sled, and the point of 
the plough (locally uie suck or bo(Jc) is put through the staple ; the 
whole thmg is then drawn by a horse or horses, the plougn riding 
on the sled. It can thus be moved about from place to place, and 
especially on roads, much more easily than if the plough itself were 
dragged upon the ground. — B. H.] 

[Sloap-wise, sloping. ' Prick the rods sloap-wise against the wind.' 
—p. 244.] 

[Snail-cod, Snag-greet. ' 8nay7e-eod or Snag-greet lieth frequently 
in deep rivers, it is from a mud or sludge, it is very soft, full of 


eyes and vrinkleB, and little shells, is very rich ... it bath ia it 
many snails and shells/ — p. 68. Oreet — grit,'] 

[Snarle. ' Sometimes the heavens frown, the waters swell, the bryen 
•narfe.'— p. 218.] 

Sneed, or Snead, the handle of a sythe or such like tool 

Sonsa, the offal of swine. 

Sontage, course doath, or bagging for hops, or such like. 

[Spaddle, a spade.— p. 217.] 

[Splaeted, split. See Hnrdlet.] 

A Spade, or Bpitter, wherewith they dig or delve : also a cntdng 
spade wherewith they cut hay or com mows. 

Spina. ' If the elm be felled between November and February, it 
will be all tpine or heart* — p. 91.] 

[Spitter. See Spade.] 

A Staok, of com. See Beek. 

Staddlet, Standila, or Standards, trees reserved at the felling of 
woods for growth for timber. 

Staile, or Steale, the handle of a tool [Spelt also Stale : see BilL] 

Stale, a living fowl, put in any place to allure other fowl, where 
they may be taken. [It is also applied to a dead stuflbd deooy-biid 
(p. 249). * Living night-bats ' were also used as a ' $taU * (p. 2d0).] 

Stamwood [stem-wood], the roots of trees grabbed up. 

[Standi! See Eeyrs.] 

A Stannd or vessel that stands an end of earth or wood. 

Stover, straw for fodder. 

A Stowk, the handle of anything, or a shock of twelve sheaves. 

A Stowre, a round of a ladder, or hedge-stake. 

A Strike, of flax, so much as is heckled at one liandfuL Aho it 
signifies an instrument wherewith they strike com in the measuring. 
Also it is used in the Northern parts K>r a measure containing about 
a bushel. 

A Stnrk, a young beeve or heifer. 

A Sull, a term used for a plow in western parts. 

A Snlpaddle, a small spadenstaff or instrument to clean the plough 
from the clogging euth. 

To Summer-stir, to fallow land in the summer. 

A Snasingle [surcingle], a laige girl [girth] that carriers use to bind 
or fasten their packs withal. 

Sward, ground ia said to have a eward, or to be swarded^ when it ia 
well coated and grown or coated with grass or other vegetables. 

in. WORUDQIC. 91 

Swath, or Swarth, grass, com, or such like as it is hiid by the mower 
firom the sythe. 

To Sweal a hog, to singe a hog. 

Swillf used in the northern parts for shade or shadow \ sometimes 
for a keeler to wash in, standing on three feet. 

[Swine^srue. See Swyn-hull.] 

To Swingle flax, a term used by the flax dressers. 

A Swyn-hnU, or Swine-orue, a hog sty. • 

/k Tabem, a cellar. 

Tare of flax, the finest dress'd part thereof ready for the spinner. 

To Ted, to turn or spread new mown grass. 

v^ [Tee-hole. ' At the bottom of your little [beehive] doors, make an 
^ open square just against the tee-hole.' — p. 183.] 

A Teem, or Team, a certain number of horses, or other beasts^ for 
the draught. 

Tet, the cow's dug by some is called the tet [teat]. 

To Tew-taw hemp, to beat or dress the same in an engine made for 
that purpose. 

A Theave, an ew of the first year. 

A Tfarave of com contains four shocks, each shock consisting of six 

Tiohiiig, setting up turves to dry that they may bum the better, a 
term used by the western bum-beaters. 

A Tike, a small bullock or heifer. 

^ TilLs, lentils, a sort of puke. 

Tylth, soyl, or other improvement of land. 

The Tine, or grain of a fork. 

Tits, small cattle. 

A Tovet, or Tofet, half a bushel. 

A Trammel is an usual name for a net, but is in many places used 
for an iron moving instrument in chimneys whereon they hang 
their pots over the fire. 

A Trendle, a flat vessel, by some called a kiver. 

[Trifiallow. See Fallow.] 

A Trngg [trough], a milk trey or such like. 

A Tninohion, a piece of wood cut short like a quarter-staff. 

A Trundle, a thing made and set on low wheels to draw heavy 
burdens on. 


[Tumbler. See Hayes.] 
A Tumbrel, a dung-cart. 
[Twifallow. See Fallow.] 
[Twine. See Caftt.] 

Vrry, the blew clay that is digged out of the coal-mines, and lies 
next the ooal, being crude and inunature, and used for soiling of 

^ Utensils, instruments used in any art, especially husbandry. 

'^ Tailor, or Tallow, or Tate, a concave mould wherein a cheese is 

Telling, ploughing up the turf, a term used by the Western bum- 

A Toor, or furrow of land. 

A Wantey. Vide Snssingle. \Wantey = belly-band.] 

^ Wattle, the naked fleshy matter that hangs about a turkey's head. 
Wattds also signify spleeted gates or hurdles. - 

^ A Weanel, a young beast newly weaned. 

Weeyils. Vide Bonds. 

Whinnes, furzes. 

A Whisket, a basket or skuttle. 

[Wimsheet. ' Some have strained a wimslieet athwart a barns floor/ 
—p. 61.] 

A Wind-row, hay or grass raked in rows, in order to be set up in 

Winlace, or Winch, that by which any burden is wound up, or 
drawn out of a weU, or other deep place. 

[Now corrupted to windla$$; the M. E. form was windaa.^ 

TV. tV. S.J 

To Winter-rig, to fallow land in the winter. 

Wood-land, places where much woods are ; or it's generally taken 
for countries enclosed. 

A Tate, or Tatt^ a gate. 

"^ A Toak [yoke], is either an instrument for oxen to draw by, or to 
put on swine or other unruly creatures, to keep them firom runniDg 
through hedges. 








Agift. To put out to feed. * Each agists his cow at Is. 6cl. per 
week. .... Agists his cow in summer at 28. per week.* Line, — 
xxxTii. 531. See Agistment in Hal. 

Barrel Twenty stone. Ireland. — ^i. 103. 

Baulking. Putting in seed too thin. Ware, — ^y. 90. See Strike- 

Beating. Said of the action of small flies. ' Beating the sheep . . . 
By beating is meant when the flies fix or fasten on those parts 
where the shears haye made a scratch.' Kent (Bomney Marsn). — 
xxxyii. 281. 

Beggar-weed. Cuscuta europcea, L. Dors, (Sherbum). — xii. 553. 

Benn. ' Three fifths of the moor black hennf always moist.' Dart- 
moor, — xvii. 665. 

Bent, fine. Agrodis JUiformis, Cheviots, — xxviL 179. 

Bent, StOoL Junc^ts squarrosits, L. Cheviots, — ^xxvii. 180. 

Billowv. 'The seed wheat is all from this top-threshing called 
billows lined out.' 8om, — xxx. 355. 

Biming. Putting the lambs on high ground. ' This is here called 
bimingy probably from burning, because frequently the heath has 
been preyiously burnt, that a new growth may arise.' — Scotl, (Lam- 
mermuirs). — ^xxyiL 65. 

[Whether it has to do with bum is yery doubtfuL But see bim, 
bims in Jamieson's Scottish Diet. Jamieson contradicts himself: he 
giyes W. bryn, a hill, as the etymology, and then cites E. bum. It 
can't be bot'h.—W. W. S.] 

Blaok. Smut in wheat. Dev, * The black in wheat.' — xix. 261 ; 
xxL 410. 

Blaok - eanker. 'The catterpillar called the blajck-canker^ affects 
turnips. Nwf, — ii. 376. 

Black-grass. Agrostis stolani/era, L. Ess, (Laindon). — ^xxi. 71. 


Blaok-leg. A diaeaae in sheep.— xix. 310. See Blaek-Iegt, in 

Lxale (p. 68). 

Blaok-muck. ' The ashes and cleanings of streets.' Lane. — xxL 570. 

Blaoks. A disease in beans. — ^xxiii. 374. 

Blare. To make a noise like cattle. * Them there beasts are always 
blaring after the cabbages.* Buff, — ^xrui. 88. 

Blood, The. A disease in sheep. — ^xxxiii. 119. 

Blow. To produce (1). They mix crag * either with dung, earth, or 
ooze, thinking that it makes the light sands blow more.' Suf. — 
iL 130. 

Bine fioknesa. A disease in sheep ' near akin to the rot.' SeaiL 
(Lammermuirs). — xzyii. 67* 

Blnihed. Stained. 'The wheat, notwithstanding this precaution 
[of removing the smutty ears], being a little blu$ledJ Kent. — 
XYi. 312. 

[The smut here referred to is the bunt ( TiUdia carits). If a very 
small proportion of smutty ears are thre^od with the wheat, the 
diseased grains are burst, and the impalpable dark brown powder 
is scatters over the sample. It adheres to the small tuft of velvetty 
hairs at the tip of the healthy grains, slightly discolouring them. 
The presence of smut in a sample can thus be detected by the 
miller.— R H.] 

Booted. * Wheat thus wounded [by frost] seldom has the strength 
to clear itself from the blade, and isprovincially called hof^Ud com. 
9uu, (Petworth).— xliy. 135, See HaL 

Braxy. See Orais^ilL 

BredL ' A half fallow, made after the seed was gtit in.' Worc,-^ 
W. 105. 

Broom-grass. An unusual spelling of hrome-grass, — 'xxi. 77. 

Bndd. * A hudd or twelmonthing — a year old.' Siiss. — xxii. 232. 

Bumbey. ' The Essex, and I believe the Suffolk, people call it a 
mere humhey, that is, a thick puddle of dirt and water.' — ^xly. 349, 
Hal. has ' Bumhy^ any collection of stagnant filth.' — Etuii^ 

Bnnohing. ' Seed put in too thick, several in a hole.' Worc—^ 
V. 90. 

Burnt Wheat. ' Smut.' Suff.—\l 173. 

Bush -bred. 'The sheep that are bred upon the hilb in the 
neighbourhood of Bomney Marsh are what the marsh graadors 
called htah-bred sheep.* — xxxi 345. 

Car, * The low lands called care.' Tks. (Hull),— xliii. 499. 


Carve. To clot * Carved or clotted in a proper degree for chuming.' 
. . . ' Carving or clottmg.* C%m. — xxviii, 13. 

[Milk is still allowed to carve or curdle in Cheshire before being 
churned. If the weather is cold, it is brought before the fire to 
hasten the operation. The curdling is effected by the action of the 
lactic acid. — ^B. H.] 

Cateli. ' The catch, or point of the rump.* 8om. — xxx. 337. ' The 
nache in some writers ; also the taU-poinU by others.' — xxx. 198. 

Catohwork Meadows. See Watered Meadows. 
Gaud. The rot in sheep. Cornw. — xxxiii. 269. 
^ Crhuok. ' Bladebones [in cattle] chuck* 8om, — xxx. 314. 
Claying. * Marling, called here generally claying.* Norf, — xix. 476. 

Cleft ' The clefts or point of the rump ' in sheep. Suaa, — ^xyii. 141. 

[This is more ]^roperly a narrow cleft at the end of the backbone, 
just above the tail of a sheep. It is not found in lean sheep, but is 
plainly felt when a sheep is fat, in £Eu;t» it indicates the degree of 
mtness, and is one of the points of which a butcher takes notice. — 

Cling. ' A disease called the dingy which is supposed to be occa- 
sioned by an adhesion of the lights to the sides, and the cattle are 
frequently hidebound with it.* Dartmoor, — ^xxx. 297. 

Cobb. * Cobb or earth walls.' Dev, — ^iv. 14. * Marl mixed with 
straw, used for walls.' Hal. 

^Cold-seed, late pease. Hot-seed, early pease. Nhumh, — ^xxL 225. 

Colder, refuse wheat. 'Chaff, colder , broken ears, &c., which make 
a principal object in horse food.' Norf, — xix. 480. Buff, — xx, 244. 

Collar bags. Smut in wheat. * Collar bags, or smut.' Kent — 

CoUey. A blackbird. Som. xxx. 314. 

Collier. An insect, 'the black dolphin.' Use. (Foulness). — ^ii. 51. 
See Dolphin. 

Comb. (1) A measure. Half-a-quarter of wheat 8uff.~m. 298. 
Four bushels. Ess. — ^ii. 289. 

(2) ' The dust screened out of malt, mixed with the tails called 
combs.* — ^xxxii. 613. 

Coomb (sing. «ad pL). (1) ' Twelve quarters per acre.' — ix. 391. 
(2) * The coomb is half a quarter.' flft*/.— xxxvii. 262. 

Cooping. ' From fifteen to twenty [ewes] were put into the hurdles 
{hobbling or cooping) daily.' — xhy. 373. 

Cork [cauk]. ' An imperfect chalk marl, or a cork, that is, a hard 
chalk.' Norf.—WL. 476. 



Cost. * The com is pitched on the eoss or mow.' Sam. — ^xxiii. 424. 

Cotted. (1) Coated. Some sheep 'are tender eotted, and will not 
stand the fold.' 8tM$. — xyii. 133. 

(2) Entangled. ' What is called coUed fleeces, bein^ so matted 
together as to be almost inseparable without great trouble.' Nor/, 
— six. 469. See Cotty. 

Cotty. * A cotty fleece is clean, but so matted together in its fibres, 
that no art can separate them.' Kent (Bomney Marsh). — xL 280. 

CondL Dactylia glomerata^ L., and Hdcus lanatus, L. 
* The fSarmer calls them both couch,' — xxxriii. 455. 

Cow-gait or Cow-gate. A cow pasture. ' A cow gait in the muir.' 

*A cow gait on a common.' Line — xxxriL 537, 538. 

'Benting gaiU.' — /6., 546. 'There is a custom all over the 
countiy of what they call cow-gates (taking cows on tack for such a 
season].' Lane — ^xx. 111. 

[CoW'gait or Cow-gate is really the right of pasturage for one cow 
upon common land. The word appears in old Cheshire leases ; and 
is still in use in both Lancashire and Cheshire. In the refereaoe 
book of the Tithe Apportionment of Cuerdley in South Lancashire 
there are so many * Cow-gatee ' on Cuerdley salt-marsh appor- 
tioned to each farm according to its size : thus — ' 12 Cow-gates on 
the marsh, 15a. Ir. 2p.;' '42 Cow-gates on the marsh, 53aw Ir. 26p.,' 
80 that the quantity apportioned for each cow seems to have been 
somewhere about an acre and a quarter. I happen to be the 
treasurer of the Stockham Charity in Cheshire: this charity is 
deriyed from the rent of a certain number of Cow-gaies on Frodsham 
marsh, which were be<}ueathed for the purpose, I believe, some 
eighty or ninety years smce, — ^B. H.] 

Cows' grass. ' In some parts of Norfolk it [Dacfylis glomercUa, L] 
is called cows* grass^ from their being very fond of it.' — ^xxxvii 454. 

Cow -weed. Banunculus fluitaiis^ L. Hants, (Ringwood), where 
* their cows are fed night and morning on a weed procurdd out of 
the river Avon.' — ^xL 555. 

Crack. Sheep ' called here a crack flock, which is a provincial term 
for excellent.' 8uff. — xix. 95. 

Crag. Red 'shell marl.' Suff.—]L 130. See Shell Marl. 

Creech. The soil * is creech upon limestone.' Line, — ^xxxviL 533. 

Creech lime. A kind of lime. ' Much creech lime from near Mat- 
lock.'— xxxi. 202. 

Creet. On the southdowns of Sussex ' they never mow corn with a 
creetf or cradle, but with the naked scythe.' — ^iii. 135. 

Croiie< (1) w. An old ewe. * Norfolk crones,^ Nor/, — ^xix. 445. 

(2) V. To become old. ' The sheep do not crone sooner than twelve 
years croneing late.' — ^xlv. 179, 185. 

Cull Ewes. See Draught Ewes. 


Culls. ' The Burford eWes are bought also at 20s. ; these are kept 
for stock, but culled every year ; the oldest are fattened and the 
ram siven to the culls, to answer the purpose of westerns.' Nhamp, 
— XTL 493. 

[The worst sheep drawn or culled out from a flock are usually 
called cuUb, From Shrewsbury market northwards the word is 
well-known, and is very likely almost universally used. — ^B. H.] 

Oat. ' Each space of 10 poles long and 2 broad ' in Whittlewood 
Forest is called a cut. — ^xvi. 616. 

CorL A disease in potatoes. — xxiv. 65. Called also Cnrltop. — 
XXV. 622. 

Daubing. *The erection of a house of clay.' Cumb, — xxix. 107. 

[The old Cheshire houses built of wooden frames filled in with 
wattles plastered over with clay and cow-dung) were called ** raddle 
and daub." There are plenty of ancient examples still to be found. 
A man who built such houses, or at any rate who did the plaster- 
ing, was called a "dauber." — ^R H.] 

Dead. * The unripe and dead parts of the ears, as here called, is 
not brought into circulation for seed.* 8om, — xxx. 356. 

DeiLBMring. * Paring and burning, called here denshiring,* Sues, — 
xliii. 212. See Ellis, p. 15. 

DimmondB. Male sheep once shorn or clipped. Nhumh. (Fenton). 
— xix. 148. Called Dinmonds (Z>urA.), p, 309. 

DolphilL (1) The wheat will be * often black, what we call dolphins , 
with the scent of a lobster.* Kent — iu. 444. This would mean 
infected with bunt (Tilletia caries), which has a disagreeable fishy 

(2) ' Small black insects, here called dolphins.' Cfr. Dolphin- 
fly in Ellis f p. 15. Kent. — xvi. 307. 

Doublets. Twin lambs. Wilts. — xxxviii. 42. 

Down-shared [denshired]. * Pared and burnt.' Kent — v. 113. 

Draught ewes. * Coll ewes, generally in this county called draught 
ewes.* Nhumh, (Felton). — xix. 148. 

Drawling. The leaves of Eriophorum vaginatum, L. Cheviots, — 
xxvii. 182. 

Drinking. See Yoke. 

Droke. A weed amongst wheat, probably the darnel (Lolluin temu- 
lentum, L.). See Drake and Drohe in Diet, of Eng. PlurU-names. 
Kent — xvi. 311. Seed with which this is mixed is called drohy seed. 

[Dumbles. Probably a misprint for bumbles, rushes. See Bumble 
in Diet, of Eng, Plant-names, ' Dumbles for horse-collars.* Yks. — 
xxxi. 117.] 

H 2 


Dunt. ' Stupid, dizzy/ Hal. ' A distemper [in sheep] caoaed hj 
a bladder of water gathering in the head : no cure.* (Bairow.)-- 
ii. 436. 

Eatage. * There is no grass that will bring so heavy a crop of hay 
[as clover and rye-grass], and that after an early spring eolo^; 
and likewise an excellent /o^(jra^€ after the hay.' Dwrh, — xix. 313. 

Bather [ether]. * The stake and eather fence, for new made fences, 
is the cheapest.' — vii. 25. 

Egg oheesei. * Farmers in the northern parts of England make egj 
cheeHBy which are famous for toasting. After the cuid is thorongUy 
prepared, they make this cheese by putting fiva yolks of e^gs to 
every pound of curd, mixing the wnole properly, and putting it 
into the cheese press as usual.' — xxxviii. 504. 

Em-bftm. 'They em-bam as much as they can of their com.' 
Thanet» — xxviL 521. Also In-bam. — p. 527. 

Fealt. * There is a prevailing mode in this neighbourhood of casting 
ftaU, as they are called, or cutting the siirface of the common or 
pasture ground, and carrying it to the land intended for com.' 
Scotl, (Thurso). — xx. 305. * Feal, the parings of the surface.' — Id.^ 
p. 312. 

Finebent See Bent, Fine. 

Bire-fimging. The heat generated in dung ' sometimes rises so high 
as to be mischievous, by consuming the materials (Jire-fangingy — 
xli. 253. 

Firlot * Sixteen bolls three firlots of good grain.' Scotl. — xxiv. 471. 

Blag. ' Dibble beans one row on each fl^,* E. Suff. — xxiii. 27. 
' Harrowing before burning shakes much earth from the flagi- 
Hants, — xxiii. 357. 'Flag or furrow.' /Stt/l— xxxii. 257. 

Blakes. (1) A hurdle or paling. * I divide my yard hjflakeSy and 
keep the forward and backward ewes apart.' — xxxviii. 4S4. 

(2) The hay <is either laid down on the mow, or put into >SaJ&e$.' 
Scotl, — xxvii. 241. 

Bleeoe. A crop. ' There was a very fine fleece of marl grass,' &c 
flfw/.— xix. 214. 

Bleet. Shallow. ' It is a f&vourite maxim here, *' Fallow deep, but 
sow^Ieet," or on a shallow ploughing.' Em, (Kelvedon). — ^xL 322. 

Blet Skim-milk cheese. Suff. — ill. 193. 

Blit-milk. Skim-milk. Ches, — xxviii. 16. 

Bloor banks. ' The ditches will be filled up, so as to form what are 
called /oof hanks.* — xliii. 586. See Blower-bank in Ellis., 


Flow. * Peat moss or what is termed Jiow.^ Gumb, — ^xxi. 446, 

Flowing Meadows. See Watered Meadows. 

Foggage. See Eatage. 

Foot-halt. A disease in sheep. Eutl. — xxiL 364. 

Foreheads. ' Foreheads or headlands.' Som. — ^xxz. 354. 

Fresh. Unpastuied. ' Keep your pasture freah^ that is to say, with- 
out any stock upon it.' Cheviota. — ^xix. 406. 

Frilled. ' The straw [of the potatoes] hem^ frizled (curled), as they 
call it here.* 8uff, — ^v. 251. 

- PolUieads. Castrated stags.— xxidx. 551. 1^}*/*^ 

Gait See Cow-gait. 

GalL See Paterish. 

Oally^. * Where the plantation [of lucernej is not gallt/, that is, not 
interspersed with vacancies.* Kent (Maidstone). — ^iii. 433. 

Gate. * These marshes [hy the Tees] used to be stocked with the 
neighbouring gcUes, from the upper part of Cleveland, but are now 
mostly stocked by the occupier. — ^vii. 31. See Gow-gate. 

Gated. ' Spring corn [is] gated ; that is, bound near the top, and 
set up in single sheaves, by spreading their bottoms in the form of 
a cone.' Cumb, — xxxii. 501. 

GaveL ' Wheat reaped and not bound lies on the gavdJ 8uff. — 
xxxii. 264. 

Gimmer. A young ewe. Durh, — ^xix. 309. 

Goary. 'The neck perhaps thick and goarxf' Bom. — ^zxx. 334. 
See Stag-headed. 

GoS Mow, rick. ' To one man who unpitched the waggon at harvest, 
seven others were necessary on the ^o#, to receive and dispose of 
the com after it was raised to some height.' Norf. — xix. 452. See 
Qoof in Hal. 

/ Goggles. The rickets in sheep. Buss. — ^xx. 280. WilU. — xxii. 
103. * A kind of consumption.* 5um. — xxii, 622. 

Go lie. * Nor does the drilled corn in such stiff ground as mine is, 
go lie (as the farmer calls it) so readily as the broadcast.' — xxiii. 315. 
* Qojie lye or laid.* — ^xxx. 354. 

Gore. * The soil a gore sand.' — ^xxiv. 531 . 

Chrass ilL A disease in hogs (t. e. sheep), the same as braxy else- 
"* where. ScoU, (Lammermuirs).— xxvii 68. 

Cbreystocks. ' Bricks called greystocks, for the outsi«le of houses.' 
(London.) — xxi. 150. 


Oriping. Land ' must be cleared of the surface water by griping 
or under-draining.' — xliii. 123. [From gripe, a ditcby dram— 
W. W. S.] 

Groot. *A provincial term for earth.' Dartmoor, — xxx. 297. 
• Dry mud.' HaL 

Ground rain. * It was the 10th of July before we had a jrotuid 
rain.' Suff, — ^xyiii 106. See HaL 

Growan. The ruins of 'granite, here called grmcan! Camw. — 
xzzii 17. 

Oruft. ' A grufi which adheres to the grass in wet weather : ' it has 
been supposed to cause the rot. — xl. 529. 

Gye. Ranunculus arvensis, L. Ess. (lAindon). — xxL 71. 

Hacking^ and heeling. * The practice of hacking ami keeling for 
wheat.' 8om, — xxx. 354. 

Haft. ' The haunt which a shoep adopts, in the language of shep- 
herds, is called its ha/t* Cheviots. — ^xxvii 185. 

Hariff, or HerriC Galium AparinSy L. Notts, — xxiiL 151. 

Hassocks. ' Great tufts of rushes, &c., called there [Suffolk] has- 
socks.* The operation of removing these is called hassocking ; and 
there is a plough made for the purpose called a hassock plough. — 
xvi. 467. 

Hatch (a misprint for catch?). See Watered Meadows. 

Haviour. ' Haviour bucks.' — xxxix. 653. * Haviours,* — lb, 556, 
which see. Hal. has ' ffavering, a gelded buck.' Durham, 

HazeL Stiff. * The soil is in general loamy, or what is called haxel 
mould.' Durh, (Sunderland). — v. 361. 

Heading. Forming a head ; producing ears. ' If the [wheat] crop is 
thin, it possesses the benefit of heading the better.' Ess. (?}.— 
xxii. 174. 

^ Heave. If the milk has ' been set too near the fire, it curdles the 
whole mass, making it (as the phrase is) '* go all to whig and 
whey,*' and afterwards lieave in the mug.* Ches, — xxyiii. 13. 
Whig is * the whey that remains from curd.' — xxxyiii. 504. 

Hether (xxviiL 636), or Hever (xxix. 95). Kaygrass. Dev. 

Hewinj^. Cutting wheat with one hand. ' They reap very early, 
while the com is g^reen ; hewing the wheat : one binder follows two 
hewersy cutting an acre a day each.' /Som.— xxx. 310. 

HirseL A fiock of sheep. Cheviots, — xix. 403. HaL has it as a 
Cumb, word. 

Hobbling. See Cooping. 


Cookie. * We pay about 4s. per acre for reaping wheat, and diet if 
they set it up and Jtockle it.* Wore, — ^iv. 108. 

Sog-fence. Feeding-ground for sheep. ' A proper hog-fence ought 
to consist of a yariety of pasture.' 8coU, (Lammermuirs). — 
xxvii. 66. 

Soggits. * Lambs of last yeaning.' Suff. — xi. 197. * Year old 
sheep not sheared.' Norf, —Id*, xvi. 45. 

Sogs. Heaps covered with soil. ' The usual mode of preserving 
potatoes in this country is in hogs, as they are called.' — xxxii. 213. 

HoneyfEtU. ' A thick glutinous matter which sometimes falls in the 
night, and is commonly called a honey-falV Lane, — iii. 319. 

Horse-break. ' A whin which they call a horse-break.* Kent,' — 

Eorse-pipo. Equisetum arvense, L. Staff. — iv. 431. 

Horse-tying. Horse-folding. Waj^w. (Vale of Evesham). — xxxvii. 
459. *0n lands which have been horse'tied, which is the term 
applied, they never fail from reaping abundant crops of wheat ; 
insomuch, mat on seeing heavy wheat crops it is a common 
exclamation, •* This was Aor«e-*tca." ' — /&., 488. 

Hot-seed. See Cold-seed. 

Hover. Light. ' As the land on the upper part of the island [Thanet] 
is generally light and Jwvery the wheat, especially in a dry season, 
is apt to be wlult they call root-fallen.' — xxvii. 516. 

Hurler. A calf 'which runs with the dam aU the summer^ for 
seven or eight months.* Suts. — xi 220. 

Husk. ' They sometimes lose calves by a distemper they call the 
husk, which is occasioned by little worms in the small pipes on the 
lights.* 8us8.—xi. 182. 
Also in pigs. — xl. 193. 

Hutch. 'In East Kent we usually draw our com to market in 
boarded carriages, here called ht^hea.^ — xxviii 419. 

In-bam. See Embam. 

In the snds. Downcast ' Very favourable weather must occur, or 
the farmer is in t?ie auda,* 8uff, — xxxix. 83. 

Iron-moulded. The potatoes 'were of a rusty colour, and very 
porous, here called iron'tnolded,^ Suff, — ^v. 251. 

Keenly. ' Many South Devons, and all taken as soon as keenly.* — 
xxix. 197. 

/ Kinele. Charlock, Sinapis aruensis, L. Kent. — v. 102. See 
Kirikle in Agric, Survey. 


Kniok [nick]. This is an indenture along the vertebne. ' 1£ a Norfolk 
aheep is examined, the bone will always be found to zise ridge like ; 
instead of this ridge the new Leioester sheep are now breeding to 
haye a furrow there, which is called the knick* Leic, — ^ztL 567. 

Knit. Stopped in growth (spoken of pigs). — zzi 51. 

Ladai. ' Ladders, provincially ladeaJ Dev, — xliy. 237. 

Laine. ' Rent of the arable, including the lainea, is 15s. per acre 
on the Down.' 8vm, — xxii. 219. * The laine% or bottoms.' — 230. 
< Laine land or arable. * — Ih, * What is called in Sussex three laina^ 
that is, wheat onoe in three years.* — xxyiii 124. 

Lath. Tender. ' A thick hide is bad, and a very thin one too Icush* 
Bom. — XXX. 341. 

Last. 'A last is 21 comb or sacks, or 10]^ quarters.' Norf. — ^ziL 50. 

Laugher. ' Many of the lavghers are getting into the breed.' Tks. 
— xxvil288. 

Layer. ' Layer is the term used in Suffolk for artificial grasses that 
rest longer than one year.* — ^xxi. 611. 

Lear. To employ. 8om. — 314. 

Leases. ' Ewe pastures.' Dors, — xxviii. 474. 

Ligs. * Ley.' 1^*.— xxxL 129. 

Limber. ^ The limber flaccid state ' of the yolk (q. v.) of the sheep. 
—XXX. 433. 

Lined out See Billows. 

Ling. A ^neral name for Carex, Sehosnus, and Nardus, Cfheviots, 
— xxvii. 181. 

Liver. Spring ploughing, upon strong soils, * loses a friable surface, 
and turns up liver , which, in a drying wind, becomes hard as stone.* 
Suff, — xxxix. 79. The soil ' being livery, dries into hard compact 
clods.*— i6., 82. 

Load. A lode, a water-course ; e. g, Bottisham Lode, Cambridge- 
shire. * The river, or food.' Conit.— xliii. 544. See HaL 

Lock. ' A gentleman near me used to rear his calves upon tea made 
from a tocA; of the richest hay.* (Lichfield.) -iv. 329. See HaL 

Looe. < Looes or frames ... are fixed ail round the kUn.' ^tss, — 
xxii. 273. 

Looker. A bailiff. Ess. (Foulness). — ^ 55. It is also so used 
generally in Essex. A shepherd. Keni (Somney Marsh). — 
xxxvii. 277. 

[In Lancashire and Cheshire cattle are sent for the summer 
months to a 'ley,* usually a gentleman's park. The man who 


looks over theee cattle dailyy and attends to them, is called the * ley- 
k)oker:—K H.] 

Xiyery. ' In the wilder and bleaker parts of the country, hardiness 
a£ constitution is a most important requisite; and, even where 
stock is best attended to, it is of essential consequence that they 
should be as little liable as possible to disease, or any hereditary 
distemper, as being lyeryy or black fleshed, or haying yellow fat, 
and the like.'— xxxyiii. 400. 

[Erom A. S. lira, flesh, muscle, occurring in ^posrUray the muscle 
of the lower leg. See my note on (Uiry huN, db Q,, 6th S. L 318. — 
W. W. S.] 

Marbled. * There is no better sign of good flesh [in cattle] than 
when it is marbledf or the fat and lean nicely interwoyen, ana alter- 
nately mixed with each other.' — ^xxxyiiL 403. 

Marlebmte. ' Bollocks will not do weU if they cannot get at the 
earth in a lime rock — marlehnUe it is called.' Darfmoor.— xxix. 576. 

Marled [marbled]. ' In both bullocks and sheep, the flesh of none 
that die with uttle fa,t within will taste well; the fine eating meat 
beine that which is marled flesh and spreadwell.' Kent (Bomney 
MarSi).— XX. 266. 

MazhilL A dunghill Thanet, — ^zxyii 523. Hal. has maxeh 

[Here max is the same as in mixen, the Scotch form. — W, W. S.] 

"^easlea. Small-pox in sheep. Suff. (1). — ^xix. 299. 

Melder. They * expect their melder, or batch of oats, to give half 
meal for com.' Nhumb, — ^xxxy. 555. See Hal. 

Mew. To shed the horns (spoken of a stag). — xxxix. 556. 

[Also spoken of an eagle when shedding its feathers. Milton's 
Areopagitica, ed. Hales, p. 49, 1. 17.— W. W. S. See Hal.] 

Middling-ilL A disease in sheep, the same as the red or black 
water. Durh, — xix. 309. 

vi Month-men. Harvest-men. ^uss. — xxii. 212. 

Moss, or MosBcrops. ' Young seed-stems * of Eriophorum polysta- 
chyon, L., and E, vaginatum, L. Cheviote, — ^xxvii. 181. 

Haohe. See Catch. 

Hob [knob]. The flower-head of clover. — ^xxiv. 530. 

Koile. * While [the wool] is undergoing the operation of combing, 
it breaks off, and leaves a lar^ quantity of what is called noile, or 
waste wool, in the comb.' — xM. 506. See Noils in Hal. 

Hooset. He lets the lambs ^ through the hurdles in places called 
noo$e8, where the sheep cannot get through.' — xlv. 179. 


^ Hots. Sheep withont homSw 'In provincial language they are 
often called noUj from not haying horns.* — zxiiL 414. See Not (2) 
in Hal. 
[Hence not-heed, Chaucer, Prologue, 109.— W. W. S.] 

OUond. ' Ollond or lay of two years.'— ix. 429. Also olland. See 
Old land in Bay. 

On Taok. See Cow-gates. 

Oat-winteren. ' Cattle kept out all winter.' — xxxviii. 400. 

Owl-headed. (1) Sheep with much 'wool on the cheeks and throat' 
are so called. — ^xziii. 376. 

(2) Southdown sheep with ' no tuft of wool on the foreihead.' 
Sum.— zL 198. 

Pammanti. Parements. Nor/. (Wymondham). — ^xzxviL 267. 

Pan. ' What Norfolk farmers call the pan, or that suheidenoe of 
the marie or day which always forms immediately under the path 
of the plough.'— y. 133. See Pan (2) in HaL 

Pateriflh. ' The disorders that attack [ewes] are the red-water, and 
being pateriah, which last disease is neyer cured : at Michaelmas 
the gaU attacks them.* Sttsa, — xTrii. 225. Hal. has pathcrUh. 

Peck. ' They cut their beans with a tool they call a peck, b^g a 
short handled scythe for one hand, and a hook for the other.' jSml 
(Foulness).— ii. 60. 

Pelham. Dust. Som. — xxx. 314. 

Pendicle. Very small farms, * here [Kinross] and in most places of 
Scotland, are called pendicU8y as depending upon either the proprie- 
tors of hind or the larger tenants.' — xxix. 127. 

Pitch of work. See Watered Keadows. 

Pitcher. An upright, pitched or stuck in the ground. * Withy 
plants in this county are yery usefril for stakes or pitchers, as they 
are called.' 8om, — iy. 245. 

Pitting. ' In Chattris common, some persons who burnt [land] in a 
yery dry season without sufficient attention, burnt down the soil so 
as to lower it six inches oyer a whole field . . . this is called jptttin^.' 
Camb, — ^xliii. 144. 

Plough. A waggon. Som. — ^xxx. 314. 

Poached. *The land is too much trodden andpoachedj' — ix. 428. 
See Poaching in EUia, 

Poddery. Lambs haying the ' staggers ' ' are called poddery.' Suf. ()). 
— xix. 295. 


Poke. The rot in sheep. — xli. 269. 

Pouts. * Backward or poor lambs.' (Riddlesworth.)— xxiiL 442. 

' A blue spiiy grass, called heie pne-grass, which is pro- 
duced on cold wet land/ Notts. — zxiL 470. Perhaps some sedge ; 
Carex prcecox is called Fry in Cumb. 

Purples, The. 'Ear-cockle' in wheat. Ess. — xlv. 236. See 

dnarter-ilL A disease in sheep. — xix. 310. 

Baddleman. Ear-cockle, the disease in wheat due to Vibrio tniici. 
ScU.—xxyi. 177. See Purples. 

Haltering. (1) 'A sort of rest-baulk ploughing, on account of the 
number of flint-stones rendering it too difficult to breast-plough.' 
Hants,— xjoii. 357. See Ra/ter-ridging in Hal. 

(2) < They rafter the land, that is, half-plough it.' Wilts.-^ 
zxxiL 49. 

(3) ' To raise a thin slice from a narrow furrow, and lay it flat on 
an unploughed space.' Wilts. — xliii. 492. 

Bay. Baygrass {Lolium perenne, L.). — xxiiL 27. 

Bed gnm. ' Mildew, red gum, or rain in harvest.' — ^xxxvi. 153. 

Bed Bobin. Agrostis stolonifera, L. ^t^^.-^xi. 288. 

Bed shank. ' The wheat began to change colour, or get into what 
is called the red shank prepaTatiye to ripening.' Derb. — xliii. 628. 

Bed*worm. ' Oats are eaten b^ the red-worm. What they mean by 
this is not dear.* Warw. — ^iv. 164. 

Beed. Wheat straw trussed in a peculiar manner for thatching. 
5o7n.— xxiiL 422. See Beed (1) in Hal 

Bibbling. The barley ' was put in on two earths, but the rye only 
on a ribbling.* — ^xliv. 372. 

Bickets (in lambs). The same as the staggers. Huntingdonsh. — 
xl. 33. This snows that the word is pure English, as pointed out 
by Prof. Skeat m N. A Q., 6th S. L 209. 

e. The farmer ' cuts and lays the growth [of wood] indiscrimi- 
nately as it arises in rows, called ringes^ and sells them at so much 
a ringe, or so much a rod.' — ^xli. 344. [Binge = a rank : Chaucer's 
renge, Canterbwry Tales, 2596.— W. W. S.] 

Bisp. A disease in sheep. Line. — xx. 28. It is the same as what 
is called in Cumb. and Durh. the JJlaekwater (xx. 4, 32), and else- 
where the Sickness {lb.). 


V SodikiiL The stomach of a sheep. SeotL (Lammeimoiis). — zxvu.69. 

Root-fklleiL See Hover. 

Bose-headed. * A very mitldling crop [of potatoes], being curled, 
which we call rose-headedJ' Kent, — ^y. 451. 

SOQXLd-ridgmg. The Kentish name for ITp-settmg (which see). — 
T. 107. 

Sound tilth. ' A local expression used in East Kent to signify a 
certain course of crops most common there, yiz. 1. beans, 2. wheat, 
3. barley.'— -iv. 434. 

Soto. ' Instead of an entire clean earth of four fallows, the plough 

goes oyer it, making only two ; this slight kind of ploughing ijs 

sometimes, in our provincial dialect, called a roveJ Em. — xlv. 342. 

They 'plough mree or four times for barley: generally threa- 

dean earths and a rove (half ploughing).* Suff, — ^ii 113. 

Sowen. ' After grass.' Suff, — xviii 107. 

* Bouen-hay, a provincial term for the second crop of hay.' Esb. 
— xvi. 132. 

Bubs or Bnbbers. 'A complaint [in sheep] . . . called by the 
shepherds the ruhs or rubbers, because of their seeming to rub them- 
selves to deaths* Suff, — ^xxxiii. 418. 

^ Bnnolo. A variety of Beet. ' Beta maxima,^ — xyrii. 567. 

Salving. An operation to prevent ticks and scab. ' They rob tar 
and butter in sheep at Lancashire, which tiiey call mdving* — 

Sandlings. ' The aandlings .... that is the triangle of country 
formed by the three points of Woodbridge, Bawdsey Cliff, and 
Orford.' Suff.—ii. 123. • The aanoUing fieurmera'— iL 124. 

Savo alls. * A few ill-conditioned [sheep] kept to live on fallows.' 
E8$. — ^xviiL 411. 

Soate. A dysenterical disease in sheep. Dartmoor. — xxix. 576; 
XXX. 297. 

Scorn. See Skeat. 

Scour. Diarrhoea in sheep. Kent. — ^v. 139. 

Sonfflers. A kind of scarifier of the ground. See Scuffler in HaL 
* Extirpators, nidgets.' Suff. — ^xxxiL 258. 

Sea wanr. ' Sea waur, from its waving to and fro on the top of the 
water at high tide.' Thanet. — xxvii. 523. 

[No ! A.S. wdr, later form t&ore, by the usual change firom d to 
long o, as in 9tdn, a stone, &c. — ^W. "W. S.] 

Shackable. ' To erect windmills on any part of ahackahle lands . . . 
the right of shackage.* — ^xxv. 507. See Sh<ick (2) in HaL 


Sliale. Limestone is ' cleaned of the dirt and shale.' Suss. — 
xxii. 267. 

ShawB. * Broad belts of underwood, two, three, and even four rods 
wide, around every field.' Sum. — xL 192. 

Sliell lime. Unslaked lime. Ayrsh, — ^xxxv. 180. 

Sliell marl, i. e. shale marl ; marl of a shaly nature. See Crag. 

Slielling. 'The snow lodging among the tops of the wool, and 
freezing like an incrustation around' the sheep. Cheviote, — ^xxviL 

Sliifts. Changes of crop. 'Four, five, or six shifts.' (Jamb. — • 
xliiL 50. 

Shoot. A 'bowel complaint' in cattle. Ofies. — xxxviL 112. 

Shorn. Keaped. Notts. — xxii. 462. [Reaping is called shearing 
in Cheshire, Lancashire, and, I beheve, the north generally. — 
B. H.] 

Short shed. ' Older sheep are salved . . . slightly on the back, 
neck, and upper parts of the sides, which is caUed salving from 
short shed to short ahed.^ Cheviots. — xxviL 195. 

Shut in the twist. Sheep *shvi in the ttaist, as a Sussex man 
expresses it ; without the thin shank and shambhn^ walk of legs 
that cross for want of fullness in the thigh to keep fliem asunder.' 
—XX. 606. 

Sickness. See Bisp. 

Size (v.). He ' sizes the field, as it is styled, that is, draws out new 
ridges or stitches nearly in the direction o£ the old original ones.' 
Ess.^idY. 342. 

Skeat, or Scom. Diarrhoea in calves. Comic. — iii. 380. Same as 
Beate above. 

Skinters. * Scourers or skinters provincially ' [of cattle]. Som. — 

k. 333. 

Skndded. ' Straw twisted together (provincially called skudded) is 
used ' in covering drains. Ess. (Kelvedon). — xl. 332. 

Slain-ears. ' Smut ball, coal-brand, bunts, slain-ears, blacks, &c.,' 
in wheat. — ^xxi. 410. [From «/av, to strike, cause to T>erish. — 
W. W. S.] 

Sleeoh. * A manure they make use of here which they call sleech' 
Suss. xxii. 291. See Sleech (2) in HaL 

SUng. To lamb prematurely. ' Ewes are apt to sling their lambs.' 
£f«M.— xxii. 225. See Sling (2) in Hal. 

/ Snail-creeping. ' Tl\e ends of the beams [in Portsmouth dockyard] 
. . . had been gbu^ed in a manner then [1719] practised, which was 
caUed snail-creffmgJ — ^xviii. 41. 


Snow-breakerf . ' When the gronnd is covered with snow, the sheep 
are often ohliged to procure their food hj scraping the snow off the 
ground with their feet, even when the top is hardened by frost; 
hence they have obtained the name of anow-breakersJ CTurwU. — 

Soil. (1) 'To feed cattle entirely in the bonse.' — ^xxxviiL 506. 
Cfr. * 8oiled horse.'— Auj^ Lear, IV. vi 124. 
(2) Dung. See Stenching. 

Somerland. 'They are forced to somerland, or lay-fallow, their 
ground.' Thanei. — xxvii. 517. See Hal, 

Sows. ' The straw, afler it is threshed, is built up in sows, like to 
hay, in the barnyard.' ScoU, — xxiv. 470. 

Sparks. A kind of cattle. 'He objects to sparks.* Som. — ^xxx. 
314. [Probably of too active a kind. Cfr. «pra<^ lively, Wilts ; also 
spelt spark in M.E.— W. W. S.] 

Spear-|prass. Triticum repens, L. Suff, — L 197. Cornw, — 
xxii. 149. 

Spind. Turf. ' I would recommend some heaps to be made of the 
sword fsward] or spind.^ Dev. (Exeter). — ^vii. 60. [Of this spind-le 
is the diminutive. — W. W. S.] 

Spindle. The tcreest (which see) is ' supported by a piece of iron 
called a spindle ; if this be not strong or stout enough, it is impos- 
sible thejr should plough the land as it ought to be ploughed : and 
hence is it usual here to say of a man who has not stock sufficient 
to carry on his business, "He is under ^ spiruUed," * ThaneC, — 
xxvii. 518. 

Spret. JunciLS arfieulatus, L. Ckemots, — xxvii 181. 

Squalls. ' In many of their fields they are troubled with springs ; 
they call the wet spots squalls,* Ess. (Brackstead). — ^il 43. [Some- 
times galU,—W, W. S.] 

Sqnitoh. Triticum repens, L. (Lichfield.) — ^iv. 415. Triticum 
repenSy L., and Agrostis vulgaris, L. Wore, — xvii 38. Also Scutch. 

Stag-headed. ' The horn is found neither drooping too low, nor 
rising too high, nor with points inverted, called here stag-headed^ 
tapenng at the i>oints, ana not too thick or goary at the root.' Som, 
—XXX. 333. 

Stag-hog. A boar. Suff.—i, 124. 

Steatoh. ' A steatch is a broad land ; a narrow one we call a ridge.' 
Suff,— IT. 238. 

Stenching. Sheep ' dropping their soil on the pasture (what our 
shepherds here term stenching their food).' — xxxviii. 6. Not local- 
ised, but probably Suss. See xxxix. 394. 

Stinkweed. Diplotaxis murcdis, D.C. ' Imported about four years 
ago by means of a vessel laden with oats that was shipwrecked on 


the rocks here The farmers here [Kingsgate, Kent], not 

knowing what to call it, have, on account of its very offensive 
smell, given it the name of stink-weed.* — tit. 82. 

V^Stmt. Limit, extent. 'Eight loads per man being the stinC — 

Stinted. Stopped. ' A lamb once dinted in its growth, like a stinted 
tree, never comes on well after.' (Lichfield.}— -iv. 328. 

Btook. Wheat * twelve sheaves to the stooke.* Yks. (Cleveland). — 
vi 356. See HaL (2). 

Stover. ' Hay of artificial grasses.' Suff. — ^xviiL 314, 

Straw. See Prizled. 

Strike-balkiiig. Filling up gaps in plantation of lacem, by sowing 
the seed and raking it in. Kent. — i. 308. 

Stmck with the blood. On the Weald of Kent ' they have a dis- 
temper [in sheep] which they call struck vnth the blood.* — ii. 65. 

Sturdy. * Dropsy of the brain' in sheep. — xxii. 330. See Hal. (1). 

Snmmer-workingB. Fallows. Lane. — xx. 124. 

Sapping. ' Supping, as it is called, which each dairy famishes daily 
to the numerous cottagers around, who fetch it [milk] from the 
houses.' Chea. — ^xxviii. 17. 

rSujyping, or more generally suppin^Sy is buttermilk or whey, but 
not milk /unless well skimmed), which is ^ven to those labourers 
on a Cheshire farm who, living at some considerable distance, bring 
their meals with them. — B. H.] 

Swee. * A lever applied to the end of the chum-staff.' Midlothian. 
— xxl 621. [AUied to suHiy.—W. W. S.] 

Sword. Sward. See Spind. 

Tagging a field. Stocking it with tags, L e. yearling sheep. Kent 
(Romney Marsh). — xix. 75. 

Tail-points. See Catch. 

Tail-seed. Small poor grains. ' Tail-seed from my seed-mill.' Kent. 
—V. 114. 

Taihed. Dunged. * Mr. Coke, of Holkham [Nor/.], folds no sheep, 
and finds no want of it ; keeps a greater stock iiian he could do 
with it, and finds his lays equalljr tatJied.* — xxxvii. 437. 

* The place was equally tathed in every part.' — lb. 453. See Tath 
(2) in HaL 

Tegs. * Lambs of last yeaning.' Suss, — ^xL 197. • [Also in Shrop- 
shire.— W. W. S.] 

TellowB. 'Young oaks.' Sttss, — xi, 195. 



Tempered. 'Part of the field was what fanners call tempered; 
that is, the layer broken up in snmmer, and a bastard fallow giTen, 
part left till seed time, ana drilled on the flag.' — xliy. 369. 

Theare. A ewe. Beds.—xxxY. 234. 

Thrave. ' My own [oats] yield from ninety to a hundred pounds a 
thrave.* Chee. — xxxvi. 331. * Produce was fourteen threave to the 
acre, and four bushels in the threave* Lane — xliy. 17. [Proi>erl7 
2 stooks, or 24 sheayes. 

'' A daimen-icker in a thrave 
'S a ama' request.'* 

Bums, To a Mouse, L 15.— W. W. SJ 

ThroatyT Balls haying ' the skin too profuse and pendulous ' at the 
throat filofn.-~xxz. 333. 

ThmstingB. White whey. Cfhes. — xxviiL 15. [This Cheshire 
word should be Thrutchinge. It is the whey which is thruUhed or 
squeezed out whilst the cheese is in the last press (a powerful oneX 
It runs out nearly white, and is thicker than the first or green 
whey.— E. H.] 

Tiller. To branch from the root. Suff.^x. 203. 

Tine-tare. Vicia hireufa, L. Kent— I 315. 

Tippling. A mode of curing cloyer hay. — ^xxxi. 97. 

Toff and Choff The horses are ' fed entirely out of the bam, with 
what they call toff and choff here ; the cha^ and colder of Suffolk.' 
Kent (Betshanger). — xx. 244 ; also p. 2oO. See Colder. 

Trag. * To traga for fencing oflf the meadow.' — xxxix. 554. 

Trinding. * Winding the wool in tops, ready sorted in some d^;ree 
for fine drapers.' Here/, — xxyi 454. 

Troy-foille. A curious spelling of trefoil. — xxviL 522. [A later 
French form from trots /euiUea.—W, W. a] 

Twelmonthing. See Bndd. 

Twist ' A projection of flesh on the inner part of the thigh . . . 
shut well in the tioist: Suss.—xL 198. [I believe twist is properly 
the same as fork, i, e. place where the legs diyide. So also M. £. 
twist = twig, bough, off-shoot— W. W. S.J 

Twitch. Triticum repens, L., and Agrostis vulgaris, L. Derh, — 
xyiL 38. 

Vnder-Bpindled. See Spindle. 

Unkindly. ' The barley looks yeiy yellow and unkindly,^ — xxi. 80. 

Up-setting. ' They do not ridge up : what is called upsetting in 
some parts, that is, raising the centres much higher than the 
farrows.' — iii. 442. 


Vang^ in. ' The systein is to breed part, and vang in the rest ; take 
in.' />«;.— XXX. 186. [V^ang '^ fang, to take.— W. W. 8.] 

Vaim. * The venn land, being of a spungy consistency .... such 
[peat soils] as are under the vemxJ Dev. (Dartmoor). — ^xxix. 571. 

Walk-land. Unenclosed land. ' The use of crag is dropped, except 
for taking in new walk-land.* 8uf, — ^ii. 130. 

WarlodL Raphanus EapJianistrum, L. (1). Suff. — v. 251. 

Warp. The mud deposited by rivers. Line. — xxxii 383. 
[Prom toarp (verb), to throw, to cast up. — W. W. S.] 

Washes. * Washes or glades.' (WhitUewood Forest.) — xvi. 516. 
See Hal. (1). 

Water. A ^ common disorder' in sheep. — xxii. 472. 

Watered Keadows. The following occur in a paper on this subject : 

* The works of the meadow * — trenche& * Catchwork meadows * — 
meadows or dedivities watered from springs or small brooks. Wilts. 

* Flowing meadows * — ^lowland meadows watered from riyers. WUU, 
In these ' the water is thrown oyer as much of the meadow as it 
will coyer well at a time, which the waUirmien call a pitch of work,* 
. . . . ' The stream of water being usually small and manageable, 
few haiches are necessary.' — ^xxii. Ill — 113. 

Watermen. See Watered Keadows. 

Weather. To expose to the weather. ' After haying weathered it, 
I m'^e the greater part to my cows.* — ^xlii 168. Cfr. Weather (1) 

Wedder. A wether. Clieviots. — xix. 403. 

Westerns. Western-bred sheep. See Cnlls. 

Whig and whey. See Heave. 

Whin. A kind of stone on the Cheyiot Hills, of which there are 
two kinds — ' one called the blue, the other the brown or red rotten 
whin* — xxyii 178. Hence whin-stone. 

White land. ' Two or three hundred acres scattered in yarious spots, 
called white land, because green, and therefore not black, producing 
coarse grasses.' Yks. (Bipon). — ^xxyii. 292. 

\yWhole Hilk. Unskimmed milk. Ches, — ^xxyiii 12. 

Winrow. ' That piece of land lying between the headland and the 
hedge.' Ess. (Eelyedon).— xL 323. 

Witaere. ' Quartz.' Dev. (Tayistock). — xxx. 75. 

Works of the Keadow. See Watered Keadows. 

Wreest ' In ploughing . . . the farmers ... use a plough with 
wheels, on &e side of which is a piece of timber, which they call a 


wTMii : that is, I sa^pose^ rest, because the plough rests upon it 
againsfc the land, wmoh is ploushed or turned up.' ^lianet.) — 
xxvii. 518. IWreeit = wrest.— W. W. a] 

Tellow Bottle. Chrysanthemum seffetum^ L. Kent (Sandwich). — 
iv. 412. 

TellowB, The. A disease in sheep. — ^zxziiL 119. 

V Toak. * The wool on the moor (Dartmoor) 51b. on an aTsrage, in 
the yoak:—xja.. 73. Bee Yolk. 

/ Yoke. ' They commonly make what they caU two yokes a day, e. e. 
their servants and horses go to plough at six in the morning, and 
return home at ten : they go out again at two in the afternoon, and 
leave off at six. At both these times of coming out of the field, it 
is usual for the servants to eat a bit of bread and cheese, and drink 
a draught of beer, which they call a drinking.* (Thanei) — xxviL 

f Tolk. ' The greasy matter in wool.' Mutton ' tasting of the wool, 
that is the yo^A.'— xxx. 433. 

[The proper sense is yeUowness, as in an egg. — ^W. W. S.] 

Zool. A plough. Som. — zxz. 314. A. S. ndh, a plough. 







SURVEY. (1793—1813.) 

Aden. Courses. * What is here called four adersy viz. wheat, cloyer, 
oats, and fallow.' Durh. 68. 

Afterinpi. 'The second or last drawn milk^ provinciallj called 
afieringa,* Lane, 74. 

Aile. See Tyihing. 

Anisli-mows. 'They have a practice in Cornwall of putting up 
their wheat, barley, and all other kinds of ffrain, in the field, into 
what is called arrish-mawi. The sheayes are Duilt up into a regular 
solid cone, about twelve feet high ; the beards all turned inwards, 
and the but-end only exposed to the weather. The whole finished 
by an inverted sheaf of reed or com, and tied to the upper rows.* 
Comw. 63. See E. D. S. Gloss., B. vi., and arriahea in Hal. Ariah 
is a torm still in use for a stubble-field in Cornwall : in a Report for 
that county in the Mark Lane Eamreaa for Feb. 2, 1880, it repeatedly 
occurs : e,g,^ Farmers are very busy ploughing the ariahea by this 

Austry rods. Osier rods. ' Aitstry rods are smaller than thatohing 
rods cut out of hazel ; they are used to bind billet wood for the 
London market* Kent 50. 

Band. ' The proprietors of the underwood in the forest woods are 
empowered by the ancient laws and customs of the forest, to fence 
in each part or acUe as soon as it is cut, and to keep it in band, as it 
is here termed, for seven years.' Nhamp, 34. 

Banking^ the land. The occupiers have * destroyed the ant-hills 
(here called banking the land).' Rutl. 13. 

Bearbind. Polygonum Convolvulus^ L Staff, 82. 

Bear's muck. The fen land lies * upon a substratum, at different 
depths, of turf moor and bear* a mitck,* Camb, 155. 

Beat-burning. The same as denshiring. Dev. 21. 

y Berry. *The grain [of wheat] provincially the berry,* Wilts. 76. 

Blinking. The land ' is incumbered with a short blinking heath.' 
WiUa, 93. 


Blood-rot A form of the rot in sheep. Cainh. 111. 

Bine-buttons. 'Centaureas of sorts.' Staff, 97. Scahiosa mc- 
ciaa, L., is more likely meant: see Did, of Eng. PlafU-namea, 

Boon-days. Tenants in Cumberland are bound ' to the performance 
of yarious services, called boon-days, such as getting and leading 
the lord's peats, plowing and harrowing his land, reaping his com, 
haymaking, carrying letters, Jbc, Ac, whenever sommoned by his 

lord.' Cumh. 11. 

[This remnant of fSBudaliam is still in existence in Cheshire and 
Lancashire, though fiast becoming obsolete. The work so done by 
tenants is called boon'UH>rh There was generally a clause in £Eirm 
agreements by which the tenants were bound to do a certain number 
of days' boon-work for the landlord, according to the sise of thor 
hoIdiuA The following clause is from an ajgreement from year to 
year, cUited 1854 : the agreement is still in roroe, but, in dus caae, 
the clause has been allowed to drop into disusa ' The tenant to 
deliyer to the kmdlord on the Ist day of October, yearly and CTery 
year, one good and marketable cheese, without any allowanoe for 

V the same, and to do siz days' team work for the landlord.' Before 
the present Hiehway Act came into force, it wasoosfxnnary also for 
fbrmers to worK oil a pdttion, sometimes the whole, of their rates, 

'^ by doing boon^work upon tJie roads. This is now prohibited by the 
Act— R H.] 

Boosey. 'A specified close which the way-going tenant has for 
foddering 'his cattle in, under the name of a boose^f pasture.' 
Ikrb, 46. 

[The stalls in which cows are tied up are in Lancashire and 
Cheshire ^and presumably in Derbyshire) called booses. Boosey^ 
therefore, litenuly means that which appertains to, or is contiguous 
to, the bci>ses. The outgoing tenant gives up his land in February, 
with the exception of a boo^ pasture, or outlet, and his house and 
buildings in May ; his landloni being compelled, according to the 
custom of the country, to give him a field in which his cattle may 
be turned out to water and for exercise. The field selected is gener- 
ally, in fact always, one which is adjacent to the ehippons (oorw- 
houses). — R. H.] 

Brushed. ' The clover is brusJied, ploughed light.' Gflouc 37. 

Bulls. See Ironstone. 

"^ BnsheL ' By a bushel of potatoes is generally meant 901b. before 
^ - they are cleaned.' Lane, 31. 

^ *The busJid mentioned in Mr. Young's Farmer's Tour is only 

481b.'— /d 32. 

Butts. ' Laying down land in small ridges, called butte,^ Lane. 19. 

Caballa-balls. See Ironstone. 
Carnation Orass. See Hard Orass. 


Chase. ' A sfcone toougb,' used in cider-making, into which apples 
are thrown, and then crushed by a stone drawn by a horse into ' a 
kind of paste, proyincially muvt. Eeref, 40. 

ChiUerin. ' The drainage of the adjacent fen common, the chillerin, 
and the north fen.' Camb. (Waterbeach) 128. 

dap-bread. See Oirgle. 

Clottishness. ' The peculiar churlishness (proyincially elottishness) ' 
of the land. WiU$. 60. 

Clouts. See Ironstona 

Coarseness. See Oxun. 

Cookspire. 'An herb or grass by [the fieirmers] called eockspire 
{cocks foot), which is said to produce a relaxation of the shoulder ' 
in sheep. Camb. 157, 189. Cocksfoot is Dactylis glomenxta, L., but 
possibly some other plant is here meant. 

"^uoles. ' Beans .... are mowed with the scythe, and after being 
turned oyer are put up in coles in the fields like hay.' Nhamp, 
Appx, 17. 

Comb. A ridge of land in a ploughed field. Som, 158. 

Corn-grate. ' That kind of flat broken stones called, in Wiltshire, 
com graU,'' Wilts. 114. 

Cow-4owns. ' Cow commons, called cow downs.* Wilts. 17. 

Crabs. ' Crabs, or oukles, which grow upon the stems ' of potatoes. 
Lane. 30. Small green or purplish tubes formed in the axils of the 
lower leayes on the stems of potatoes. 

Dog's tail. ' Fescue {dog's tail).* Cairib. 100. The grass usually 
called Do^s tail is CyrMswus cristatus, L. 

Downsharing. Denshiring. K&nt. 37. 

Draw. ' The ditches are seen to work, or draw^ as we call it, as 
well as they do at first.' Ess. 21. 

Drawing ont. 'The beech woods in this county are exceedingly 
well managed, by continually clearing (which they call drawing out) 
the beech stems . . . where they stand too thick.* Berks. 54. 

Dressed. Gleaned. The horses in ploughing are ' about two in the 
afternoon . . . taken home, fed, and dressed, as it is here usually 
called.* Ess. (by 0. Vancouyer) 212. 

Duffil-gprass. Holeus lanatiis, L. 'The grasses chiefly coltiyated 
are rye and duffil grass* Durh. — 33. * Proyincially duffieid grass.' 
W. Yks. 48. 

Dnnl Sheep ' dying dunt (as the shepherds term it), that is dizzy.' 
Camb. 33. 


Eriff. Galium Apanttey L. Staff. (Stafford) 95. 

EteL Stubble. ' The bean eichs well cleaned in the autumn, and 
sown again with wheat : a small portion of these elcJies are occa- 
sionally sown with tares.* E$$, (by G. Yancouyer) 50. 

Brer-grasa. Raygrass. Lolium perenney L. 8om, 157. 

Tinelied. Cheshire cows have ' almost universally finehed or white 
backs.' Che$. — 31. [These cows are now rarely seen. — 'Si, H. J 

Flag. ' The.;!a^, as the furrow slice is called.' Suff. 25. 

[Hence flag in the sense of flat paving-stone; originally a flat 
piece of cut turfl— W. W. S.] 

Flawing. Flowing. ' The oaks are all cut in the flaieing season^ for 
the bark of all sizea' KerU 97. Oaks are usually felled when the 
sap is rising, so that the bark may be easily stripped off. 

Fork. ' Summer fallowing of turf, or what in Cheshire is termed a 
fork,' Chet, 16. 

Four-tooth. A two-year-old sheep. Dors. 8. 
Foxea. See Ironstone. 

French wheat. Polygonum Fagopyrumy L. Staff. (Stafford) 83. 
Frog-ill. See WoodeviL 
^ Fronie. Peas and beans mixed. Olouc. 35. 

{ Gaiooign. A kind of cherry (1). ' Oak, gascoign, red birch, beech, 
and hornbeam.* .... 'Ash, chesnut, wUlow, oak, asp, and 
gaacoign.^ — Kent 49. Cfr. gctacoigneB and gaskins in Diet, of Eng. 

Oated. * Barley and oats are gated.* See Cktted in Ann. of Agric. 
(p. 101). Cumh. 22. Nhumb. 36. N. Yka. 38. 

Oin-ballfl. Calves when transported for long distances ' are main- 
tained frequently for ei^ht or ten days together on nothing but 
wheat-flour, and gin, mixed together, which are here called ^m- 
balls.* Nhamp. 51. 

Oirgle. A misprint for, or a corruption of, girdle, which itself is a 
corruption of griddle. * A thin flat plate of iron called a girgU, 
under which a fire is put, and [an oatmeal] cake is baked, by the 
^ name of dap-bread.* Westm. 39. 

Goggles. A disease in sheep. Dora. 1 1 . Wilts. 23. 

Gold, Wild. See Joy. 

Good hand. ' The complaint too often made of Wiltshire corn that 
it has not a goctd hand, viz., that instead of being dry and slippery, 
it is moist and rough.' WiUa. 96. 


GMpe. * They lay [the wheat] down in griper as they call it, with 
the ears hanging into the furrow.' Wilts. 76. See Grip (1) in 

Orowan. ' The upper stratum of soil consists of a light black earth, 
intermixed with small gravel, the detritus of the granite or growan. 
Hence they call this soil by the name of grotvan.* Comw. 23. 
Also Devon. Dev, 13. 

Onm. The sheep have ' bones clean from wool, opposed to what is 
now called gum or coarseneis,* Nhamp, 53. 

Oattie. A disease in cattle. Here/, 76. 

Hadder. Heather. Ccdluna vtdgariSf Salisb. Nhumh, 20. 

Hard Grass. ' Various sorts of seg grasses, provincially Tiard grase^ 
iron grass, carTuxticn. grctss.* Staff, 27. 

Hayne. ' His plan is to winter hayne fifteen acres.' [The word] * is 
old English, and found in all books and laws relating to forests.' 
Som. 114. See Hayn in Lisle and Hal. 

Heoks. 'The young horses and brood mares [are fed] in ?ieck8 
under a shade.' JEeref, 25. See Heck in HaL 

^Hell-iakes. Spring-teeth rakes 'by the lower class of people are 
called hell-rdkes, on account of the great quantity of work they 
dispatch in a short time.' Leic, 21. [Sure to be a false etymology; 
spelt helerake (= heel-rake) in Eitzherbert. — ^W, W. S.] 

^ Hitching the fields. ' A kind of agreement among the parishioners 
to withhold turning stock out, whilst particular crops are growing, 
and by which means a few brush turnips, clover, and vetches are 
sown.' Berks. 29. 

Hobbed. ' When they are a fortnight old, the calf is hobbed upon 
skim milk.' Suss. 75. 

v^ Hog. A one-year-old lamb. Dors. 8. See HaL 

Hollandtide. AU Saints' Day. Herts. 28. See Allhollantide in 
Ellis, p. 1. 

Hards. * Leaving the hurds of Denny Abbey upon the east.' Camb. 
(Waterbeach) 129. 

Husky. See Sword-grass. 

IroE Grass. See Hard Grass. 

IRONSTONE, SORTS OF. [At Penshurst], 'advancing up the hill, 
the sand rock is 21 feet in thickness, but so friable as easily to be 
reduced to powder. On this immediately a marl sets in, in the 
different depths of which the iron-stone comes on regularly in all 
the various sorts as follows : 1. Small balls, provincially twelvt foots. 


because so many feet distant ficom the first to the last bed. 2. Orm/ 
lifn&-st<me, used as a flux. 3. Foace$, 4. BiggiU. 5. Bulh. 6. 
Caballa hcdU. 7. TFAi^&um, what tripoli, pro^rly calcined and 
treated, is made of. 8. Chuta. 9. Pity, This is the order in 
which the different ores are found.* Suaa, 13. 

Tver. Bay-grasSy Lolium perenne, L Cornw. 33. 

Joisted. Agisted. Cattle may be kept 'through the months of 
summer upon joMfed fields at a cheap rate.' Westm. 21. 

Joy. Ranunculus arvensis, L. * A yellow weed called joy or wild- 
gold.' E$$. (Lan^on Hills), by 0. YancouYer, 86. It is stiU so 
called in that neighbourhood. Oye is another form of the same 
word : see Did. of Eng, Plant-names, 

Kempy. ' Some kempy hairs being intermixed amongst some fledoes 
of the wooL' OunA. Id. See Kemp$ in HaL 

Knee-aiok. Weak in the joint ' The wheat crop is knee-eiek^ that 
is, not strong enough in straw to support itsell' WiUa, 59. 

Laine. ' That the iaxm shall be sown in four regular laines^ or divi- 
sions^ to prevent the ground from being too much exhausted.' 
8u9$, 25. See Ann, o/Agric. (Gloss, iy.) 

Land-ditohing. 'Under-ditching, or as it is here called, landr 
ditching,' Eu. (by C. Vancouver) 203. 

Ling. Eleocharis codspifosus, Link. Nhumh, 20. 

List-wall. A wall fence covered with a turf, ' partly dry and partly 
cemented with mortar, or what is oommoxily called a lUt waU,' 
8om, 62. 

Liver sand. ' The sand veins ' which are ' deep and tough, and of 
the nature called in Wilts liver sand.* Wilts. 63. 

Looker. 'A looker or superintendant.' Ess, (by C. Vancouver) 
167. See Looker in Ann. of Agric, (Gloas. iv.) 

Lvg. ' Covering the same with strong lugs or poles.' Sam, 68. 
See Lug (3) in Hal. 

Mayweed. A sea-weed (a species of ' Fucus ') used as manure in 
Northumberland. Khumh, 45. 

^ Meal-shudes. ' Preserved in oatshells (vulgarly called meal shades) 
or sawdust' Lane. 32. [In Lancashire, and COieehire also, bacon 
and hams are often stored away in boxes fiJled with shmdes or the 
husks of oats. — ^B. H.] 


lEiddli]i« ilL See SiekneM. 

[oorband. ' What is here called a moorband .... this stratum^ 
which is from six inches to a foot thick, is of a fenraginous ochreous 
appearance, probably containing much iron, and wherever found is 
attended with great sterility.* JSf, Tka. 12. 

bor-oling. Cattle and sheep on Dartmoor 'become hide-bound 
and costiYe, what is called the moor-cling,^ Dev. 54. [From cling, 
to compress, shrink : ' till fieunine ding tiiee.' — Macbeth, Y. y. 40. — 
W. W. S.] 

Mo88. Eriophorum voffinatum, L. Nhumb, 20. 

Muckle. To cover with muck. ' To mucMe [winter vetches] over 
with loose strawey dxmg, to preserve them from the frost' WiJu, 51 . 

Must See Chase. 

A novice. Heref, 55. 

Orohifl Grass. * Mr. Peacey has likewise cultivated the orchis grass, 
a broad-leaved grass, tiiat springs directly after the scythe, in 
mowing ground.' Ghmc. 15. 

[The description points to Dadylis glomerata, L., which is most 
remarkable for shooting up into tufts directiy a meadow is mown. 
It will grow an inch or two in a night. — B. H.] 

Onkle. See Crabs. 

Outlet. * A baie pasture field near the buildings ' into which cows 
are turned. Chea. 33. [Still in use. In farm agreements ottUet is 
generally the word used instead of the vernacular booaey pasture, — 

Onw. Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L. * A particular weed, common in 
many pastures, called in the language of the country, ouw. The 
leaf of this herb destroys the liver, and causes the animal's death 
in the course of twelve months. On opening the sheep, this leaf 
is found attached to the Hver, and tnmsformed into an animal 
having apparent life abd motion, and retaining its shape as an 
herb'(!). L of Man, 21. 

* Ouw, the herb marsh pennywort, said to be injurious to sheep 
that eat it.' — Cregeen's ManksVictumary. 

/Oz-gang. * An 07>gang is generally used for a certain quantity of 
' land, equal to twen^ statute acres.' E, Yka. 42. 

^ Pack of COWS. *' A dairy of cows, or a pack of cows, as the term is 
in Cheshire.' Ches. 34. 

Paterish. ' The being paterish A paterish sheep appears 

totally deprived of itis senses, and is continually turning round 
instead of forward. This disorder is occasioned by a bladder of 


water that surrouadfl the brain.* 8u89, (South Downs) &i. See 
Ann. o/Agrie, (Gloss, iy.) 

Pheltrie. A ' disorder in neat cattle and horses.' Line. 29. 

Pieklook. ' In Herefordshire the dearest class of wool [is] called 
pirJelock.* Middx, (P. Foot) 61. Because the lock$ are jpieked or 

Piea. ' These are large heaps of potatoes laid upon the surface of 
the ground, and cuefully ooyerod with straw.' N. Tks, 44. See 
Fie (2) in HaL 

Pin Fallow. 'Ploughing after yetches, cloyer, or beans, two or 
three times, to pr epa re for a succeeding crop of wheat.' Som, 159. 
HaL explains it ' Winter-fiBdlow.' — North. 

Pits. Potatoes are 'left in the field coyered up in long narrow 
ridges of earth, proyincially piU,* WilU. 52. 

Pity. See Ironstone. 

Placfaing. Pleaching. ' Laying old hedges.' Here/. 30. 

Pooking. Putting into cocks. ' The price is seldom higher than 
eighteen pence per acre for mowing, and one shilling for pooking.* 
WilU. 90. See Pook in Lide, 

Pot-dnng. 'Yard dung, or, as it is here called, |70^ dung.* Wilts- 61. 

ftnarter AIL A disease in calyes, ' which is a mortification begin' 
nine at the hock, and proceeding with astonishing rapidity to the 
yital parts.' 8om. 109. 

ftuick-wood. ' White-thorn, proyincially quick-wood ' (for hedging). 
N. Yks, 58. 

Bafter. * They rafter the land as they call it^ that is, they plough 
half of the land, and turn the grass side of the ^ploughed fiurov 
on the land that is left unploughed.' WUta. 61. 

Bickets. See Woodevil. 

Rider. * All the harrows being fastened together with a lay oyer, 
proyincially a rtder.^ Wilta, 69. 

Biggits. See Ironstone. 

Bubbly. The chalk ' will always remain in small broken pieces in 
the land, making the land loose, or, as it is proyincially called, 
rubhly.' Wilt8.e3. 

/ Bon-ridge. ' Commons, or what was formerly known by the name 
of run-^ridgt property.' Ferih%h.^ Nhamp., Appx. 16. 


Sale. * The forest underwood, through the whole sale, or part which 
is cut' Nhamp. 34. See also Band. 

Scot 'In Peyensey, and generally in all the lerels, is raised 
a tax by the acre, called Scot, both general and particular/ 
Suss. 22. 

Searpines. 'The cold easterly winds .... in some places have 
acquired the name of sea-pines^ from the slow progress vegetation 
nuLkee, whenever they continue for a few weeks. Nhumb. 9. 

>/ Severalty. ' Bringing the dispersed properties of each person into 
fewer pieces, £roed from all rights of commonage, or, as it is called 
in Wiltshire^ putting the lands in severalty/ Wilts. 14. See 
Sevtrals in Hid. 

Shaking. See WoodeviL 

Sharei. * In a dry [seed-time] the barley sown on the sand land 
frequently comes up in two shares, and ripens unequally. ' Wilts. 76. 

Shearling. ' Sixty wedders of one year old, here called shearlings* 
Nhamp. 25. 

Sheep-sleight ' A lar^ piece of down land called Keesley has been 
from time immemorial kept and let for an s^fpsAssieiitshe^sleight . . . 
every acre of the sheep-sUight is lett.' Wuts, 86. HaL has sheep's 

Shravey. Land on the South Downs ' provinciaUy called shravey, 
stoney, or gravelly.' Suss. 12. See Hal. 

Shudei. See Meal-shndes. 

Sieknesf, or Middling-ilL The black-water in sheep. Westm, 24. 

Skegs. A kind of oat. 

' Skegs appear to be the Avetia stipi/ormis of Linnaeus. ' Notts. 64. 

Skirting. ' A sort of half ploughing.' Dev. 21. 

Slake. * Slake or mud left by the tide.' Cumb. 30. 
[Allied to Slack.— W. W. S.] 

SUnkers. Cows which cast their calves. Ches. 34. 

[The untimelv foetus of a cow is in Cheshire known as slink or slink- 
veal; and the lowest class of butchers who deal in diseased meat, 
and in cows which have been killed '* to save Iheir lives '' are called 

^ slink'butcJiers, from the supposition (possibljr not unfounded^ that 
they dress and sell such veal as is above described. Metaphorically, 

^ foul luiguage is called ' slink.' — ^B. H.] 

Small balls. See Ironstone. 

Snails. Flukes in liver. ' The liver has not been infected with 
the snails, or plaice. * Camb. 111. 

Sough. A drain, either closed or open. 'The judicious fanner 
soughs his land in the fallow season .... depending upon the more 
efficacious method of keeping the land dry by soughs.* Derb. 16. 



BqmalL ' A spew, » squaU, or boggy piece of giomid.* Middx. (by 
P. Foot) 45. [Also called goXL-^^R, W. S.] 

Btatatmaa. * Hie nnaller landowner, proTinciallj ^fotemas.' Iksh. 
14. Aleo in Wtt^. (46). Still in use in Cvmib. Sea HaL 

StaTel. ' A gtavel bam for wheat, built on stone pillars, to keep out 
rats and mice.' WUU, 96. 

/ Stint. Faj. ' A child's diniy either for braiding neta or spinning 
yam or hemp, is fourpence a day.' &uff, 78. Boys ' 9iUnUd at 
sixpence a day.' 76. 

/ Stitched. Stacked or bundled. * For pease and beans dycked^ from 
2s. 6d. to 5s. per acre.' Warw. 23. See StUch (3) in Hal. 

Snsuner-fleld. ' In the four-field husbandry, where the doyer k 
sown the second year» and mowed the third, the field becomes in 
the fourth year what is called in WHtshire a mmmer fidd^ and is 
ploughed up at different times.' WitU. 59. 

^ Sweetened. ^ Chalk is well known as a cortector of land that has 
acidity in it, or such, as the Wiltshire fiumers express it, " wants 
to be awedefud" to make it bear barley.* WiUs. 63. 

Sword-graae. ' Large ant-hills, producing sour, coarse, husky sedge, 
or tword^grcuB.* Ztnc 74. Probably some species of Carer— not flie 
atPord-groM of Tennyson's ' New Teckt^B Eve* as to which see Did, of 
Eng. Plani-namee, 

>/ Taaker. A worker by the task or piece. ' Toshers or labourers by 
combust .... take the wheat by the acre to reap.' IFtfts. 89. 
See Taaker in EUi$. 

V Tenantry. ' Common-field husbandry, or, as it is called in Wilt- 
shire, ienav^y.^ WHU, 14. 

TilL ' A compost of earth and lime, mixed.' Zanc. 27. 

TinseL ' Having stone provided in the quay, and HtmA crop for 
fencing.' Derh, 46, 

Tonsure. 'The hay*crop, provincially the tonsure,* Smn. 164. 

Trains. ^A counter stream called th« trains* in Lynn Harbour. 
dumb. Appx, 19. 

Trench. ' The division of the lots [of underwood] are made by 
cutting a number of small passages or openings called ^reneheiJ' 
Nhamp. 34. 

Tuible*canr. A tumbril A one-horse cait, 

I We sm)pose they had the name of tumbh o«rr« from the axel 
being maoe fast to the wheels, and the whole turning or tuniUing 
round together.' Ctmh 31. See Hal. 

Turbary. The waste land in this county (Qomwall) ' would produce 


an annual rent of £37,500 per annum, and leave a sufficiency of 
turbary for fuel' Comw. 68. Hal. has * Twrheryy a boggy ground.' 

Twelve foots. See Ironstone. 

Two shear. Sheep shorn twice. Beds. 32. 

Tything. They ^set up the sheafs in doable rows, usually ten 
sheaves together (provinoially a tything) ^ for the convenience of the 
lything-TDO^ ; ana the sheaves so set up are called an axle* Wilt$. 

y^ Venville. ' Those who have a right of common [on Dartmoor] are 
called venvUle tenants, and pay an acknowledgment of threepence a 
year for as many sheep as they choose to send, and subject to the 
drifk. .... It IS customary to take from those not in venvUle one 
shilling.' Dev, 49. See Venvil in Hal. 

Whitebom. See Ironstone. 

>/ 'White grain. 'Wheat, barley, rye, and oats.' Huvtingdonah, 
(Stone) 26. 

Wift. A band used for binding 'bavins.' Kent 48. Hal. has 
* WiffB, withies. Kent: 

Woodevil, Frog-ill, Rickets, Goggles, or Shaking. Names in 
various counties for the same disease in sheep. Dev, 75. 

Wood-sonr. ' The strong, cold, wood-tour land.' Wtlta, 50. 

Yellows. 'A disorder [in cows] called the yellowa,' 8om. 110. 
HaL says ' A disorder in horses.' 









VOL. II. pp. 720—727. 

The purpose of the following glossary, or dictionary of provincial 
terms, is to furnish the explanations which readers of local agricultural 
literature often need, and without which they are either puzzled, or 
misled by such merely local terms as have no proper place in the Eng- 
lish language. However far from perfect the following list may be, it 
has not been without considerable labour, and indeed personal applica- 
tion in every important district in the kingdom, that it has been com- 
piled. Successive circulars have been issued, in which information on 
local names, usages, &c., have been asked, and to which instructive 
repKes have been very generally received. There is no doubt that a 
good dictionary of agricultural provincialisms wotild be of material 
value in the explanation of our agricultural literature, the lessons of 
which are often obscure, if they do not positively mislead, owing to a 
misapprehension of the terms in which they are conveyed. The follow- 
ing is a first attempt, admitting, no doubt, of great improvement, which 
it will probably hereafter receive. There are two classes of provincial 
names and words not mentioned here ; for which we refer to the articles 
Wbiohts and measures, and Weeds*: — 

Addle (Yks.), to earn. [See Hal (1).] 

Afteringfl {West Eng., &c.), last drawn milk. 

Ailing-iron {Wancy &c.), hand implement for hummelling barley. 

Ails {Wilts,, Glou.y &c.), the beard of barley. 

Aims — hames — the arms that hold the traces to the collar. Pin Aims, 
those on the middle horses in a team. 

[• The * "Weights and Measures ' form No. VII. of the present series : the 
names of weeds are incorporated Into the E. D. S. Dictionary of English 

K 2 


Aither {North Eng.), a coaise of cropping, or portion of the rotation. 

Aiver (Scotl.), a noble-looking saddle-horse ; a gelding. 

Allen (Suff.), old land ; grass land lately broken np. [See Allen and 
Old'land in Hal., and see Olland below.] 

Angs {Cumh.)y beard of barley. 

Ariih-mow {Comic, \ 200 sheaves in a circular rick. [See Agne. 
Survey y p. 117.] 

Aries {Scotl.), money given as ' earnest ' on hiring. [See Hal.] 

Amui of a waggon {Wilts., &c.), those parts of the axle-tree that go 
into the wheels. 

[Formerly they were simply a continnation of the wooden axle, 
thinned so as to work in the hollow of the nave ; now they are 
made of iron let into the thick wooden axle. The foundation of a 
cart is very durable, and in Cheshire, and no doubt elsewhere, there 
are still many very old carts in existence with the original wooden 
arms. — R. H,] 

Arrish {Comw.\ same as 'Bfl^ifh 

Aul or Orl {Here/,) ; Owler {Lane,), an alder-tree. 

Avald {West ScotL), an avoid crop is the second white crop in sac- 
cession on the same land. 

Avel or Havel {Suff., Nor/.), the beard of barley. 

Awart {PertJish., &c.), see Avald. Also applied as Awelled. 

Awelled {Dum/riessh.). A sheep is said to be awelled when cast, 
that is, lying helplessly on its back. 

[The accent is on the second syllable. It is allied to over^weUed, 
wnich is used in the same sense. — ^W. W. S. See Bi^welted.] 

{Suff., Ess., &c.), a mode of ploughing, in which the 
earth once turned is simply thrown back again. 

Bag, to cut standing com with a heavy hook, using a wooden hook 
to hold the com by. In Lane, to cut stubble with the scythe and 

[The hook used for cutting is called a hagging-hooh ; it resembles 
a sickle in shape, but has a broader blade with a smooth instead of 
serrated edge. — ^K H. See Bag (2) in Hal.] 

Baikie {Scotl), the stake to which the cow is fastened in the byre. 

Bail {Suff., Nor/, &c.), the bow of a scythe ; the handle of a bucket ; 
also the uprights to which cows are fastened in byres. 

Balk, a narrow strip of un ploughed land, as a separation between 
ploughed ridees. In Yks, a contrivance in byres for confining the 
oow^s head wnile being milked. 


Balk and Bnrrall (ScotL), ridge and furrow alternately. 

Balking or Balk-ploughing {Suff,, Ess., Kent, &c.), careless plough- 
ing ; see also Raftering. 

Balks (haux) (Ches.), a hay-loft. [See Balks in Worlidge, p. 75.] 

Bandwin (Nkumb.), a band of six reapers occupying a man to bind 
after uiem. 

Bannnt {West JEng.), the walnut-tree. 

Barfln (Tks,), a collar to draw by. [Also barf hams (Durh.), harri- 
ham (North), HaL From A.S. beorgan, to protect ; and hame, — W. 
W. S. See Bragham.] 

Barrow-pigs, boars or he-pigs castrated. [See Barrow-hog in Ellid, 
p. 4.] 

Barih (Here/.), a sow spayed when young. 
Barfh (Suff,), a shelter for cattle. 

Barton (West Eng,), a yard or enclosed space of ground, a cow 
barton, a hay barton, &c. In Dev, applied to a demesne or largo 

Bassie (Scotl.), an old horse. 

Batlins (Suff,), the loppings of trees for firing. 

Bats (Notts.), bundles of straw thatch. 

Batterpins (Here/.), draught trees. 

Bavins (Suff., Glouc., Wilis., &c.), batlins tied up into faggots. 

Bay (Suff., Ess,, Nor/., &c.), the space between the threshing-floor 
and the end of the bam ; also the threshing-space itself. [See Bay 
. in Ellis, p. 4.] 

Bean-bmsh (Wane.), land on which beans have been growing. 

Bean-sharps {Stirlingsh.), the empty pods of beans. 

Bear's Mnok {Fens of Line.), a peculiar peat found beneath the fen- 
land. [See Agric, Survey, p. 117.] 

[Beastlmgs. See Beestings.] 

Beaver {Line.), a term applied to woad if sufficiently fine. 

Book (Kent), horseshoe. In North Eng. a brook. 

Beestings (Glouc., &c.), the first milk after calving. In Line. 
Beatings or Beastlings. 

Beefle, wooden mallet. 

Beild (Scotl), a shelter. 

Belfrey (North Line.), waggon-shed without roof, but covered by a 
com rick. [See Hal.] 


Belt See Burl. 

Bents, Bennets, Benfles, the dry stalks of grass remjaining in pasture 
after summer feeding. [See Bent in Diet, of Eng, PlafU-name$,'] 

Berry (Nhunib,), to thresh by flaiL [See Berry (2) in HaL] 

[Bestings. See Beestings.] 

Bett (Here/.), to pare the green sward with a breast-plough. 

Bin or Bingy a space in a barn partitioned off at the side ; also a 
wooden receptacle of any kind. 

Black Victual (Scotl.), pease and beans. 

Blades (Sal,), the shafts of a cart. [SoutL Hal] 

Blend com {Yka,), same as Meslin. 

Blendings ( Tks.), beans and pease grown together. 

Blooth {Dors,)y blossom. \Dei\ Hal.] 

Blow, blossom. 

Bluffs, shades for horses' eyes. 

[Probably does not mean what are usually known as ' blinkers,' 
but shades put over horses' faces to prevent them straying. At 
any rate in Cheshire it is no uncommon thing to see a rambling 
cow with a square piece of sacking hung from her horns so as to 
prevent her seeing her way in front. She is then said to be 
'blufted.'— B. H. Hal. however has ' Blufted, hoodwinked ; Uuf9, 
blinkers. Zinc.'] 

Boat (Scotl.) f tub for meal or meat. 

Bodkins, draught-trees. 

[Body-horse. Bee Horse.] 

Boll (Scotl.) f a measure containing four bushels of wheat, six of 
oats, &c. 

Bolting, a small bundle or truss of straw. See Brawler. 

Bondager (Scotl.), woman-worker living on a farm, engaged for 
several months together. 

Booning (Line), carting material for repairing the highways. [See 
Boon-days in Agric. Survey ^ p. 118.] 

Boosts (Lane), stalls in a cow-house, rising from the staddle to 
insure ventilation of the rick. 

[There is evidently some confusion here. A staddle is a frame- 
work on which a rick or stack is built to keep it from the damp 
ground, and as a protection from rats. A cow- stall placed in the 
middle of a stack to ensure ventilation is an absurdity. The word, 
probably, has two meanings: (1) a cow-stall, but the Lanc^ and 
Ches. word is hoose^ plural booses; I have never heard the form 


boosts, (2) A flue or yacancy in a stack to ensure ventilation. 
These flues are not unfrequent, and are made by placing a sheaf of 
com or straw on end, and building up a com or haystack around 
it. When the stack reaches the height of the sheaf the latter is 
drawn up a stage, and more com or hay piled round. The process 
is continued to the top of the stack, and when the sheaf is finally 
pulled out at the apex, it leaves a chimney from bottom to top 
through which the air passes and keeps the rick cooL — R H.] 

Boosy or Boosin (Here/., Ches,, &c.), the manger of a cattle stall. 

[There is some confusion here. Booae is the C?ies. word for a 
stall. Boos{e)y and booein(g) are adjectives, meaning that which is 
contiguous to a boose. — £. H. See Boosey in Agric, Survey, p. 118.] 

Boss (Ware,), Bossing clover is taking the heads off. 

Bosses {Lothian), the frame of wood on corn staddle. 

Bothy (ScotL), lodge for unmarried ploughmen. 

Bottle {Suff.y Nhumh., Stirlingsh.f Line., &c.), a feed of hay or grass 
twisted together. [See Bottle (4) in Hal.] 

Bouds {Nor/.f Suff.), weevilS; often found in com and malt. 

Bont, a turn in ploughing, a double turn, a circuit of the plough ; a 
ridglet thus made. , 

Bowing (ScotL), system of letting the produce of dairy. 

Bosen {Seotl.), wooden dish for milk. 

Bragham (braffam) {Dev,\ hoise-collar. In Scoil. Brecham. [See 

Braird (ScotL), the shooting forth of the young com, &c. 

Branks (Scotl), portion of head-gear for a horse or cow when 
tethered. [See Yangle.] 

Brashy {Glotte,), stony, applied to soil. 

[Branches. See Broaches.] 

Brawler {Som.), a sheaf of straw weighing seven pounds. 

Brawn, a boar. [Lane,, Ghes,, &c. — R. H.] 

Breach or Lent Crops {East Eng,, &c.), all spring crops. 

[Breach-land. See Breicht-land.] 

Break, the space allotted as a pen for sheep on turnips ; a ridge of 
land ; heavy harrow. 

Break-far {Aherdeensh., Banffsk.), same as Balking, Baftering, or 

Brecham {Lothian), a hoi-se collar. [See Barfin and Bragham.] 


Brook {Norf,y Suff.\ a large field. In Nhumb.y &c., a poitian of a 
field cultiyated by itselt [See Hal.] 

Brood {Linc.)f a swathe in mowing, or a single row of woik done. 

Broiclit-land (Line,), land newly broken up from grass. In Comw. 

BridlOi the head of a plough. 

Brimmod, covered by a boar. [Lane., Ches,, &c. — ^R H.] 

Bristlo-bat (Siufs.), a stone to sharpen a scythe with. 

Broaehos or Branchos {Comw,, Suff,, Ess,, Norf,), rods of hazel, 
&c., split and twisted for use by the thatcher (spike rods). 

Broad-sharing {Kent, &c.), ploughing shallow and wide with a 
broad share, without turning it over. 

Broomstriking {Kent), using the plough without its mould-board. 

BrougUy {Tk8,\ stony or gravelly. 

Browso {Dev,), underwood. 

Bucht (ScotL), a fold for sheep or cattle. 

Bnok {Suff,, Norf.), the body of a cart or wa^on. pn Ches, the 
front part of the beam of a plough from which the norses pull. — 
xL H.J 

Bnoklos {Wore), thatching-spikes. 

Bnokstalling (Nor/.), Bnckhoading, Bucking {Suff., Ess,), cutting 
down live fences near the ground. 

Bud {East Eng.), a yearling calf. 

Budgo {Suss.), a cask on wheels to carry water in. 

Buist {Seotl.), to mark sheep with letters in tar ; to brand. 

[BuU-staig. See Stag.] 

Bnmblos, covers for horses' eyes. 

Bur {Here/.), a pollard. 

Burl, to cut away the dirty wool from the hind parts of a sheep. 
[See Burh (1), a knot or bump, &c. Hal.] 

Burling {Line.), a yearling heifer. 

[BurralL See Balk.] 

Bury {Warw.), a manure heap, an earth heap. 

Butt {Cfhes.), a ridge, or land between two furrows. 

Button, to put hay into small heaps after being raked into rows. 


Syre [North], a cow or cattle-hoiise. 

Bytack (Here/X a farm taken in addition to another farm [on which 
the tenant aoes not reside. Hal.]. 

Cade-lamb (Line., &c.), lamh brought up by hand. 
Callender (Ess.), the top soil from a clay or gravel pit 
Callow (Nor/., Suff,), the soil covering the subsoiL 
Cam (Tka.), a bank. [See Cam (1) in Hal.] 

Cambril or Oambril, a butcher's stretch to hang carcasses from or by. 

[In the north the hocks of animals are called cambriU or gam^ 
hrtls, and the piece of wood (stretch) referred to, also called by the 
same names, is passed through the back sinews of the hocks. — 

Cant (Kent), to let out land to mow, hoe, &c. — hence Cant-farrow^ a 
divisionEd furrow. 

Caps (Cumh,), same as Chobbins. 

Car (Notts.), grass-land, not meadow. 

Carr (Nor/., Suff.), a plantation j as an alder-carr. 

Car86| alluvial land. [As in the Carse o' Gowrie.] 

Cast (Scotl., &c.), aged ewes are cast and sold from a breeding flock. 

[The cast here probably refers to turning a sheep on its back 
purposely in order to look at its teeth to ascertain its age. — B. H.] 

[Casting-down. See deaving.] 

Cattle-reed (Scotl), cattle-straw-yard. 

Cansh (Leic.), a small rick ; to eatish is to stack. 

Cavie (Scotl.), hen-coop. 

Cavings, the chaff, broken ears, and siftings of corn. Caving is the 
act of separating, by cavtn^-rake or cavtTi^-sieve, these cavinga from 
the grain. [See Cog and Cavings in EUis, p. 10.] 

Cess (Suff.), a layer of any material 

[Bricks, slates, boards, or other articles piled up neatly are in 
Chee. said to be ceased. — ^B. H.] 

Chaddy, gravelly. 

Chalder (Nor/., Suff.), to crumble with frosts, &c. 

Chaimelly (Tks.), gravelly. 

Chats (Glouc., Here/., Lane), small twigs ; small potatoes. 

Chaying (Ches.), corresponding to Caving, above. 
[Frequently pronounced cheeving, — E. H.] 


Cheeie-eowl (Wed Eng.), a tub in which the cheese is made. 

Chetflt (Ckee.), cheeee-yat [Hal. has Ches/ord. North.] 

Chessart {Scotl. ), a cheese-vat. 

ChilTer {West Eng,), an ewe-lamb. 

Chiim or Chit {West Eng.\ to bud or germinate. 

Chives {Nor/.), the roots of kiln-dried malt. 

Chobbins {Suff.), grains not coming out of the husk. 

.Chumps {West Eng.), logs of wood for burning. 

Chun {Dwnfriessk.)y the sprout or germ of potatoes or com. 

dag {Line.), see Burl. 

Clamp, a store of roots; a manure-heap; a heap of bricks burned 
without kilns. 

[Clamp in Ches. is a large round brick oven in which draining 
tiles are l>amt instead of in the open kilns, which are only used for 
the burning of bricks. Bricks are, howeyer, sometimes burnt in 
dampB, and they are then of a.superior quali^. — R H.] 

dat {Scotl), a hoe. 

Clat {West Eng.), cow-dung; also turf. 

deaving or Casting down, ploughing to the outsidesy and from the 
middle, of the ndge. 

deeding {Fi/esL), mould-board for plough ; also cover of thrashiDg 

dog-wheat {Nor/., &c.), cone wheat 

[Cone wheat is a bearded variety, so named, according to Lowe 
{Practical Agricutturtj p. 324), from the conical form of ito spika— 

dombs {Siiss.), iron traps for vermin. 

doot {Scotl.), hoof of ox, sheep, pig, &c, 

dose, a yard for cattle ; an enclosed field. 

doyer-eddish {Ess.), a piece of clover having been fed or mown once. 

dow {Tks.), sluice. 

Coats {Stirlingsh.), same as Cavings and Colder. 

Cob, a compact p\mchy horse ; a basket used for carrying cha£^ and 
for broad-casting wheat ; the seed heads of clover ; small tick of 
com ; clay and straw chaff made into bricks. 

Cobbing {Ess.), cutting the tops of pollards. 

Cobble-trees {Yks.), draught-trees. 


Co'b'by (Line.), applied to wheat, means short and fulL 

Cog^ or Cavuig Biddle, the largest-sized barn-sieve. 

Colder {Suff,, Nor/,), same as Caving. 

Goleing (Scoil,), putting hay into cocks. 

[Cone Wheat. See Clog Wheat] 

Convertible Land, loamy soila 

Cooper (Dumfriessh.), a horse imperfectly castrated. 

Goosar (ScotL), a stallion. 

C<H>ft (Lane.), a hornless beast. 

Cop, of straw (Kent), the straw from sixteen sheaves. 

Copsing (Dors.)^ mowing thistles, &c., in the field. 

Cord, a certain (very variable) quantity of cut wood piled up ; see 
Weights and Measures [p. 170]. 

Cosh {Stiff,) y seeds in the husks* {Mid. Eng,)^ empty husks of 
beans, pease, &c. 

Cosp {Here/.), the head of a plough. [In Ches. the cross-piece at 
the top of a spade-handle. — B. H.] 

Coup Cart (ScotL) ^ a cart made to tip. ['To coup, to overturn, to 
tilt as a cart.' Jamieson.] 

Courtain {North Eng,), yard for cattle. 

Cow {Nhumb,), see Belt, Clag. 

Cowp (ScotL), to barter. 

Cracklings (ScotL), greaves or tallow-chandlers' refuse. 

Cratch (RatL), a sort of rack with two legs and two handles, used 
to kill sheep on. 

[In Ches, a rack, fixed or moveable, for putting hay in. — E. H.] 

Crew-yard (Line.), a straw-yard. [A farm-yard. Hal.] 

Crib, framework to hold fodder in the yard. 

[In Ches, a smaU cote to put a calf in. — ^B. H.] 

Critch-land (RutL), land suited for turnips. 

Crock (Dum/riessh.), an old broken-down sheep. 

Croft (Comw,), a field in which furze is grown. 

Croft-land (ScotL), the old infield land which received all the 

Crome (Nor/,, &c.), a staff with prongs for drawing turnips, <fec. 


Croney an old broken-mouthed ewe. 

Crow» see Piteh. 

Crad-barrow, a wheel-barrow. 

[To crowd.& barrow is to push a barrow. Nor/, — W. W. SJ] 

Cmiye (ScoiL), pigsty. 

Cuddooks ( Wigiansh.), catUe from eighteen months to two years old. 

Cue or Kew ( West Eng,\ an ox's shoe. 

Culls, animals selected for rejection. 

Cummings, sprouts from malt 

Curf (Here/.), to earth up potatoes. 

Cntts {Line), timber-waggon. [In CTies. a variety of oats. — B. H.] 

Cutwith (Here/.), the bar of the plough to which the traces are 

Bagging (Warw., Lanc)^ see Belt 
Bannocks (/9u/., Nor/.), thick hedging-gloyes. 

Barg (Dum/rteash.), a day's work. Bay-work, Barrak, as it is in 


Bawny (Here/), damp : applied to grain. 

Baytale-men (Nhumb,), men employed by the day. 

Beaf (Glotic.), a term applied to certain light infertile soils. 

Benohering {Kent), paring old turf [i. e, Benshiring]. 

Bey (Perthsh,), a dairymaid. 

Bichting {ScotL), winnowing. 

Bidle (Nor/y Suff.), to clean the bottom of a river with a didli»g 
scoop. [The t is long; it rimes to idU, — ^W. W. S.] 

Billy ( West Eng,\ a frame on wheels for carrying teazles and other 
light matters. [See ELal.] 

Binmonts (Scotl.), male sheep from the &«t shearing to the second. 

Bodded (ScotL), without horns. 

Bodderill {Nhamp,\ a pollard. 

Boddering {Tks,), see Belt 

Bog {Kent)y an implement used in hop-gardens to pull up the poles. 

Borne or Bom {Norf., Suf.), soft wool. 


1)011167 lYJcsX damp : applied to grain. [Eng. dank: see Donk in 

]>ool {Suff,^ Scofl,), a boundary-mark in an unenclosed field. 

]>c>ol8 (E88.)f the grass border round arable fields. 

I>OTible Tom-plough {East Eng,)^ a double-breasted plough. 

]>oiiff {Lotkiang), a term applied to weak soils. See Deaf. 

]>raff {8cotl,)y spent-malt, brewers* grains. [Chea. — E. H.] 

X>rag-rake, a large hay or corn rake.^ 

]>rape (Lane., Line.), a fat or dry cow. 

I>railght ewes, &e. {Snot,)^ the best of the flock — Culla and Shots 
being selected for rejection ; see Calls. 

I>raw (Linc.)y the depth of a spadeful of earth. 

I>rawk (Nor/., Suff.), a weed ; darnel. [See Drake in Diet of Eng. 

Dreg (Scotl.), refuse of the still from distilleries. 

Drift (Suff.), an iron bar used in driving holes. 

Sndinan (Glouc.), scarecrow (Deadman?). 

[No ; a man made of dvds^ i. e, rags. See Dud (2) in Hal. — W. 

W. S.] 

Dulse, an edible sea- weed. [See Diet, of Eng. Plant-names,] 
Butfin (East Eng.), the bridle in cart-harness. 
Dyke (Line,), a wide ditch for fence or drainage. 

Earn (Scotl), coagulate. [A verb; lit. to run,— W, W. S. See 

Earth (Suff.), one ploughing. 

Eaver (Dev.), ryegrass. 

Eddish (East and West Eng.), a crop taken out of due course is 
called an * eddiah^ crop, or a stolen crop. The term eddish also 
means aftermath ; also newly-cut stubble. 

Eddish-crop (Ess.), is a grain crop after grain. 

EUd (Scotl.), adj. a barren ewe, also a dry cow. 

[Eiming. See Yiming.] 

Elder (Ireland, West Eng., Line.), the udder. [Also Ches. and 
Lane, — R. H.] 


BUxB (ScotL), wood or peat fuel. 

nmen {West Eng.)y made of elm. 

Eniflh. {Monmouth 8h,\ stubble field. 

Etlier. Ethering is ruuning a line of hazel, or other flexible rod^, 
intertwiningly along the top of a hedge. [It rimes with vwUhetJ] 

Btherin {Banffsh,\ a short straw rope. 

Eril {Cornw,y Dev.), three-pronged fork. 

Bwe. White ewe is a shelly kind of earth in the fens. 

Pack {Irela}id)y a long-handled spade. 

Pftff-water {LviC,), stale urine, or the liquid used for killing lice or 
* ticks ' on sheep. 

Fan {East Eng.), wide, shallow wicker-basket. 

Fare or Farrow {Suff.), a litter of pigs. In Lane. Fartit 

Farrow-OOW {Seotl.), a cow giving milk the second year after 

[Farth. See Fare.] 

Fancli {Aberdeensft., Banffsh.), see Balking, Baftermg, &c 

Faugh {ScotL), to faDow. 

Faulter ( Yks.), to hummel or take off the awns of barley. 

Faultering {YTcs.), hummelling barley. 

[Fawd-garth. See Ghurth.] 

Fawff ( Tks,), to fallow. 

Feal-dyke {Scotl), a turf-dyke. 

Fearow {Sal.), meadow. 

[Feg. See Fog.] 

Feir {ScotL), to draw the first furrow in ploughing. In Leic. to set 

Fell {Tks,), a plough goes too feU when going deeper than is wished. 

Fellying {Tks.), the first ploughing after a corn-crop. 

Fettle {Olouc.\ condition. [Ches.—'K H.] 

Fey ( Wigtonsh.), fey-\snd is that portion of the farm which, in olden 
times, was constantly cropped, and received all the manure of the 
stock — ^the best land on tne farm. In Lane, to fey is to oncover or 
remove the soiL 


Pid {Kent)y a thatcher's handful of straw. 

Tiller, the filler horse is the shaft-horse. [See Fhill-liorse in Ellis, 
p. 37. So fitUhoTie = thill-horBe in Shakespeare.] 

Tiller-gear, cart-harness. 

Fir-bill {Notts.), hedge-hook. [Probably furze-hill] 

Fire-£EUiged, overheated hone-dung. 

Flachter-tpode {8eotl,),9^ paring-spade or breast-plongh. [kflaehfpr 
is a flake or nag.] 

Flakes, hurdles ; sometimes those only made of closely-woven split 

Flash (Suff.), to flash a hedge is to cut off the brush which over- 

Fleeting (Ches,, isc), cream from whey. 

[Never used in the singular ; always fleetings. — R. H.] 

Flet {Suff,), flet milk is skimmed milk. 

Flick, hog's lard. 

Flights {Line), oat-chaff. 

Flizzoms {Nor/., Suff.), small flakes. A crop of oats with more chaff 
than com, is said to be * nothing but ^moma.* 

Floating {Leic), paring old turf-land. 

Fog, grass not fed down in autumn, left to yield early spring feed ; 
also aftermath. In Wore, Ac, Feg. 

Fogger {Hants., &c.), yard-man who feeds the pigs, &c 

Foison {Suff.), sncculency in herbage — Whence probably [certainly] 
Fushexdeas {8cotl,)y dry and wanting in nourishment. 

Foot-plongh {Ess.), a swing-plough. 

Fore-acre {Kent), head-land. 

[Fore-horse. See Horse.] 

Forelatch {Ess,), the leather attached to a horse's halter. 

Forraroow {Scotl.), [a cow] when she has missed calf. 

Fossa {ScotL), grass on stubble fields. 

Fond {Sal.), a farm-yard. 

Foor-tooth, a sheep two years old. 

[Framwards. See Fromward.] 

Fralundy {Fifesh,), a small rick. 


Freemartin, heifer incapable of breeding ; tbe female of twin calves, 
when one is a bnll : an bennaphrodite. 

Fringel (Suff,), tbe part of the flail that falls on the corn; also 
called Swingle. 

Frifh (West Eng.), underwood. 

Promward (West Eng,\ land is ploughed 'framwards' when the 
horses are turning to the right [pronounced fram-urd]. 

Fnun or Trwm (West Eng.), early, tender, growing, finesh, jmcj. 
[See Frim in EUU, p. 19.] 

[Fuihenlets. See Foiion.] 

Pye or Pey (Nor/,, Suff,), to clean a ditch ; to dress corn. 

Oablock, Oavelook (Nhumb., Nor/,, Sufi.), an iron bar for putling 
up hurdles with. 

Oain (Nor/,, Suff., 8om,), handy, convenient In Cumh. short or 

Oait (Tka,), pasturage. 

Oaiten or Oating (Nhumh,), one sheaf set upright. 

Galloway (Scoth, &c), a small saddle-horse. 

Oambrel (Here/), a cart with rails. 

[Oambril. See Cambril.] 

Oare (7ks,), same as Oore. 

Oarings (lAnc,), same as Gores ; in Tks. Gairs. 

Garth (Cumb,), same as Close ; Pawd-garth in Yks, is fold-yard. 

Gast (Suff., Nor/), applied to a cow not seasonably in calf. [See 
Oast-cow in Hal.] 

Gather, to plough continuously round a first furrow. 

Gavel (Suff., Nor/), to rake mown com or hay into rows; wheat 
reaped and not tied in sheayes is left in gavef. [See Qnvel (1) in 

[Gavelock. See Gablook.] 

Gaw (Wigtonsh.), see Grip. 

Gee-ho (Bucks, &c.), horses when two abreast are harnessed Gee-ho 

Geeing (Scoil.), turning horses to the left. [This seems to be a mis- 
take ; it should be &e right r see under HuESES.] 

Gelt-oow (Cumb.), a dry cow. 


Qig (Ke/U), tlie apparatus to which the horses are fastened to draw a 

Oill ( Wilts.), a low four-wheeled timber carriage. 

Oilt, a young female pig. [0?i€8., Lanc,^ &c. — K. H.] 

Gimmer {North Eng, and Scotl.), a female sheep between the first 
and second shearing. In Line* Gimber. 

Oiak (Yks,), pasturage. 

Ck>af (East Eng,)^ a rick of com laid up in a bam. 

Ctoaf-bnmed, com heated in the bam. 

Ooak {Tks.)y the inner part of a hay-stack. [Cfr. Hal. (2).] 

Oore (Biu:ks,\ a small land running to a point [See HaL (3).] 

(}otoh (Nor/,, &c.), a coarse pitcher. 

Oont (West Eng.), a coyered conduit. 

Oradely (Ches.), good, perfect, healthy. 

Graft (Heref)j to dig ; also the depth of a spade. [The latter in 
C%«.— R H.] 

Orafting-tool, a strong and narrow spade. 

Qrains, tines, or prongs of a fork ; also spent malt. 

[Different worda The former is Icel. grein, branch, arm, fork. — 
W. W. 8.] 

Oraip (Seotl.), a dung-fork of three prongs. 
Orait (Scoth), harness. 

Orassnm (SeotL), payment to landlord on entering to a farm. 

[No connection with grass ; it is M.E. gersam, a treasure, a pay- 
ment: see Hal.~W. W. 8.] 

Orstten (Suss,), stubble. 

Greeds (Kerit), long manure in the straw-yard. 

Green-fidlow, land under turnips. 

Greep (Aberdeensh,, Banffsh.), the gutter for cattle-urine. 

[Commonly a grip, as in Line, 8ee Grip. In Ches. Oroop, — B. H.] 

Qret (Beds,, Wore), gret-woik, or great-work, is piece-work. (Seoil,) 
greet-wotk, t. «. * 'greed,' or * agreed upon.' , 

Grey oom (LotJnans), light com. 

Grice (8cotl,\ a young swine. [See Hal. (2).] 

Grieve (Scotl,), an oyerseer on a farm. 

Grig (Sail heath. 



Orip (Wegt Eng,)f a surface drain. 

Orom (We^ Efig), a forked stick nsed by thatchers. [la Norf. 
croTM, See HaL] 

Chieised ewes (Line.), not seasonably in lamb. [Cfr. Guess (3) in 

Onrry (Dev.), a thing for carrying apples, carried by two men. 
Out (Ess,), the eaves of a stack. 

Ha or Hi year olds {Scot Borders), catUe eighteen months old. 

[Hack. See Heok.] 

Hacking, deep hoeing. In Dev. digging. 

Hackle (Wane), to gather hay into small rows. 

Haddock ( Ties,), see Stock. In Cumb. ten sheaves are a haitock, 
and twelve a stock. 

Haft {8cotl,), the haft of a bandmn is the right-hand side. 

Hag {Fifeslu), a stall-fed ox. 

Haggard {Ireland), rick-yard. 

Hained {West Eng.), a field of grass preserved for mowing. In 
Scoth anything saved. 

Hake {Suff,), the dentated iron head of a plough. [See HaL (1).] 

[Hakes. See Hecks.] 

[Ham. See Hangh.] 

HameSy the arms that hold the traces to the collar. 

Handle, the touch of an animal [t. e, the condition in which an 
animal feels to the touch. A butcher judges of the condition of 
a beast and the quality of its flesh by touching or handling it, and 
says it * handles well or ill,' as the case may be. — R H]. 

Hanes {Liiic,), awns of barley. 

Harve {Dev.), harrow. 

[Hattock. See Haddock.] 

Hangh {Scotl), level land by the side of a river. In Dev. Ham. 

Hantm {West Eng.), the stalks of green crops, also of pease and 
beans ; also the best unbroken straw for thatching. 

[Havel. See Avel.] 

Haver {North Eng.), wild oats. 

{Aherdeensh., Banffsh.), white-faced : applied to catUe. 


Haze (Dor8,)-^ewe haze, cow haze — term for pastures. [Eather, 

Hazed (Norf,, &c,), surface-dried. 

Headgrew (Sal,), aftermath. 

Heayle (Here/.), same as Oraip. 

Heck or Hack (Nhumk), a rack. 

Hecks or Hakes (Lothiana)^ sparred boxes for holding fodder for 

Heel-rake {Warw.), ell-rake, a large rake, with half-circular iron 
teeth, used in haryest. 

Hemel, a small yard for cattla [The first e is short : see Hemhle in 

[Hi years old. See Ha years old.] 

Hilt ( West Eng,), a young sow kept for breeding. 

Hind {Lothians), a married farm-servant. 

Hinder-ends (Line., &c.), hindrens are ' tail com.' 

Hindle-bar (Warw.), an iron bar for driving stakes. 

[Hindrens. See Hinder-ends.] 

Hirsel (ScofL), the number of sheep in one lot; or the place of 

Hobbing (Line), mowing the high tufts of grass in a pasture. [Hal. 
has ' Hohhins, rank grass, thistle, &c., left in a pasture by cattle. 

Hobble (Suff,), a kind of pig-stye. 

Hod (Warw,), a wooden trough. 

Hodding-spade (Suff,, Line, Nm-f,), spade used in the fens. 

Hog, a one-year-old sheep. 

Hogcolt (8o?n.), the foal of the horse. 

Hogget or Lamb-hog, a young sheep before the first shearing; a 
one-year-old sheep. 

Hogs (Cfies.), are clamps or pits containing potatoes and straw within 
them [but raised into heaps above the surface of the ground and 
covered with soil. — E. H.]. 

Hogshead (Comw.), nine imp. [imperial] bushels of oats. 

Holl (Norf., &c.), a ditch. 

Homes (Ches.), same as Hamea 

[I never heard homes, but hatmns is common. — B. H.] 

L 2 



Horkey {Norf.^ &c.), the banrest-supper. [See Bloomfield's Poema.] 

HORSE (Ess., Ac), fare-horse, lade-horse, hody-horse, and ihirl-harse, 
respectiYely, are the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and shaft-horse of a team. 

HOUSES — ^terms used in directing — 

1. ScoUand, — 2, Torkshire. — 3. CJieshire, — 4. OloueesierBhire, — 

5. Kent. — 6. Hants. 

1V> right. 

To left. 

Go OD. 




The name of 




the Horse 


!,-{ Haup 


• • « 

• •• 

L Weesh 



■ ■ • 



• •• 

^- \ Ote-haek 





• • • 

« ■ ■ 

I Qte-ho 


• • • 

• • V 

3. 1 Height 


• • • 


\ ... 


« • • 

• « • 

4. Woot 


• • • 


K J Woot 
^' ( Gee-woot 

• ■ • 

• • ■ 

• • • 


• • • 


6. Woag 




Hotoh (Line.), to dress and clean in a peculiar manner with a riddle. 
[See Hal.] 

Honnces (Ess,), same as Housings. 

Housings, high square leathern flaps upon horae-coUars. 

Hovel (Warw.)f cow-shed. In Leie. a rick (?). 

Hoven» swollen. 

Howiok (Aherdemsh., Banffsh,), a small rick. 

Hulls {Line.), husks of turnips, eaten close to the ground. 

HummeUed (Scotl.)^ without horns. To hummel is to take off the 
awns of barley. 

Hupp (ScoU.), to turn horses to the right. 

Hutch {Su8s,)i a wooden trap for vermin. 

Hutoh {Keni)f the body of a waggon. 


Hypothec (Scotl), the preferable seizure for landlord (before any 
other croditor) of the tenant's property. 

Ingi (Tks.), level land by river side. 

Jigger-wheels (Sues,), wheels made to draw timber with. 

Jill {Norf., Suff,), a timber-carriage. 

Jim (Suff,), a two-wheeled timber carriage. 

Jobbet (West Eng.), a small load. [HaL has ^Jobbel is an Oxf. 

Jog, a snjill load of hay or com. [In Ches,, Jag, — ^R H.] 
Jonmey {Eng,\ a day's work at plough, cart, or thrashing machine, 

Joyst {Lane, and Line), to summer grass feed; to let out for 
another's stock : probably [certainly] from ' agist' 

Kain (ScotL), duty paid in kind to landlord. 

Kaling (ScotL, Lane,), the first heaping of hay after swath. 

Xebbit Ewe {Dumfriessh.), a ewe whose lamb is stiU-bom. 

Ked (Scotl), a kind of shedp vermin. 

Keel (Scotl), red ochre for marking sheep. 

Keep, food for cattle. 

Kelter (Suff.), condition. 

Kemp (Scotl.), to contend in reaping. 

Kemple (Lothians), forty winlins : see Winlin. 

Kerf (West Eng,), a layer of hay, &c. [In W. Ches., Kelf.—K H.] 

Ketlocks, wild mustard (charlock). [Sinapis arvensis, L., and allied 
plants : see Did. of Eng. Plant-names.'l 

[Kew. See Cue.] 

Kibble (Eng.), to crush or bruise dry corn. 

Kids (Line.), faggots. [Also Cites, and Lane. — R H.] 

Kilns (Fi/esh.), same as Bosses. 

Kiver (TFartr.), large vessel for whey. [In Ches. a stock of corn. 
— B. H.] 

Knacker (Nor/., &c.), harness-maker. 

Kmte (Roxburghsh.), the dwarf pig of the litter. 


Kyle (ScotL), a laige haycock. 

Kylo, West Highland ox. 

Kype (Ghuc,), a wicker measure about a busheL 

Laoe (Oamw,), a perch of land. 

Lade (Dev,), to lade and steep hedges is to lay them down and bank 
up with earth. 

[Lade-hone. See Horse.] 

Laid (Mid, Eng.), same as Hained. 

Laid-wool (ScotL), wool from sheep which have been smeared. 

Lair (Yks.), the end of a bam. 

Lairy (Seotl.), wet, swampy. In Deo, as applied to a cart, empty. 
Applied to meat, it means muscular. [Tliree different woids. See 
Latry in Jamieson; Leer (2) and Lire (1) in Hal. ; and Lyeiy in 
Ann. AgriCy p. 105. Lyer is commonly used in Morton's Cyclopedia 
of Agriculture (sub v. Meat) as meaning the ' muscular portion of 
the flesh.'] 

Laifh ( Tka), a bam. 

(Xamb-hog. See Hogget.] 

Land, a ridge between two water-furrows. 

Landing-up (Warw,), see Oather. 

Langet (Here/,), a strip of ground. [Diminutive of lineJi (2) in 

Lanner (Nor/., &c.), all of a whip but the whip-cord. [Lanier in 

Lannook {West Eng,), a long narrow strip of land. 

Lash or Lashy (Suff,^ Nor/.), wet, as applied to a meadow; or 
watery, as applied to grass feed. 

Lay-down, to sow arable land with grass seeds. 

Layer, sward. 

Lea or Leigh (Tks.), a scythe ; also a bam-end. 

Lease (Dev.) ; a lease cow is a dry cow. 

Leathe (Cumh.), see Lair. 
Leazing, gleaning. 
Led-farm (Scotl. ), same as Bytaek. 
[Leigh. See Lea.] 
[Lent-oropi. See Breach.] 


(Nor/., &c.), a large wicker-basket. [Lejje in Hal.] 
{Berwickah,), cart-ehafts. In Heref, limbers. 

(Tks.), flax. 

Idnliay {Som.y Dev,), a rough shed for cattle or implemonts, harn. 
I«oak (Nor/,, &c.), a short narrow road. [Loke (2) in Hal.] 
Xoggin {Yks,), a bundle of straw about 141bs. 

XoomB (Cfhes.), are wide lands, wider than butts. 

Xoy (Ireland), very long narrow spade. 

Lnckpennyy discount. 

"Lug {West Eng.)y a pole in land-measure of 5^ yards. 

Lumps (Norf.y &c.), large bricks. [* Hard bricks for flooring.' Hal.] 

Lorohery a potato left in the ground. 

KaggfS (ScotL), allowance to ploughmen when on duty from home. 

Maiden (Fifesh.), harvest-home. 

Malmy {Nor/., &c. ), adhesive — applied to soil. 

Manor {JSss.), earth from a bank or hedge-row. 

Marfdrrow (Line), same as Merebath. 

Marshland, often means allavial land. 

Mart {Aherdeensh,, Banff sh,\ an animal i^^ for the use of the 
farmer's family ; kept in salt for use at Martinmaa — hence its name. 

Mashlum (ScotL), same as Mnncom. 

Mawn (Here/.), peat. (Ayrsh,), see Fan. 

Meal {8uff[, &c.), as much milk as is taken at one milking. 

Measure {LaneX a measure is a bushel [t. e., a local bushel, varying 
in diflerent districts; used in Chea, — E. H.] 

Meat {Linc,)y chafif ; cut food for cattle, &c. 

Melder (Fifesh,), 6 qrs. of oats sent to mill. 

Mell (Tks.), harvest-home. [See Hal. (4).] 

Mending (Lane), manuring. 

Merebaih (Nor/,, &c.), an unploughed strip between open-field 
^ properties. [Corruption of meer-balk, ] 

a mixture of different kinds of grain, or of their flour or 
meal. In North Eng,, a mixture of wheat and rye grown together. 


Mewttead (Oumb,), same as Bay. 

Udden, dung-heap. 

MILLf terms for the different prodacts of the : — Mec^ is nndieBsod 
flotir ; it is separated into Jhur (the finest part), Mcoiub, middlingi, 
and eren thirdt; then Hues, hoxingt^ sharpSf gurgeonSy ^cu/Ungt, 
poUartU (fine and ooaise), and bran. 

Miftal (Tks.), a oow-house. 

IDze&t A dung-heap. 

Moan (Kent), a laige hasket used to cany chaff, &c. 

Mook (Dora,), the root of a tree. 

Moiled (Here/., Ireland), without horns. 

Monks {Fifesfi.), stable halters. 

Moor-band, a thin crust of hard mineral substance, separating the 
soil from the subsoiL 

Moot, to root up. 

Mooting (Dev,)f the tillering [see Tiller] of growing crops. 

Mootfi roots of trees. 

Monitor (Tks,), the miller's share for grinding. 

Muck (South Wcdee), earthen compost ; elsewhere, farm-manure. 

Mudgeon (Norf,, Buff.), fine chalk. [Cfr. Mud^in in HaL] 

Muil (Ireland), cow without horns ; (Ayreh,), Mullock. 

Mule (Kent), three-pronged pin, with plate at the bottom. 

[Mullock. SeeMuiL] 

Multure (Seotl), mill-dues. 

Munoom (Here/.), a mixture of different seeds sown to come up as 
one crop. IMong^com = mixed com ; see Piera Ploumian't Crtedf 
1. 786, in ^ecimena of English, vol. iii. ed 8keat, p. 11.] 

Must (Weet Eng.), ground apples, either pressed or not pressed. 

Hag or Swath-rake ( Yks.), a.stubble-rake. 

Heb (Siise,), a pole to draw an ox cart by. 

Hesh, tender {North\ 

Hickled (Nor/., &c.), tangled : applied to com beaten down by rain. 

Hidget (Comw,, Kent), a kind of scarifier. 

Hitch ( West Eng.), a burden of hay, straw, wood, &c. 


Hoty applied to a cow without homs. [See HaL (3).] 

Offcom {Suff.)y inferior grain. 

Olland (Nor/., Suff.), arable land which has been laid down to clover 
or grass, for two years. 

Onatand (Tks.), an acre-rate payable to the out-going tenant, sup- 
posed to be for parish rates. 

[OrL See AuL] 

Qrra-man (ScotL), farm-eervant of all-work. 

Orts, coarser uneaten stems of fodder. 

Out-hoU (Nor/,), to scour a ditch. See HolL [Out-hawl in Hal.] 

Orerwart or Overfhwart {Suff., Norf.), crosswise. 

[Owler. See AuL] 

Owsen {8cotl.\ oxen. 

PalliOfl {Scat, Borders)^ the inferior lambs of a lot. 

Pan, same as Moorband. [See Hal. (2).] 

Par {8uff., Narf.)f an enclosed place for domestic animals. 

Parrick (Seat Borders), small enclosure. [A paddocJc] 

Par-yard (Suff.), the farm-yard. 

Pea-eah (Herqf,), pease stubble. 

Fease-bmslly pease stubble. In Here/, pease stubble harrowed or 
« brushed ' preparatory to sowing wheat. 

Fed (Nor/., &c.), a lidded wicker basket. [See Hal.] 

Feeler, a ' pitch ' used in hop gardens. [See Pitch.] 

Pelt (Comw., Heref.)y the skin of a sheep after the wool has been 
taken off. In 8uf., the skin with the wool on. 

Pendicle {Seotl.), small piece of land. 

Perkin (Wilts., GloucX the washings after the best cyder is made. 
[« Water cyder.' HaL Cfr. Pomepirkin in Ellis (p. 38).] 

or Pikle, a hay-fork. 
Picking-calf {Wed Eng,), abortion [in cows. Also Clies. and Lane] 
Pie (Suff,), see Clamp. 
Pig's-orough (Comw.), pig-stye. 


[Pikle, (1) see Pick ; (2) see Pitle.] 

Piley ( Warw.)j barley, which after being dressed, has a great many 
of the ' awns ' attached to it, is said to be pUty^ 

Piling (Staff.), a bundle of straight wheat straw, containing about 
three sheaves ; also, the hummellings of barley. 

Piling-iron {Comw,, Warw.)f a hand implement for hxmimelling 

PiUdngs (Fifesh.), last drawn milk. 

Pillum (ComtD.), dust [Hal. has pilm ; in Amu Agric. (p. 106) it 
is pilham,'} 

[Pin-aimi. See Aims.] 

Pin-fitUow (Staff.), winter fallow. 

Pitch {Ess., &c), the iron bar used for putting up hurdles. 

PiUe or Pikle (Nor/., &c.), a small enclosure. [Pighile in HaL] 

Plash, applied to mending a hedge ; ' pleach ' is correct "Rngh'Rh for 
intertwining the matenal of the hedge. 

Pleck {Manmouthsh.), a small pasture. 

Plough (Dors.), the team. 

Plough-line, a line used for guiding horses when ploughing. 

Plum (Dev.), soft, free, as applied to land. 

Poddle (Cornw.), a quart. 

Point of a ' bandwin ' (Scotl), left-hand side. 

[Pooks. See Pncks.] 

Powley [poll-y] (Kent), a hornless cow or ox. 

Poy (Zfinc.), a float used for buoying up sheep's heads when swimming 
in the washing place. 

Pritch (Suff.), a heavy pointed iron for making holes for stakes. In 
Wore, a stick, iron shod, hanging at the tail of a cart, and acting 
as a prop when resting on a steep road. 

Proofy (West Eng.), nourishing. 

Pucks or Pooks (West Eng.), are large heaps, little ricks of hay, 
com, &c. 

Pue (West Eng.), the udder. 

Pnggings ( West Eng.), refuse from cyder press ; [cfr. * pug-drink, 
water cyder, WestJ HaL] Also applied to chaffy com. 

Pulse (Line), the short straw taken out in dressing com by the 


Piuidle-tree (^orf,, &c.), the long cross bar used in driving a gafig 
of harrows. 

-lamb {West Eng,), wether-lamb. 

or Butt (Som,, Dors.), cart. 

ftuarterg (Glouc., &c.), the four teats of the cow. 

Quey, a female calf, stirk, or two-year-old. 

ftnick, young black and white thorn for planting in a hedge. 

Quicks, couch-grass. 

Quinter (Dumfriessh.), a sheep from fifteen months up to four years 
old. [* A two-year-old sheep.' Hal.] 

Saftering, is moving only every alternate furrow, thus laying it with 
the plough upon an equal breadth of fat land. 

Siaik (ScotL), course or walk — hence cattle-razA:, sheep-raiA;, &c. 

Samily (West Eng,)^ tall and rank, as grass; when applied to soil 
[as in Ches, — E. H.], same as Braahy. \^Ramm%ly in HaL ; the a 
IS short.] 

Bash {Tks,\ dry and brittle. 
ling. See Wrestle.] 

Batch (Heref,\ a subsoil of stones and gravel mixed with clay. In 
Cumberland, Boacli. 

Beasty, rancid : applied to bcuion. 

Bee ( West Eng.j &c.), to ree is to clean corn in a fine riddle. 

Beed, straw prepared for thatch. 

Been {Heref,\ furrow. [Ches. — R H.] 

Beeze {Comw.) ; grain reezes, when, owing to over-ripeness, it falls 
out of the ear. 

Bein (Nor/., Suff,), to bend down, as corn when ripe. 

Belly (Suff,)^ a large coarse sieve. 

Besp (Suff,)f fresh, succulent, juicy. 

Bet, to macerate in water, as water-re/, dew-re^. [See Hal.] 

Bhab (South Wales), shaly subsoiL 

Bibbing, see Baftering. 

Bid, earth removed from the top of a quarry. 


Sidding (Here/.), tUlering. 

Sidge-itay (Hants,), l>ack band in harness. 

[Sidge-worth. See Biget] 

Sig {Notts,, &c.), an imperfectly castrated animaL 

Siget (Leic), back-band of a cart or waggon. In Lancasbire, Sidgfr- 
worth. [Also in Che$,, pronounced ridg*orih. — ^R. H.] 

Bigwelted (Yka,), a sheep is rigwdted when cast. See Awelled. 

BigWOOddie {Lothian, &c.), the iron chain which supports the shafts 
of a cart oyer the cart-saddle. 

BiJige (Suff,), a row of plants; a lidge. [^Ring, a row: Kent,' 

Bingle-eyed {ScotL), wall-eyed. 

Riabalking (Olouc), see Eaftering. 

Binors (Nor/,, &c.), poles for a faggot hedge. [See Bizzers in Hal] 

[Boaoh. See BatcL] 

Bocktree (Yks.), the chief draught-bar. 

Bods (Suss.), cart and waggon shafts. 

Boiling (Comw.), putting com into sheaves. 

Bolly (Wilts,, Qlouc,), to put grass, after being 'tedded/ into small 

Book or Buckle of beans (Yks), four sheaves set up to dry in the 


Boost (Lane,), the upper part of a cow-house ; loft over stable. 

Boss (Here/,), a morass. [W. rkos, a moor, waste ; hence Boss as a 
place-name. — ^W, W. S.J 

Botland (Dev.), land under fallow. 

Bonp (Scott,, &c.), sale by auction. 

Boves (Ess,), ridges of two furrows. 

BoTing (Ess,), a fallow operation for breaking and levelling land. 

Bowen (Ea^t Eng,), ' Fog ' or after grass ; especially of sainfoin. 

Bubber (Suss,), square sand-stone to sharpen a scythe with. 

Back (Here/,, Sal,, &q,), a heap. 

[Buckle. See Book.] 

Buddie, a red ochreous composition. 

Bully (Yks,), a low waggon. 


Rmidle (Here/.), a hollow pollard tree. 

(Scotl.), an old milch cow ; also an ox. In England, a steer. 
(Loihians), a straw basket for holding com. 
{Ireland)^ smallest of a litter of pigs. [In Chea., Rit — R. H.] 
^ce {8cotl.)y brushwood. [Rice (2) in Hal.] 

Saddle {Fifesh.\ that part of stall between manger and grip. 
Sales {Norf,, &c.)y same as Hames. 

Salmon-bricks {Norf,, Suff.\ bricks not burnt enough — hence 
9ammy means soft. 

[^Sammy. See Salmon-brioks.] 

Soaling {Tks,)^ spreading manure, &c. ; {Som,\ extracting the fibre 
from hemp; (Nor/.), shallow ploughing. 

SooUops (Ireland), the rods used by thatchers. 

Sooring-rake (Dev,), for collecting corn together in the field. 

Scrave (Ess,), a light harvest waggon. 

Souffle (Dev,), to pare, grub, or scarify. 

Scnppet {Norf,y &c.), a shovel for loose earth. [See Hal.] 

Scuttle {Warw.), feeding basket. 

Seats {E88,\ same as Hames. 

Seeds, clover, or sown grasses ; strictly, the latter. 

Seg (Suff., Tks,, Norf.)y any animal castrated when full grown ; also 
called Stag. Seg also means xame, [The former aeg is commonly 

[Set See Feir.] 

Seugh, to cut water-courses. [To sew = to drain.] 

Shagg {Stirlingsh.), tail com. In Line, the head of oats. 

Shaim (Scotl,), cow-dung. 

Shapes (Nor/., &c.), very light oats. 

Sharavel (North Sal,), a dung-fork. [Also share-evU; see Evil. Hal. 
has eJiareviL'] 

Shelts (Nhumb.), portion of field ploughed by itself. 

Shelving (FA»., &c.), cart-frame. 

Shench (Scotl.), a furrow ; also to put plants in the earth before 
planting out. 


Shilpit (Scotl), applied to ill-filled ears of com. 

Shim (Bugs., Kent), horse-hoe. 

Shippen (Yks,, Lane.), a cow-house. [Ches. — R. H.] 

Shoek-fork (Suff.), a large thiee-tlned fork, used in gathering harley 
and doyer into heaps for the pitchers. 

Shoodi (Lane,), the shells of oats after they are ground. [Clies, — R H. ] 

Sherd ( Wilts., Olouc.), gap in a hedge. 

Shot (Suff., Norf,), a young half-grown pig ; any rejected or inferior 

Shotf , the refuse of a lot of cattle or sheep. 

Shnppick {West Eng.), a hay-fork. 

Sillanks {Lane.), hames with chains instead of hooks on each side. 

Six-qnarter-cattle {Fifesh.), from eighteen months to two yeais old. 

Skeith {Line., Yks.), a kind of wheel coulter. In Torks., 8kie£ 

Skelp {Line.), to tilt a cart. ' 

Skep, a basket without a lid, and with short handles. In Scoil. a 
beehive. [See Hal.] 

Skid-pan, a waggon wheel-drag. 

Skillin {Wilts., Ghue.), a pent-house. 

Skirting {Dev.), skim-ploughing. 

Skooty {Norf.), angular : applied to the shape of fields. 

Slane {Yks.), smut in wheat, &c. [Commonly slain.'\ 

Slinking {Norf., &c.), slinking calf is abortion. 

Slnmpwork, piece-work. 

Smook Hill {Norf, Suff.), a wind-mill, of which the upper part only 
turns round ; in a post mill the whole mill rotates. 

Snead {WUts., Oloue., Dumfriessh., Leie.), the pole of a scythe; 
also called Snaith. In North Eng., Sn6<L 

Soam {Seotl.), a draught-chain for a four-horse plough. 

Soft-corn {Ess,), barley or oats. 

Soil (Swile) {Oloue.), manure. 

Songhing {Leic), under-draining. 

Sowels {Dors.), hurdle-stakes. 

Sowen and rowen {Seotl.), a pasture in summer, and fodder in 


Spean (Nhumb.\ to wean yonng stock. In Kent, Ssc, the teat of 
the cow. 

Spekes (Gloue.), poles used for carrying haycocks. 

Spelkfl {Cumh.\ same as Broaches. 

[Spike rods. See Broaches.] 

Spinny {Kent), a plantation. [A rather general term. See Hal.] 

Spit, the depth of a spade in digging. In Cornw,, Spill 

Spong {Stiff., NorfX a long narrow strip of enclosed land. [See 
HaL (1).] 

Sprays (Warw,), thaiching-pegs. 

Spring {Suff.), young white-thorn; quick. 

(Wano,), applied to heifers in calf; beginning to show 
signs of mOk. [<7Ae«. and Lane — B. H ] 

Spnddling {Kent), see Broad-sharing. 

Squitch, couch-grass. 

Stag {Yks.), a yearling colt. In Scotl, Staig. Bnll-staig k a cas- 
trated bull. 

Stale {West Eng.), the handle of a prong, rake, &c. [Ches, and Lane, 
— R.H.] 

Stamping {Som,), thrashing flax. 

Stand-heck {Tks.), a rack for straw in a farm-yard. 

Stang {Cumb.), cart-shaft 

Stee {Yks.), ladder. 

Steel-bow {ScotL), produce of farm remaining from one tenancy to 

[Steep. See Lade.] 

Stell {Yks.), an open water-ditch. In Scotl., a walled shelter for sheep. 

Sten {C?ie8.), stretcher in trace-harness. 

Stetch {Ecut Eng.), a ridge ; the ploughed land between two furrows. 

Stilts {Scotl.), handles of the plough. 

Stirks, young cattle. 

Stitch {Dev.), same as Stook. 

Stitle {Comw.)^ the uprights to which cattle are tied. 

Stocking {Scotl), the tillering of grain crops in spring. The stocking 
of a farm is the crop, catUe, and implements. 

Stong {North Line.), a rood of land. 


Stook {Scotl, &c,)f ten or twelve sheaves set upright in a doable row. 

Stooling {Ijinc,)f wheat striking down new roots. See Tiller. 

Stot (ScotL), castrated oxen of the second year and upwards. 

Stover (East Eng.\ hay made of clover, sainfoin, and artificial 
grasses ; winter food for cattle. 

Stow or Tray (Line.), a sheep-hurdle. 

Stowli (Wilia., Glouc,), same as Moots. 

Straik (Dumfriessh), a piece of wood covered with grease and sand* 
and used to sharpen a scythe ; also Strickle. 

Strike-ploiigh (Stisa,), double-mould board plough. 

Strong land, in Devonshire, is not clayey, but rich. 

Stub (Here/,), an ox. In Warw. a castrated bull. To $tub is to 
root outw 

Stnddy (Seotl.), an anvil [A stiihy.] 

Suokling (Suff,)f white or Dutch clover. 

Sull or Sullow (Som,), a plough. 

Snmmerland (Suff., Norf.), fallow-land ploughed and lying un- 

Swath-rake, see Hag. 

Sweed (Kent), swathe. 

Sweepf a sledge for carrying hay. 

Swii^le (Line,), part of flail [See Fringle.] 

Swii^le-trees, draught bars. 

Swipple (Tka,), part of a flail — ^handstaff, coupling, and swuppk, 
[(7A«.— R. H.] 

Sye-dish (Fifesh,), milk strainer. 

Tack, hired pasturage. 

Taoking out (Wore), see Joisting, putting cattle upon hired pas- 

Taft (ScotL), the homestead or farm-house. 

TailingSi ' tail com,' t. e. the refuse grain. 

Tallet, Tallent, Tallard ( West Eng,), a space over a stable or cow- 
house. [< TaUit, a hay lofb. WeaV HaL] 

Tathe (East and North Eng.), manure dropped upon land by cattle 
pasturing upon it ; also rank grass growing up round this manura 
iTeathe m Mai.] 


{Ldnc.)y to lift the corn from the waggon to the stack. In 
North Eng., to unload carts ; a team is an empty cart. Scottic^, 
toomy %. e. empty. 

[Some mistake ; we all know a team is not * an empty cart.* The 
yerh team^ hetter teem, to empty, is foi'med from toom by vowel- 
change, ]ike feed, verb, from, food, sb., or meet, verb, from m^yot, sb., 
an assembly. A team is quite a different matter. — W. W. S.] 

Ted (West Eng.), to scatter hay. 

Teen or Tiver (Suff.), red ochre for marking sheep. 

Teg^y young sheep before first shearing. 

Temper (Oomw.), land is in good temper when it pulverizes readily. 
[See Hal.] 

Tetfltiok {Notts,, &c.), the stretcher in trace harness. 

Thaok (Nor/.f.Ssc), waste corn left in the fields unraked. 

TheaTes ( West Eng,), ewes that have been shorn once. 

Thets (ScotL), chains by which horses draw. 

Thiller (Suff., Nor/.), same as Filler. 

Thirlage, the bond on tenants to have their corn ground at a parti- 
cular mill. 

[Thirl-horse. See HORSE,] 

Thram (Warw,), grain in a damp, raw condition is said to be thram, 

Threave (ScotL), twenty-four sheaves. In Yorks,^ twelve loggins or 
bundles of straw is a threave. In West Lothian, fourteen sheaves 
of wheat is a threave. In Fi/esh,, twenty sheaves of wheat. 

Threep-tree (Oumb.), the chief draught bar. 

Thrippoos (Oh£8,), harvest gear for cart or waggon. 

Tid (Seotl.), the right season for performing any operation on the 

Tiddlin ( WUts,, Olouc.), a ' tiddlin lamb ' is one brought up by hand. 

Tight (^671^), a long chain to which the fore-horses in a plough are 

Tilly clay soil. In Yorks,, manure. 

Tillage (Yks,), manure. 

Tiller, to spread and sow [grow] vigorously. 

Tillings (Sal.), all kinds of grain. [' Tilling, crop or produce. 
West,' Hal.] 

Tilting (Line,), ploughing land very shallow, in the autumn, after a 
corn crop. 

Tine (Scofl), harrow-tooth. 



[Tiver. See Teen.] 

Tod (Suff.)y the head of a pollard tree. 

Toff {Kent\ the ears of wheat and other com broken dunng 

[Tom-plonglL See Double.] 

[Toom. See Team.] 

Tore {Fifesh), arm of side-saddle. 

Torwooddie (Scotl,), iron dranght-chain for harrow. 

Tom (Kent), a heap of corn when stacked in a barn. [Correctly Toss ; 
see Pegge.] 

Tothe (Aherdeensh.f Banffsh,)^ to manure exclusively by cattle 
droppings. [See Tatbe.] 

Tothe-fold {Aberdeensh,^ Banffsh)^ an enclosure for the purpose of 

Toward {Wilts., Olouc), to the left. 

Town (ScotL, &c.)y the homestead of the farm. 

Town-plaoe (Cornw.), farm-yard. 

Trams (Lothian), shafts of a cart. 

Trays (Line), hurdles. 

Trolly (Suff.), a market-cart ; a kind of sledge used in husbandry. 

Tnmking-tooli (Suss.), draining-tools. 

Tue (Yks,), corresponds nearly to try, struggle, test, &c. [See Teic 
(2) and (3) in Hal.] 

Tumbril (YIi-s.), a rude cart. [In Ches. a small cart used for 
manure. — ^R. H.] 

Tnnning-Bish (Here/.), a wooden dish used in dairies and in 
brewing. [In Chea. a large wooden funnel used in filling barrels 
of beer is called a tun-dish. — R. H.] 

Tomel (C?ie8,), large oval tub used in salting meat, &c. 

Tap, a ram. 

Tnp-yeld (Scotl), a barren ewe. 

Twinter (Staff, and North Eng.), applied to cattle and sheep from 
two years old ; also, a sheep tiiat has been shorn once. 

Twitch, couch-grass. 

Tye (Suff.), an extensive common pasture. 

TJncallow (Suff.), uncover. 

Unicorn (Berks., <fec.), a unicorn team is two abreast and one in front 


Veer-cow (Comw.), same as Tnle-cow. 
Veil {Dev,)y to pare or plough thin. 
Viskey {Dev.)j a two-bitted pick. 

Wad, a heap of beans or pease laid out to diy, previous to binding. 
In the county of Devon, applied to a handful of thatch. 

Wadfltaff (Notts,), guide-staff to plough by. 

Wain (Camw.), a two-wheeled waggon or long cart. 

Wallis (Nor/., &c.), a horse's withers. 

Wanty (Hants.), belly band in cart-harness. 

Warble or Warblet, a hard swelling in the hides of cattle. 

Warp (Yks,), soil deposited by a river. 

Warping, in the case of the ewe, means abortion. 

Warps (Suss,), corn ridges. 

Warth (Here/.), a flat meadow close to the river bank. 

Water-ripening (Som,), putting flax under water in course of its 

Wattles, sheep hurdles made of split wood. 

Wave-wine or Wither-wine (Wilts., Oloue.), bindweed. [Convol- 
vuliu septum, L.] 

Way-tree (Line), the largest tree of the three * swingle-trees.' 

Wecht (LotMans), a bam basket for holding grain. 

Welt (Notts.), same as Fid. 

Wennel (East Eng.), a weaned calf ; also Weanling. 

Wether, a castrated ram. 

Wether-horse (Kent), the last horse in the team. 

Wetkim (Kent), the harvest-home treat. [Better tohetkim; see 
whetkin in HaL : wJiet = wheat.] 

Whicks (Tks.), couch-grass. 
Whipple-trees, same as Swingle-trees. 
[White Ewe. See Ewe.] 
White-viotual (ScotL), oats, wheat, and barley. 

Whole-bodied-eart (Berwicksh), one that has fixed shafts. 

Whye (F/kff.), same as ttney. 

Winder (Notts.), to winnow. 

M 2 


Winlm (Lothiaru), same as Bottle. 

Wiimiiter (Aherdeensh., Banffsh.), a bam fan. 

Win-row or Wind-row, a row into which hay is gathered during the 
prooess of 'making.' 

[Wither-wine. See Ware-wine.] 

Wong (Suff.), an unclosed division of an unclosed parish. [A.S. 
wong, a plain, field.] 

Wraok, sea^weed. 

Wreathes (Dora,), withes to keep hurdles and aowels together. 

Wrestle (Dortt,)^ * rassling/ tillering out 

Wytoh {Here/.), same as Hntch. 

Wydes (Lan«. and Ches,), the stalks of potatoes. 

Tad (Scotl), an old horse or cow. [Commonly yavd; Skjade,'\ 

Tan (Tk8.\ a company of four harvesters, namely, three shearers and 
a binder. 

Tangle (Suff,, ^orf.), a yoke put round a pig's neck to prevent it 
horn breaking fences. In Scotland, Branks. 

Tarry-horse (Ess.), one that carries its head well. 

Tat or Tet (West and North Eng,), a gate. 

Taval (Aberdeen^,, Banffsh,), a second grain crop after lea. 

Teld (Angtis), Tjarren ewe, cow, &c. 

Tell (Staff,), a three-pronged fork. 

Telm (East Eng.), to lay straw in convenient quantities to be used 
by the thatcher, or for the chaff-cutter. 

Telle (Sal., Ohes.^ &c.), a dung-hill fork. 

Teomath (Wilts., Qhuc.), same as aftermath. 

[Teming. See Timing.] 

[Tet. See Tat] 

Tilt (Ess.), a sow. 

(Notts.), see Fid. 


[M. E. emm^ to run : see Earn, and Eaming-grasi in Diet, of Eng. 

Tolk (Kent), a spayed pig. 

Tnle-eow (Aberdeensh,, Banffsh.), a cow not giving milk. 

Ture (Tks.), udder. 









(pp. 1123-1127). 

The following artide is ohiefly intended as an addition to the 
previous one on PBOYiNCiAiiiSMS. The weights and measures indicated 
are given on the authority, in great measure, of private correspondence 
with the districts to which they refer, but also on that of the second 
report of the Oommissioners on Weights and Measures. 

The following is a condensed statement of such provincial customs, 
as regards weights and measures, as we have been able to ascertain. 

Bag, of hops (Kent) J is 2 cwt. 2 qrs. Of wheat (Dev,), 2 bushels. 
{Sai,)y 3 bushels. Of oats {8. Wales)^ 7 heaped measures, or 8^ 

Barrel (/. qf Man), of lime, 6 Winchester bushels. (Cliannd 
Islands), of charcoal and lime, 60 gallons. {Wales), of lime, in 
some counties, 3 provincial bushels of 10 gallons each, making 3f 
Winchester bushels. {Cromartv and Ross), of limestone, 32 gaUons 
English. {Kincardinesh.), of flax, 18 pecks. {Ireland), of barley 
[and] rape, 16 stone of 14 lbs. ; of beane, pease, wheat, and potatoes, 
20 stone; of malt, 12 stone; of oats, 1 stone; of oatmeal, 8 stone; 
of bran, 6 stone ; of lime, 40 gallons of 217^ cubic inches each. 

(Though the barrel is in each case a fixed weight, yet it was 
oriffinally a measure of fixed dimensions, equal to 9981*864 cubic 
inches, or equal to 4 A imperial bu^els of 2218*192 cubic inches 
exactly (each bushel being 8 gallons of 272*274 cubic inches); 
whence it appears that the above weights per barrel were calculated 
in the cases of wheat, oats, and barley, at the following average 
weights per bushel : — ^wheat, 62*22 lbs. ; oiEits, 43*55 lbs. ; and barley, 
49*77 lbs.) 

Basket (Kent), of cherries, 48 lbs. 

Bat (8, Wdlea), 11 feet square. 

Bay (Derh.), of slaters' work, 500 square feet. 

Beatment (Durh, and Nhumb), \ peck. 

Billet of firewood, 3 feet 4 inches long ; if single, about 7^ inches. 


BoU (Durh,)y 2 bushels. {Nhumb,, Alnwick), of barley and oats, 6 
bushels ; of wheat, 2 bushels. (Hexham], of barley and oats, 5 
bushels; of pease, rre, and wneat, 4 bushels. (Newcastle), 2 
bushels. {Cumb.y Wooler), 6 bushels. (Carlisle), - 3 bushels. 
( ]Vestm,), of rye, 2 bushels. (/. of Man), of barley and oais^ 6 
bushels; of pease, 4 bushels; of potatoes, 16 heaped pecks; of 
wheat, 4 bushels, weighing 64 lb& eacn. (FAra.), 2 bushels^ (Scotl.)^ of 
grain, the boll contains four firlots, nearly 6 Winchester bushels, or 
more accurately, 5*9626 ; of oatmeal 140 lbs. English = 8 Dutcli 
stone, or 10 English = 16 pecks; of marl, 8 cubic feet, {^ber- 
deeruh.), 1^ boll of the Linlithgow standard; of barley, here, or 
oats, 4 Aberdeen firlots =: 136 pints of 60} oz. each; of coal, 36 
stone = 630 lbs. Enelish ; of lime, 128 Aberdeen pints, eadi con- 
taining 105 cubic inches ; of potatoes ^ 12 bushels imperial = 6;^ 
cwts. (Angui), of meal, 8 stone ; of potatoes, 32 stone. {Argyieah.), 
of grain, at LiTerary, 4 firlots, 7^ per cent, above the standard, 
making 6 bushels, 1 peck, 9 pints, 10 cubic inches English ; of 
meal, at InTerary, 8 stone * in some parts, 9; at Campbelton, 10. 
(AyrihX of lime, 4 or 5 Dushels, in some places more or lees;. 
{Bauffsh.), of barley, 17 stone, or 17^ ; of potatoes, 36 stone. 
(Berwtcksh.), 6^ Winchester bushels; of lime, about 6 bushels; of 
potatoes, 6 com firlots striked, or 4 heaped, about 9 Winchester 
bushels = 476 lbs. English. In Berwick township, 560 lbs. Eng- 
lish; of meal, 140. (Caithness), of beans, pease, and wheat, ^ of 
the bere boll, about 4^ bushels ; of here and oats, 6f bushels "EDg- 
lish ; of bere meal, 9 stone ; of oatmeal, 8^ stone ; of potatoes, 16 
pecks of 1^ stone each. (Cromarty and lioss), of grain, about 3^ 
per cent, above the standard; of oatmeal, 9 stone. {Hebrides), 
from 16 to 20 pecks. {Kijicardinesh.), of potatoes, 35 stone of 10 
lbs. av. each = 5 cwts. (Kintyre), of grain, before Patrickmas, 17 
pecks = 9 Winchester bushels, 1 quart; after it, 16 pecks; about 
8^ Winchester bushels. (East Lothian), of barley, nearly 6 bushels 
English; of wheat, a little more than 4 bushels English. (Mid^ 
Lothian), of potatoes, 24 stone == 30 stone English. {West Lothian), 
of barley, from 17 to 18 stone =4. 4 bushels; of oats, 6 bushels; of 
potatoes, 3 or 4 cwts. ; of oatnieal, 140 lbs. (Moray), nearly 5 
bushels English. (Moray and^^aim), of barley meal, from 9 to 12 
stone ; of oatmeal, 8 or 9 stone, (i^airn), of grain, 6f standard 
bushels. (Perihsh.), of barley meal, 18 stone; of beans and pease^ 
13 to 14 stone ; of oats, 14 to 14^ stone ; of wheat, 14 stone. {Rcr- 
frewsh.), of beans and pease, 4 J Winchester bushels; of here and 
oats, 6 J Winchester bushels, {Bozhurghsh,), of barley, malt, and 
oats, 5 firlots 10 pints ; of beans, pease, rye, and wheat, 5 firlots 
3| pints of the Scotch standard ; of meal, 16 stone. (Selkirksh.), of 
barley, malt, oats, and potatoes, 5 firlots 1| Scotch pints ; of beans, 
pease, rye, and wheat, 5 firlots ; of meal, 16 stone. (Shetland), 5 
Dushels of 50 lbs. eadi. {Stirlingsh.), of wheat and beans, 4 
bushels; of barley stnd oats, 6 bushels; of oak bark, 10 stone. 
(Sutherland), of oats, in some parts, 5 firlots; of bere, 16 to 18 
stone; of potatoes, 24 stone. {Wigionsh.), of meal, 16 stone of 17^ 
lbs. each ; of wheat, 4 bushels ; of barley, 12 bushels ; of potatoes, 
16 bushels = 8 cwts. 

Bolt, or Bonlt, of oziers. (Berks.), a bundle, measuring 42 inches 


round, 14 inclies from the butts. (Esa.), a bundle, of which 80 
make a load. {Hants.), 42 inches round at the lower band. 

Bolting, of straw {Glouc), 24 lbs. 

Brawler, of straw (Som.)y a 71b. sheaf. 

Buneh (Cambs,), of oziers, a bundle 45 inches round at the band ; 
of reeds, a bundle 28 inches round, formerly an ell. (J^m.), of 
teazles, 25 heads, otherwise a glean. (OUmc,), of teazles, 20; a 
glen; of king's teazles, 10. (Yke,y N, A), of teazles, 10. 

Bundle (Deu.), of barley straw, 35 lbs.; of oat straw, 40 lbs.; of 
wheat straw, 28 lbs. (Hants.), of oziers, 42 inches round the lower 
band. (TForc), of oziers, 38 inches round. 

Bnshel (Beds.), till lately was 2 pints above the standard. (Berks.), 
of corn, in some parts, 9 gallons. (Ches.), of barley, 60 lbs. ; of 
oats, 45 to 50 lbs. ; of potatoes, 90 lbs. ; of wheat, 70 to 75 lbs. 
(Camw.), 24 gallons. The double measure of 16 gallons is also 
used in the ec^tem parts, and runs occasionally to 17 or 17^; the 
triple in the western; of potatoes, 220 lbs. {Cumb., Carlisle), 96 
quarts = 24 gallons. (Penrith), of barley, oats, and potatoes, 20 
gallons; of rye and wheat, 16 gallons, (berh.), of potatoes, often 
90 lbs. {D€v.)y of barley, often 50 lbs. ; of oats, often 36 or 40 lbs. ; 
of wheat, the fourth peck heaped. (Dors.), of hemp seed, some- 
times 9 gallons. (Durh.), of com, generally 5 per cent, above the 
standard ; in some parts, 8^ gallons. (Stockton), of oats, 35 lbs. ; 
of wheat, 60 lbs. (Qlouc.), commonly 9^ gallons, but varying from 
9 and 9^ to 10. (Here/.), of grain, 10 gallons; of malt, 8^ gallons. 
(Lane), of potatoes, generally, 90 lbs. not cleaned. (Liverpool), of 
barley, beans, and oats, 9 gallons, Winchester measure ; barley is 
sold at 60 lbs. to the bushel ; oats, at 45 ; of wheat, 70 lbs. (Zetc), 
of grain, 8^ to 9 gallons; of malt, 8 gallons; of potatoes, 80 lbs. 
(Middx.)y of potatoes, 66 lbs. (Ox/.), of wheat, 9 gallons 3 pints. 
(Sal.), of barley, pease, and wheat, 9J to 10 gallons ; of wheat, 
weigi^ng from 70 to 80 lbs. ; of oats, at Shrewsbury, 3^ bushels, 
weighing about 93 lbs. (Staff.), of bailey, beans, oats, and pease, 
9^ gallons; of wheat, 72 lbs. (Surr,), of potatoes, 60 lbs.; of 
turnips, 50 lbs. (Suss.), of wheat, in some parts, 9 gallons. 
(Westm.), 3 Winchester bushels. (Appleby), of barlev, 2^ bushels; 
of potatoes, 2 bushels. (Wore), at Worcester 8 J gallons, at Eves- 
ham 9, in some parts 9^ or 9} ; of wheat, 9 gallons weigh 70 lbs., 
and make 56 of flour. (Yks., E. R.), farmers sell by a bushel 
above the standard; corn-merchants by the Winchester bushel. 
(N, R.), in the southern part 1 qiLart above the standard, in the 
northern 2, sometimes 10 per cent., or more than 3. (North Wales, 
Anglesey), of potatoes, 74 lbs. (South Wales), of oats, the Win- 
chester bushel of the old kind of oats required to weigh 41 ^ lbs. ; 
of the new, 45 lbs. (Brecknocksh,), 10 gallons. (Monmouthsh,), 
from 10 to 10^, and nearly 11 gallons. (Montgomerysh,), 20 gallons, 
called 2 strikes. (Welshpool), of malt, -fi^ of the com bushel = 18 
gallons; of oats, 7 hoops of 5 gallons, heaped. (Fishguard^, 2 
Winchester bushels. TCaerphili), of wheat, the Winchester busnel, 
estimated to weigh 67^ lbs. ; at Aberthaw 64 ; at other places the 


bushel of 10 gallona is required to weigh 80 Ibe. {Gtiemsey)^ 6 
ffallons of wheat, to weigh 38 lbs. EngUsh ; of barley, bA^ Iba. 
JUnglish. (Scotl.f Ayr), 2 pecks. {OaUoway), of barley, from 46 to 
53 n>s. ; of lime or potatoes, the Carlisle bushel. 

^It is proper to add, that the imperial bushel is no^w almost 
uniyersal, and that the above local measures are most of them 

[I do not know what it may be in other counties, but in Cliesliire 
the local weights aboTe-named are byno means obsolete ; in fact, 
the imperial bushel is unknown. The name buthd is also less 
commonly used than measure. — R. H.] 

[Butto. See Bolt] 

Cabot (Jersey), of wheat, ^ of an English bushel, weighing about 
34 j lbs., 4 of which make 3 large cabots, used for barley, and all 
other com wheat. 

Cart Load, from 3 tons to 27 cwts. allowed at the bars on various 
roads, according to wheels and season. 

Cask {Glouc.)y of cider, usually 110 gallons. 

Chalder (Scotch for chaldron), nearly 12 quarters Winchester 
measure ; of com, 16 bolls. {Dumbart&Mh.), of lime, 64 bushels ; 
of lime shells, 32 bushels. {Ben/rewsh.)^ of lime, 32 bushels j of 
lime shells, 16 bushels. {Stirlingsh,)^ of lime, in some places, 24 
firlots, each of 23 Scotch pints. 

Chaldron (Camb,)y of lime, 40 bushels. (Derb.), of lime, in some 
parts, 32 heaped bushels. {Surr.), of mne, 32 bushela (1^., £. 
B. ), of lime, 32 bushels. 

Chojpin or Choppin (Scotl), | a pint, 2 mutchkins = 52^ cubic 
mches, about 2 English pints. 

Clove of Cheese, 7 lbs., sometimes 8. 

Coom or Coomb, ^ a qucui^r = 4 bushels. 

Cord, a measure for wood, properly a double cube of 4 feet =128 
cubic feet. (Derb.), 128, 155, or 162i c^^bic feet. (/Sum.), 14 X 3 
X 3 feet =126 cubic feet, elsewhere 8 feet X 3 feet 1 inch X 4 

Curnock (Worc.\ of barley or oats, 4 bushels; of wheat, 9 score 
10 lbs. = 3 bushels. 

Faggot, of wood, 3 feet long, 24 inches round. 43 Eliz. 

Fall, y^^ of a Scotch acre, as the perch is of the English acre. 

Fan (Camb,), of chaff, 3 heaped bushels. 

Fandam (Yk^f,), a measure for hay stacks — the distance between a 
man*s two hands when his arms are stretched out round the stack. 


[A corruption of fathom (A.S. /ce<Sm), the space covered by the 
extended arms ; also, an embrace, grasp. — ^W. W. 8.] 

Firlot (8cotL)y of here, nearly lA Winchester bushel, used for 
barley, here, malt, and oats; of wheat, about 2 per cent, more 
than a Winchester bushel, used for beans, pease, rve, white salt, 
and wheat. {Aberdeenah,)^ of potatoes, 1^ cwt. = 3 naif bushels. 

Fodder nr Fother {Nhumh,)^ of dung and lime, a two-hoise cart 

Forpet or Forpit {Nhumh,^ Alnwick), the fourth part of a peck, 
about 3 quarts. (Hexham), 4 quarts, ^ peck of wheat, \ of barley 
and oats. (Wooler), 4 Quarts, \ pecx, ^ bushel. (Scotl,), the 
fourth part of a i>eck, otnerwise called a lippie. [Corruption of 
fourth part."] 

Oate (Yks.), (on commons) pasturage for a cow ; 5 sheep are a gate ; 
a full-grown horse is two gates ; 3 twenters (two year old heifers), 
are 2 gates ; 2 stirks (one year old calf), are 1 gate ; a stag (colt of 
two years old) is a gate and a half. 

[Olean or Olen. See Bunch.] 

[Ctoad. See Lug.] 

Hobbit (N. Wales), of wheat, weighs 168 lbs. ; of beans, 180; of 
barley, 147 ; of oats, 105 ; being 2^ bushels imperial. 

Hogflheadi of ale or beer, 1| barrel. (Comw,), of oats, 9 Winchester 
bushels. (Dev,), of lime, sometimes 36 level pecks, or 40 ; some- 
times 11^ heaped bushels, Winchester. {Dora,)^ of lime, 4 bufidiels. 
{Heref and }Vorc,)y of cider, 110 gaUons. {Gueriisey and Jersey), of 
cider, 120 pots, 60 gallons. 

Hoop {Durh,), \ peck. {Sal.), a peck. (Monfgomerysh,), 5 gallons, 
called also a peccaid. 

Hundred, of balks, deals, eggs, faggots, bunches, &c., generally 120. 

Hundred Weight (Cainb.), of cheese, 120 lbs. (Ches.), of cheese 
and hay, 120 lbs. the long hundred. {Derb.), of cheese, among 
dairymen, 120 Iba (Ess,), of potatoes, 120 lbs. (Hunts,)^ of 
Leicester cheese, 120 lbs. {Kent), of filberts, 104 lbs. {Latir.), 
IQO, 112, or 120 lbs. (Letc), of cheese, 120 lbs. (Sal), of cheese, 
Bridgenorth 113 lbs., Shrewsbury 121 lbs. (Staff,), of cheese, at 
Wolverhampton, 120 lbs. 

[I have neyer known hay sold by the lon^ hundred- weight in 
Cheshire. It is uniformly sold now by the imperial ton, by the 
cwt. of 112 lbs., or by the stone of 14 lbs. In Liyerpool, however, 
a stone of hay or straw is 20 lbs. The method of weighing hay for 
deHyery in Cheshire is rather curious, and perhaps worth recoroing. 
The hay is cut into 40 trusses to the ton, each truss being supposed 
to weigh 56 lbs. The hay-cutter cuts them, in the first instance, as 
nearly 56 lbs. each as he can guess ; and when the whole 40 trusses 


are cut he begins weig^hine them on a steelyard (locall;^ called 
' drones '), which is furmsheS with two long hooks to hook into the 
bands around the truss. Of course it is very rarely that a truss 
happens to weigh 56 lbs. exactly ; but whatever weight is under or 
oyer the 56 lbs. is recollected, and the under or oyer- weight of each 
succeeding truss is subtracted from or added to the previous total 
under or oyer- weight, until the whole are weighed. An example 
will best illustrate this. Suppose truss 1 weighs 59 lbs., this is 3 
lbs. oyer- weight; truss 2 weighs 55 lbs., or 1 lb. under-weight, 
which subtracted from the 3 lbs. leayes 2 lbs. oyer-weight for the 
two. Truss 3 may weigh only 50 lbs., or 6 lbs. e^ort, but there are 
already 2 lbs. oyer ; the balance, therefore, is 4 lbs. short in the 
three trusses. If the balance begins to get much too high or too 
low, some hay is taken from or added to a truss to equalize it a 
little. When the last truss is weighed the whole ton may be a few 
pounds oyer or imder, and this is rectified in the last truss. The 
process is called * cutting it truss- weight' — ^E. H.] 

Hyle (Hants.), of flax, 10 sheaves. 

Inoast (RozburgJish. and Selkirkalu), a pound iu a stone of wool, and 
a fleece in a pack, usually giyen above measure. 

Kemple, of straw (Mid-Lothian), 40 small bundles = 358 lbs. trone. 

Kenning (Durh, and Nhumb,), | a bushel = 2 pecks. 

Kishon (J. of Man), a peck. 

Eiver (Derb,), of corn, 12 sheaves. 

Knitoh (ScotL), a bundle of unbroken straw, 34 inches in girth. 

Last (Camb.), of oats, 21 coombs = lOJ quarters. (Huntt>\), of 
grains and seeds, 10^ quarters = 84 oushels; of oats, H ton. 
{Line,, Boston), lOf quarters. (Norf,)^ 20 coombs, formerly 21 
coombs. (Yks., N. It.), of rape seed, 10 quarters. 

Lippie (ScotL), a quarter of a peck = -0932 Winchester bushel, 
nearly a quarter and a half of an English peck. 

Load, of hay, 36 trusses of 56 lbs. each ; of wood, 50 cubic feet ; 
of earth or gravel, 1 cubic yard ; of lime, 32 bushels ; of oak bark, 
45 cwts. ; of timber, round, 50 cubic feet ; square, 40 cubic feet ; 
of sand, 36 bushels ; of Scotch coals, 1 cwt. ; of lead, sometimes 
175 lbs. (BedaX 5 bushels; of wheat, when ground, 4 bushels, 2 
pecks, 4 lbs. {Berks,), 5 quarters. (Bucks.)^ of wheat, 5 bushels; 
of straw, Hi cwts.; of hay, 18 cwts. (Cainb,), of oziers, 80 
bunches; of wheat, 5 bushels. {Ohea.), of oatmeal, 240 lbs, 
(Dors,), of wheat, 5 quarters = 40 bushels. (Durh,), of Hme, 27 
bushels. (Ess.), of chalk, a waggon load, 90 bushels; of clay, 40 
bushels; of oziers, 80 boults. (Herts,), of chalk, in some places 22 
buckets = 33 bushels; of wheat, 5 bushels; of other com, 4 


bushels; in the north of the county, 3 bnshels. (Hunts.)^ of 
wheat, 5 bushels. (Lane, Lancaster), of barley, 6 bushels; of 
beans, pease, and wheat, 4^ bushels, the load of wheat weighing 
280 Iba ; of oats, 7^ bushels ; of potatoes, 2 cwts. (Middx,), of 
new hay, nearly a ton — properly 36 trusses of 60 lbs. ; of old hay, 
18 cwts. (Oxf.)f of straw, 22^ cwts. (Suff,)y of carrots and tur- 
nips, 40 bushels. (Surr.), of chalk, 30 to 35 bushels. (£>ua8.), of 
&ggots, 100; of oats, 80 bushels; of wheat, 40 bushels. (JP'estm.), 
of potatoes, 4^ heaped bushels, but sometimes 7^ bushels measured 
by a bag. (FJfc*., Wakefield), of wheat, 3 bushels; of malt, 6 
bushela (ScoU.y DumfriesshX of oatmeal, 20 stone Dutch, 25 
English. {Pe€bl€$»h.)y of meal, 2 bolls of 16 pecks; sometimes a 
. peck oyer. (Lothian), of meal, 260 lbs. = 280 lbs. {Dublin), of 
hay, 4 cwts., or more commonly 4^. {Mayo), of potatoes, 24 stone. 

[The load of wheat yaries in Cheshire from 14 score (280 lbs.) to 
15 score (300 lbs.), or 16 score (320 lbs.), according as the measure 
(bushel) IS specified as 70 lbs., 75 lbs., or 80 lbs. A load of potatoes 
is 252 lbs., spoken of as * twelye score twelye ; ' in reality, 12 long 
scores of 21 lbs. each.— B. H.] 

Lag (Dor8,), of land, 15 feet 1 inch; called also Groad, used instead 
of a pole of 16^. {Here/,), of coppice wood, 49 square yards. 
{Herts.), 20 feet. {Wilts.), a pole or rod of 15, 16 J, or 18 feet. 

Kafh (Here/.), mowing; a day's math is about an acre, or a day's 
work for a mower. 

Keasnre (Ckes,), of wheat, 38 quarts = 75 lbs.; of barley and 
oats, 38 quarts = 9^ gallons * of malt, 32 or 36 quarts = 8 or 9 
gallons. (Westm,), of oatmeal, 16 quarts^ {LancX of potatoes, 90 
R)s. {Ottemsey and Jersey), of apples, about 3 bushels Winchester ; 
of potatoes, 14 pots ^ 7 gallons. 

[The measure by weight is now, howeyer, substituted in Cheshire 
for that by capacity; and a measure of wheat weighs 70 lbs., 75 
lbs., or 80 lbs. ; a measure of oats, 45 lbs. or 50 lbs., according to 
locality ; and a measure of barley, 60 lbs. — R H.] 

[Mntchkin. See Chopin.] 

Pack, of teazles, 9000 heads of kings; 20,000 of middlings. 
{Ohuc.), of teazles, 40 staffs = 1000 glens = 20,000 ; of kings, 30 
staffs = 900 glens = 9000. (HunU.), of wool, 240 lbs. (Kent), of 
flax, 240 lbs. {Yks,, N. B,), of teazles, 1350 bunches of ten each 
= 13,500. {N, Wales), of lamVs wool, 240 lbs. ; but of Yorkshire 
and Lancashire Iambus wool, 44 Iba {Clydesdale, Dumfriessh.y and 
SeUeirksh.), of wool, 12 stone Scotch. 

[Peocaid. See Hoop.] 

Peek, \ bushel; of flour and salt, generally reckoned 14 lbs. 
{Glouc.), of potatoes and green yegetables, about Bristol, 2 pecks 
striked; at Gloucester, a heaped peck. (Nhwnh., Alnwick and 
Wooler), i of a bushel Winchester. (Newcastle), barley and oats. 


5 forpits or quaitems. {N, WaleB\ of potatoes, 24 qoaLita (5. 
Wales), 20 quarts. {Scotl,), i firlot, nearly f Winchester bushel, 
except for wheat ; of meal, 8 lbs. Dutch, 8| English. (AberdeetuKy, 
of ground malt, weighs from 12 to 14 lbs. Butch ; of potatoes, jC 
of a boll = } bushel, imperial, about 40 lbs. (Argylesh.), <x 
potatoes (Oampbelton), of 9 wine gallons English, heaped, weigh- 
ing 56 lbs. ay. (Banjfsh,'^, of potatoes, 2 stnke = 32 lbs. Dutch. 
{Berwick9h.)f ^ of a firlot, mstead of ^. {dydesdale), of apples and 
pears, 6| gallons Winchester, called a slecK ; of meal, ^ stone = 
8 lbs. Dutch. (Cunningham), of potatoes, reduced to 27 lbs. of 24 
oz. each. (Dumbartonsh.), of potatoes, the water peck, nearly 42 
lbs. {Kincardinesh,), of potatoes, 2 stone Dutch. (Kitdyre), of 
barley, bere, malt, and oats, a measure 12 inches in diameter, 10 J^ 
inches deep^ oontaming 1142^ cubic inches, a little more than half 
a Winchester bushel ; formerly heaped, now striked. (Lan€irkBh.\ 
of beans and peas, ^ less than of barley. (Glasgow), of potatoes, 
42 lbs. ay. (Benfrewsh,), of potatoes, from 36 to 37 lbs. ay. 
{autherland), of potatoes, 28 lbs. Dutch. 

Perohf Pole, or Bod, a measure of length, equal to 5^ yards = 16| 
feet. The same measure squared is employed as the first element 
of the acre, which contains 160 square perches of 30^ square yards 
Perch {Berks.) f sometimes 18 feet for rough work. (Dev.), of stone 
work, 16^ feet in length, 1 in height, and 22 inches in thickness ; 
of cob work, 18 feet in length, 1 in height, and 2 in thickness. 
{Here/,), of fencing, 7 yards in length; of walling, 5^. {HeTU.\ 
sometimes 20 feet, sometimes called a lug. {Lanc,\ 5^, 6, 6^, 7, 
7i, or 8 yards, in different parts of the county. (Leic.)^ of hedging, 
8 yards; sometimes 8 yaras square for land. (Ox/*.), of draining, 

6 yarda {Wetitm,y near Lancashire), 7 yarda (PTorc), 8 yards. 

i Guernsey)^ 7 yards squared for land measure, making 1% perches. 
</er«ey), 7^ yards = 22 feet, ^ of an acra {S, IFoZm), of land, 
sometimes 9 feet square, 10^ feet square, 11 feet, sometimes 11^ 
feet, sometimes 12 feet ; of laoourers^ work, in some parts of Wales, 
6, 7, or 8 ^rards. (Sco*/.), 18| feet. (Dumfr\t$sh.\ a rod of 3 eUs, 
or 9 feet 3 inchea {Irdand), of land, 7 yards in length or square. 

Pint weight, of butter, in Norfolk and Suffolk, 1^ lb. 

Pocket, of wool, ^ a pack = 120 lbs. ; of hops ^Kent), H cwt ; of 
hops {Surr.)f 1^ cwt., measuring about 5| feet in circumierence, 7| 
long ; 4 Iba being allowed for the weight of the canyas. 

Poke, of wool, 20 cwts. 

Pot, of potatoes, apples, &c (Wore), 5 pecka 

Pound (Bucks.), of butter, sometimes 17 oz. (Ckes.), 18 oz. 
{Cornw.)y 18 oz. (Derb.), 17 oz. (/>cr.), 18 oz. llhr».\ in some 
parts, 18 oz. {Durh.\ in many parts, 22 oz. (Stanhope), 21 oz. 
fStockton), 24 oz. (Ghuc.), sometimes 18 oz. (HeTef.)^ 18 oc 
\Lanc,), 18 oz. (Z^eic.), a little more than 16 oz. {Line, Louth), 18 
oz. (ScU.), 17 oz. (fifto/,, Wolyerhampton), 18 oz. {Weatm.),^ 
oz. (Yks., E. jB,), 16 to 20 oz. ; {N. E.), 16 to 24 oz. ; (IF. R.), 20 


oz. {Chtemaey and Jersei/X a Httle more than 17 oz. ; tlie same of 
bread, IJ lb. av. (N, Wales), 18 to 21 oz. ; of wool, 5 lbs. (S. 
Wales), 17, 18, and 24 oz. {Westm.), 12, 16, 18, and 21 oz. (Scotl.), 
trone poiind, IJ lb. Dutch, 2 If oz. av. ; troy or Dutch weight, 
1*0888 lb. av. = 17-,^ oz. av. {Aherdeensh,), of butter and cheese, 
20 or 26 oz. Dutch ; of malt, meal, meal and com, 24 oz. Dutch. 
(Anfftu)y trone pound, 22 oz. av. {Brechin, For/ar, and Montrose), 
24 oz. av. (Glamis), 26 oz. av. (Kirriemuir), 27 oz. av. {Argylesh., 
Campbelton), 16 oz. av. (Inverary), 24 oz. av. {AyrsK), of 
groceries, 1 lb. av. ; of butter, hay, and meat, 24 oz. av. 
{Banff sh.), of butter, cheese, hay, and wool, 24 oz. av. ; of meal 
and meat, 17^ oz. av. (Benvicksh.), of meat, generally Dutch 
weight ; of butter, at Berwick market, 18 oz. av. ; in the coimtry 
markets, 22^, which is the usual pound for cheese ; that of wool is 
24 oz. {DiimharUmsh,)y 23 oz. av. (E. Lothian), of hay, hides, and 
tallow, 22 oz. av. ; of meat, Dutch weight ; of wool, avoird. 
{Peeblessh.), of butter, cheese, hay, and wool, 23 oz. av. (Perthsh.), 
of butter and cheese, 22 oz. av. (Stirlingsh.), of butcher's meat, 22 
oz. av. trone weight; of pork, 17^ av., or troy weight. (Wiytonsh,), 
of butter, 16 or 24 oz. 

[Until 'within the last few years the pound of butter at North- 
wich, Cheshire, used to be 20 oz. — "R. H.J 

Pwn (iV. Wales), of straw =160 lbs. 

[Welsh jMwi, a pack, a burden. — W. W. S.] 

Quarter, 8 bushels; of salt, 4 cwts. (Guernsey and Jersey), of 
potatoes, 240 lbs. Dutch weight = 263 av. (Tks.), of chopped 
bark, in some parts, 9 heaped bushels ; of oats, for bread, in some 
parts to be made up, 3 cwfcis. 

Beel (Hants,), for flax, 2 yards round. 

Bood, of land, properly J acre, but often provincially used for rod. 
(CAe«.), of hedging, 8 yards; of land, 8 yards square = 64 square 
vards; of man, 64 cubic yards. (Cumb.), 7 yards. (Derh.), of 
Dark, seems to be a pile 7 yards in length ; of draining or fencing, 
7 or 8 yards ; of digging, 7 yards square. {Durh.), of wall-build- 
ing, 7 yards. {Norf,), 21 feet. {Nhumb,), 7 yards. {Sal. and 
Staff,), of hedging, 8 yards; of digging, 8 yards sjiuare. (Yks.), in 
the moorlands, of fencing, 7 yards. ( Wales), of ditching, draining, 
and hedging, 8 yards. {Benvicksh,), of laoourers' work, 6 or 7 
yards; of masonry, 6 yards square, 2 feet thick. {Dumhartonsh.), 
6 yards square. (Dumfriessh.), of draining, 19 feet = 6 yards 1 
foot. (Wigtonsh,), lineal, 20 feet. (Fi/esh.), of fencing, 6 yards. 
( IF. Lothian), of draining, 6 yards. 

Bope, in some places, 20 feet. (Dev.), of cob-work and masonry; 20 
feet in length, 1 foot high, and 18 inches thick. (Som,), of wall- 
building, 20 feet in len^h. 

Saok, of coal, 3 bushels, the sacks to be 50 inches by 26 ; of flour 


or meal, 280 lbs. ; of meal, 5 bushels ; of salt, 5 bushels ; of wool, 
2 weys, or 26 stone = 3J cwta {Bed4,\ of com, 5 bushels. {Der.)^ 
of coals, in some parts, 1^ cwt. (i>or«.), of flour and grain, 4 
bushels of 9 gallons each = 4^ Winchester bushels. (E»$.\ of 
charcoal, 8 pecks. {OloucJ)^ of potatoes, 3 bushels, or 2h cwts. 
{HerU.}^ of ashes, 5 bushels, 4 striked, 1 heaped. (Keni), oi apples 
and potatoes, about 3^ bushels. {Som.)^ of potatoes, 240 lbs. 

iSurrX of charcoal, 5 bushels ; of oats, 4 bushels ; of potatoes, 3 
bushels of 60 lbs. each. (Warfv,\ of beans and wheat, 3 bushels of 
9 gallons each. {WiiU^ of beans, pease, wheat, and vetches, 
usually 4 bushels; of potatoes, 36 gallons, or 2 cwts. (TForc), of 
apples, 4 bushels. (FAu., W, B.), of potatoes, 14 pecks = 3^ 
bushels. (N. W€Ue»)y of wheat, 1| hobaid, to weigh 260 lbs. 

Seam (Dev.), of dung, 3 cwts. 

Siere (Kent)y of apples and potatoes, about a bushel ; of cherries, 
48 lbs. 

Sleek {Clydesdale), of apples or pears, a peck = 2| gallons. 

Sqnare, frequently 100 square feet of slaters' work, of thatching, &^c. 

Stail^ of teazles {JSss.), 50 bunches, or gleans of 25 each = 1250. 
((?fottc.), 25 glens of 20 = 500 ; of kings, 30 glens of 10 = 300. 

Stone of hemp, or flax, 16 lbs. ; of meat, 8 lbs. ; of wool, 14 lbs. 
{Beds.)f of butcher* s meat in the south, 8 Iba ; north of the Ouse, 
14 lbs. {Cumh,)j of hay, tallow, wool, or yam, and sometimes of 
meat, 16 lbs. (Z)ttrA.),of wool,18 lbs. (ig^M.), of bee^8 lbs. {Kent), 
of meat, in some places, 8 lbs. (Orotic.), of beef, 8 lbs. ; of wool, 
12J lbs. (ffere/X 12 lbs. {Liverpool), 20 lbs. {Middx.), of meat, 
8 lbs. {Nhumh.\ of wool, 24 or 18 Iba (Suff,\ of hemp, 14J lbs, 
f5uM.), of meat, 8 lbs. {Wutm,), 14, 16, or 20 Iba ; of butter, 16 
Iba of 20 ounces each = 20 lbs. (FA».), of wool, 16 lbs., \ more 
being allowed for the draught or turn of the scale. (/PI MooriatuU), 
17 lbs., and | more for the draught. {E. Moorlands), 17 to 19 lbs. 
(About Darlington), 18 Iba ; of wheat (W. R.), 22 Iba (N. Wales), 
of wool, from 4 lbs. to 15 lbs. {8, Walts), of wool, 14 lbs., with 1 
lb. ingrain, making 15 lbs. when sold to woolstaplera In rarious 
markets, proTincial weights of 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 
22, 24, and 26 lbs. ; of butcher*s meat, commonly 12 lbs. {Seotl.), 
Dutch or French troy stone ; 8^ stones Dutch are very near accu- 
rately 10^ English. {Angus), of potatoes, 16, 20, or 24 lbs. ay. 
{Argylesh,), of butter, cheese, hay, lint, tsdlow, and wool, 24 lbs. 
av. {Banffsh.), of hay, 24 lbs. av. {BerwidcshX of hay, at Ber- 
wick, 24 lbs. ay. ; in the country, 22| lbs. Englisn, or 16 lbs. trone. 
{Caithnesssh,), of wool, 24 lbs. Dutch. {Dumhartonsh,), of wool, 
sometimes 17 lbs. {Fi/esh.), of flax, 22 lbs. ay. {OattowayS, of flax, 
16 Iba ; of wool, 28 Iba Dutch. {Hebrides), of hay, 17^ iba ay., 1 
stone Dutch ; of wool, 24 lbs. Dutch. (Dum/riessh!), of butter, hay, 
tallow, and wool, and of cheese sold wholesale, 24 Iba ay. {Inver- 
nesssh,), of hay, 20 lbs. Dutch, or about 21 Iba ay. {Kineardinesh.), 
of hay, 20 lbs. Dutch. {PeeUessh,), of hay, 22 lbs. English ay. {Rm- 
frewsh,), of hay, 22^ lbs. ay., 16 trone lbs. (Boss and Oromariysh.), 
of butter, cheese, flax, oatmeal, and tallow, 21 Iba Dutch ; of wool. 


22 lbs. Dutch. {Boxhurghah. and Sdkirksh,), of butter, cbeese, hay, 
raw hides, lint, tallow, and wool, the trone stone of 20 lbs. Dutch. 
In Boxburghshire and Selkirkshire, 23^ lbs. ay. (StUJierland), 
of butter and cheese, 21 lbs. Dutch; of wool, 24 lbs. ay. {Wig- 
tansh.), of hay, 26 lbs. ; of cheese, 24 lbs. ; of wool, 24 to 26 lbs. 
(Dublin), of wool, 16 lbs. ay. 

Strike, a measure of corn, yarying in its contents from ^ to 1, 2, 
and 4 bushels. (Yks.)^ 2 bushels. 

Thrave, of com (Derb,), 2 kiyers or shocks, or 24 sheayes ; of straw 
(Ghuc), 24 boltings or trusses, of 24 lbs. each = 576 lbs. See 

Threave, of straw for thatching (Westm.), 24 sheaves. (Yk^,, E. 
jS.), 12 bundles, not precisely limited in magnitude. Oi com in 
reaping (Kincardineah.), 2 stocks of 12 sheayes each, the sheayes at 
the band to fill a fork 10 inches wide. 

Tod, of wool, 2 stone = 28 lbs. 12 C. 2. (Beds.), 28 lbs., and 
sometimes a pound oyer for pitch-marks, making 29 lbs. (Glouc.), 
28i lbs. (SuBsX 32 lbs. {tks,, Holdemess), 28i lbs. {Guernsey 
and Jersey), 32 lbs. 

Ton, 20 cwts. = 2240 lbs. ay. Of earth or grayel, a cubic yard is 
often reckoned a ton ; of wheat, 20 bushels. Forty cubic feet of 
oak or ash is to be considered as a ton. 

TnU8, of hay, 5 6 lbs. if old; 60 lbs. if new. (Bristol), 7 lbs. 
(London), formerly 36 lbs. 

Tub, of butter, 84 lbs. 

Yergee (Gtierrisey and Jersey) y of land, 40 perches ; a little less than 
i an acre. See Perch. 

Waggon-load, 8 tons to 3 on various roads, according to width of 
wheels, and the seasons. 

Weight (Dors.), of hemp, 8 heads of 4 lbs., twisted and tied, 
making 32 lbs. (8om.), of hemp, 30 lbs. 

Wey, of cheese, flax, lead, tallow, and wool, 14 stone, properly 5 
chaldrons, or 40 bushels ; of cheese, 2 cwts. ; but in Essex 256 lbs. 
Otherwise 416, and in Suffolk, 3 cwts. of meal, 48 bushels of 84 
lbs. each ; of salt, 1 ton = 40 bushels of wool, 13 stone = 182 lbs. 
(Dors.), of wool, a weigh or weight is 30 lbs., and ^ lb. or 1 lb. 
over in some places. 

[In Piers Plotoman,B, y. 93, Env^ is represented as being ffladder 
at nis n^hbour's mishaps than if he had won a ' weye of Essex 
chese.' l£e point of the remark lies in the extra weight of the 


Essex wey, ' The weyght of Essex chese is in England ooc ireyght ; 
fyne score xip li. for tne 0. The weyghte of Sunolke chese is zij 
score and xti. li' — Arnold's Chronicle^ ed. EUis, 1811, p. 263. /. e. 
the Suifolk wey is 2 cwt. 32 lbs., bat the Essex wey is 3 cwl — ^W. 

W. B.] 

Windle, of com, in N. Lancashiie, 3 bushels of 70 lbs., and 10 lbs., 
or 220 lbs. of wheats beans, pease, and vetches, at Preston ; of 
barley, 180 lbs. ; of straw (Mid-Lothian), -^ kemple = 5 or 6 IbsL 
trone weight. 




This index is on the principle already adopted by the E. D. S. in 
similar ooUections of Qlossaries. 

Abb, 2 
abel, 1 

acre, Welsh, 3 
acreme, 3 
addle, 6 
aders, 5 
aftering^ 5, 6 
aftermass, 2 
aftermath, 3 
after-mead, 1 
after-meath, 1 
afternoon fieum- 

ers, 1 
agist, 4 
a^ye, 3 
aile, 5 

ailing-iron, 6 
ails, (a, h) 1, (a) 

aims, 6 
aither^ 6 
aiyer, 6 
alian, 1 
alie, 5 
alien, 6 
aUhollandy, 1 
allhollantide, 1 
alp, 3 
anack, 1 
anbury, 1 
anes, 3 
angs, 6 

apple-pounce, 3 
appling, I 

hold, 1 
aps, 1 
arbell, 1 
arders, 3 
are, 3 

arish mow, 5, 6 
ark, 1, 3 
arles, 6 
arms, 6 
arpent, 1 
arj)ent-weed, 1 
arrish, 6 
arrish-mow, 5, 6 
arse, 1 
arsmart, 1 
aul, 6 
aumbry, 3 
austry, 6 
ayald, 6 
ayel, 6 
ayer, 3 
ayerage, 3 
awart, 6 
awelled, 6 

Back, 1 

backing ahedge, 

backside, 2 
baokstriking, 6 
back-wind, 2 

baconer, 1 
baft (a) 3, {h) 6, 

bag up, 1 
baikie, 6 
baQ, (a, h, c) 6 
bait, 1 

bake and cake, 1 
bake-stone, 1 
baking, 1 
bale, 1 
balk, (a, b) 6 
balkmg, 6 
balks, (a, h) 3, 

band, 5 
bandwin, 6 
bandy, 1 
bandy-wicket, 1 
banel, 1 
banking the 

land, 6 
bannut, 6 
barb, 1 
barfin, 6 
barm, 3 
baming, 1 
barrel, 4, 7 
barrow-hog, 1 
barrow-pigs, 6 
barth, (a) 3, (a, 

baiton, (a) 2, 3, 

(a, b) 6 

bash| 1 
bashmg, 1 
bassan, 1 
bassie, 6 
bastard-cock, 1 
bat, (a) 6, (b) 7 
batlins, 6 
batterpins, 6 
baulking, 4 
baulks of grass, 

baum, 1 
bayin, 1, 3, 6 
bay, (a) 1, (a, b) 

6, (c) 7 
bean-brush, 6 
bean-dye, 1 
bean-shaips, 6 
bean- weed, 1 
beaxbind, (a) 1, 

bearing, 1, 2 
bear's muck, 5, 6 
bear-stock, to, 1 
beastlingSy 6 
beat burmng, 5 
beating, 4 
beatment, 7 
beaver, (o) 1, (6) 

beck, (a) 1, (b) 

3, (6, c) 6 
beck-hough, 1 
bee, golden, 1 




beestings, 3, 6 
beetle. («) 1, (b) 

3. (6) 6 
beggar's plush, 

bemtr-weed, 4 
beild, 6 
Belcher's black 

cherry, 1 
belfrey, 6 
bell, 1, 3 
beUenge, 3 
belt, 6 

ben-leather, 2 
benn» 4 

bennets, 2 
bennet-weed, 1 
bent, blue, 4 
bent, fine, 4 
bent, stool, 4 
bents, 2, 6 
berry, (a) 2, (a) 

5. (6) 6 
bestings, 6 
bett, 6 
beverage, 3 
beviss, 2 
bigge, 3 
bigness, 1 
biU. 3 
billard, 3 
billet, 7 
billet-wood, 1 
billows, 4 
bin, 6 
binds, 1 
bind-weed, 1 
bing, 6 
binn, 3 
birning, 4 
bite, 1 
black, 4 
black-bennet, 1 
black-bng, 1 
black-burnt, 2 
black-canker, 4 
black-fly, 1 
black-grass, 4 
black-norse, 1 
black legs, 2, 4 
black-muck, 4 
black- steel, 1 

t black Tictual, 6 
I blacks, 4 
bladder, 2 
blades, 6 
blanch, 3 
blare, 4 
blast, 1, 3 
blend com, 6 
blendings, 6 
blight, 1, 3 
blinking, 5 
blith, 3 
blocks, 1 
blood, the, 4 
blood rot, 5 
blood-warm, 1 
bloodwort, 2 
blooming, 1 
blooth, 6 
blossom-time, 1 
blow, (a) 4, (b) 

blue buttons, 5 
blue sickness, 4 
blue- weed, 1 
bluffs, 6 
blushed, 4 
boale, 3 
IxMuvthistle, 1 
boat, 6 
bodger, 1 
bodkins, 6 
body-horse, 6 
bole, 3 
boU, 6, 7 
bolt, 7 
bolting, 6, 7 
bond, 2 
bondage*^ 6 
boodle, 1 
boon-days, 5 
booning, 6 
boose, 3 
boosey , or boosy, 

(a) 5, (6) 6 
boosin, 6 
boosts, 6 
boot, 3 
booted, 4 
borrage, wild, 1 

wild, 1 
boss, 6 
bosses, 6 

boewell, 1 
bottle, (a) 1, {b) 

bottling, 1 
bottom-leaTes, 1 
bonds, 3, 6 
bouge, 1 
boult, 7 
boulting- hutch, 

bout, 1, 6 
bouting, 1 
bout-lands, 1 
bow, 3 
bowing, 6 
bow-thrush, 3 
boxing, 1 
boytle, 3 
bozen, 6 
brach, 3 
bragget, 3 
bragham, 6 
braird, 6 
brake, 3 
braken, 3 
brandrith, 3 
brank, 3 
branks, 6 
brashy, 2, 6 
brauches, 6 
brawler, 6, 7 
brawn, 6 
braxy, 4 
breach-crops, 6 
breach-land, 6 
bread-combed, 1 
break, (a) 2, (5, 

break-fur, 6 
breast-plough, 3 
brecham, 6 
breck, (a) 3, (b, 

breed, 6 
breicht-land, 6 
bresh, 4 
bridle, 6 
bright, 3 
brim, 3 
brimmed, 6 
bristle-bat, 6 
brit, 2 
brite, 3 
broaches, 6 

broad-land, 1 
broad-aharine, 6 
broken mouthed 

sheep, 1 
brooking-, 1 
brooni-g;ras8, 4 
broomstriking, 6 
broughly, 6 
browse, 3, 6 
browse-^vrood, 1 
browsy, 1 
brushed, 5 
brutte, 3 
bry-fly, 1 
bucht, 6 
buck, (a, h) 1, 

(a) 3, (c) 6 
bucking, 6 
buckles, 6 
buck-rains, 1 
buckstalling, 6 
bud, 3, 4, 6 
budge, 6 
buist, 6 
bulchin, 3 
bullen, 3 
bullimon, 1 
bullimong, 3 
bullimony, 3 
bulls, 5 
bull-stag, 1 
bumbey, 4 
bumbles, 6 
bunch, (a) 1, (6) 

bunching, 4 
bundle, 7 
bur, 6 
burgoo, 1 
burlmg, 6 
bum, 1 
bumbate, 2 
bumbeak, 2 
bumbeat, 3 
burnt-ear, 2 
burnt-wheat, 4 
burr, 1 
burrall, 6 
burs, 2 
bur-weed, 1 
buiT, (o) 1, (b) 6 
bush-bred, 4 
bushel, 3, 5 




bussle-headed, 2 
but, or butt, (a) 
1, (h) 6, (c) 7 
butter-flbwer, 1 
button, 6 
buttons, 1 
butts, (a) 5, (6) 7 
byre, 6 
bytack, 6 

Caballa balls, 5 
cabot, 7 
cadale hemp, 1 
caddow, 3 
cade, 3 
cade-lamb, 6 
calf-haulm, 1 
callender, 6 
callock, 1 
callow, 6 
cam, 6 
cambril, 6 
cammock, 1 
canker, 1 
cant, 6 

cant-farrow, 6 
cap, 1 
capped, 1 
caps, 6 
car, or carr, (a) 

3, (a) 4, (a, h) 

carnation grass, 

carse, 6 
cart-load, 7 
carve, 4 
casings, 3 
cask, 7 
cast, (a)l, (6)3, 

casting down, 1, 

catch, 4 
catch-land, 3 

meadows, 4 
catkeys, 1 
catstail, 1 
cattle-reed, 6 
caud, 4 
caush, 6 
cave, 3 
cavio, 6 

cayings, 1, 6 

cess, 6 

chaddy, 6 

chaff, 3 

chalder, (a) 6, 

chaldron, 7 

chamleted, 1 

champion, 3 

channelly, 6 

chap, (a) 1, (b) 2 

chapping, 1 

chase, 5 

chase-row, 2 

chats, (a, b) 6 

chauldron, 1 

chaye, 3 

chaying, 6 

cheese-cowl, 6 

cheesing-time, 1 

chees-lip, 3 

chesfit, 6 

chessart, 6 

chess-grass, 1 

chessud-weed, 1 

chest, 2 

chick-weed, 1 

chillerin, 5 

chiltum coun- 
tries, 1 

chilyer, 6 

chipping, 1 

chism, 6 

chissum, 2 

chitt, 2, 6 

chitting, 3 

chiyes, 6 

chobbins, 6 

chocky, 2 

chop, 2 

Chopin, 7 

choppin, 7 

chuck, 4 

chuckle, 1 

chum, 6 

chumps, 6 

ciderist, 3 

cinquefoil, 1 

clag, 6 

clamp, (a) 1, (a, 
b, c)6 

clap-bread, 5 

clap-weed, 1 

clat, (a, bf c) 6 

claying, 4 
clay-pea, 2 
cleaning, 2 
cleaying, 6 
deeding, 6 
cleft, 4 
cling, 4 
cliyer, (a, b) 1 
clob-weed, 1 

cloggy, 1 
clogs, 3 
clog- wheat, 6 
clombs, 6 
cloot, 6 
close, (a, b) 6 
clottishness, 5 
clouts, 6 
cloye, 7 

cloyer-eddish, 6 
clow, 6 
clung, 1, 2 
coarseness, 5 
coary, 2 
coats, 6 
cob, (a, 6, c, d, e) 

cobb, 4 
cobbing, 6 
cobble-trees, 6 
cobby, 6 
cock, 1, 3 
cockle, 1 
cockspire, 5 
codgel-pea, 1 
cod- ware, 1, 3 
coffin, 1 
coff, 6 
colder, 4, 6 
cold-seed, 4 
cole, (a) 1, (6) 3 
cole-fire, 3 
coleing, 6 
cole-sheep, 1^ 
coles, 5 
cole wort, 1, 3 
collar, 1 
collar-bags, 4 
collers, 3 
coUey, 4 
collier, 4 
collier-fly, 1 
colt, 1 
comb, (a) 1, (b) 


combing, 1 
come, 1 
coming, 3 
compas, 3 
cone wheat, 6 
conies, 1 

land, 6 
coom, (a) 1, (6) 7 
coomb, 1, 3, 4, 7 
cooper, 6 
cooping, (a) 1, 

coosar, 6 
coost, 6 
cop, 6 
coppice, 3 
copsing, 6 
corals, 1 
cord, 3, 6, 7 
core, 1 
cored, 2 
cork, 4 
com grate, 5 
coming, 1 
comocK, 7 
cosh, 6 
cosp, 6 
coss, 4 

cossartlamb, 1 
cosset, 3 
cotted, 4 
cotty, 4 

couch, (a) 1,(6) 4 
coup cart, 6 
couples, 2 
courtain, 6 
cousin Betty, 1 
coyer, 1 
coyering, 2 
cow, 6 
cowblakes, 3 
cow doom, 3 
cow downs, 5 
cow-gait, 4 
cow- garlic, 2 
cow-gate, 4 
cow-lease, 2 
cowshit, 1 
cow- weed, 4 
cowl, 3 
cowp, 6 
cows* -grass, 4 
crabs, 5 



crack, 4 
cracklings, 6 
cradle, 1, 3 
cragg, 1, 4 
cram, 1 
crap, (a, h) 3 
cratdi, (a) 3, (6) 

creeck, 4 
creeck lime, 4 
creeking, 3 

creet, 4 
crew yard, 6 
crib, 6 

critck-land, 6 
crock, (a) 8, (6)6 
croft, (a) 3, (6) 6 
croft-land, 6 
crome, (a) 3, (6)6 
crone, 3, 4, 6 
crook, 1 
crook-eyil, 1 
crotch, 3 
crow, (a) 1, (6) 

crow garlic, 1 
crow-ueedle, 1 
crudburrow, 6 
cruive, 6 
crumping, 1 
crumple, 2 
cuckoo lamb, 1 
cuddocks, 6 
cue, 2, 6 
cull ewes, 4 
culls, 4, 6 
culver^ 3 
cummings, 6 
curdling, 1 
curdwort, 1 
curf , 6 
curing, 1 
curl, 4 
curlock, 1 
curltop, 4 
cumock, 7 
cut, 4 
cutting, 1 
cutts, 6 
cutwitb, 6 
oyderkin, 1 
cyon, 3 

Dag, 6 
dagging, 6 
duiops, 3 
dame- wheat, 1 
damnify, 3 
dannocks, 6 
darg, 6 
darnel, 1, 3 
darr, 1 
darrak, 6 
dars, 1 
daubing, 4 
dawny, 6 
days-man, 1 
daytale-men, 6 
dead, 4 
deaf, 6 
de-bark, 1 
declining, 1 
delye, 3 
denchering, 6 
denshire, 3 
denshirinff, 1, 4 

dey, 6 
diapenta, 1 
dichting, 6 
didle, 6 
dike, 3 
diUy, 6 
dimmonds, 4 
dingy, 1 
dinmonts, 6 
ditch-hedge, 1 
doat, 1 
dock, 1 
dodded, 6 
dodderill, 6 
doddering, 6 
dog-parsley, 1 
dogs' tails, 6 
doke, 3 
dolphin, 4 
dolphin-fly, 1 
dome, 6 
donkey, 6 
donny, 1 
dool, (a) 3, (o, h) 

dottard-part, 1 
double tom- 

plough, 6 
doublets, 4 

douff, 6 

doye pidgeon, 1 
downshared, 4 
downsharing, 5 
dozen cheeses, 1 
draff, 6 
draft-raked, 1 
drag, 2 

drag-harrow, 1 
drag-rake, 6 
dragons, 1 
drape, 6 
draught, 6 
draught ewee, 4 
draw, 5, 6 
drawer, 1 
drawing out, 5 
drawk, 6 
drawling, 4 
dredge, 2, 3 
dreg, 6 
dressed, 5 
drift, 1,6 
drink-corn, 3 
drinking, 4 
dripping, 1 
driymg a hedge, 

droke, 4 
drunk, 2 
dudman, 6 
duds, 1 
duffil grass, 5 
dug, 3 
duiBe, 6 

weed, 1 
dunny-leayes, 1 
dunny-weed, 1 
dunt, 4, 5 
dutch arbel, 1 
dutfin, 6 
dwindle, 1 
dyke, 6 

Ean, 1 
ear, 3 
earing, 1 
earn, 6 
earth, 2, 6 
eatage, 4 
eather, 4 
eayer, 6 
ebulum, 1 

eddish, (a) 3, (a, 

6, e)6 
eddish crop, 6 
eddishes, 1 
eddow, 1 
eddywinds, 1 
edge, 3 

edge-groyyn, 2 
eegrass, 3 
eest, 3 
efP, 1 

eg^ cheeses, 4 
egistment, 3 
eud, 6 
eiming, 6 
elbow-windy 2 
elden, 3 
elder, 3, 6 
eldin, 6 
elm, 2 
elmen, 6 
em-bam, 4 
enish, 6 
eriff, 5 
ermng, 3 
ershe, 2 
etch, 3, 5 
ether, 6 
etherin, 6 
eyer grass, 5 
eyil, 6 
ewe, 6 
eye, 3 

Face-wind, 2 
£Ack, 6 
faggot, 7 
fiag- water, 6 
fiiB, 7 
felling, 2 
fallow, 3 
fallow-stale, 2 
fan, 6, 7 
fandam, 7 
fanneer, 1 
farding-bag, 2 
farding-land, 3 
fare, 6 

farrow cow, 6 
farth, 6 
farundale, 3 
fat 1 
fatnom, 3 
fauch, 6 


fanffh, 6 
faulter, 3, 6 
fatdtering, 6 
fawd-garai, 6 
f awff, 6 
feaberries, 8 
feabee, 3 
feal, 4 
feal-dyke, 6 
fearow, 6 
feg, 6 

fell, 1, 6 
fellying, 6 
fenny, 3 
fettle, 6 
fey, 6 
fid, 6 

fieldware, 1 
filler, 6 
filler-gear, 6 
fillies, 2 
fillimot, 2 
fimble hemp, 3 
fin, 3 
finched, 5 
findy, 1 
fine bent, 4 
finnowy, 2 
fir-bill, 6 
fire-blight, 1 
fire-fanged, 6 
fire-&nging, 4 
firing, 1 
firlot, 4, 7 
flachter spade, 6 
flack, 1 
flag. 1, 4, 6 
flaggs, 3 
flakes, (a, h) 4, 

flap-apple, 1 
flash, 6 
flashy, 1 
flawing, 6 
fleack, 3 
fleece, 4 
fleet, 4 
fleeting, 6 
fleeting-dish, 1 
fleet-xmlk, 1 
flet, 4, 6 
flick, 6 
flights, 6 

flitch-ware, 1 
flit-milk, 4 
flizzoms, 6 
floating, (a, b) 3, 

floor banks, 4 
flow, 4 
flower, 1 
flower-bank, 1 
flowing mead- 
ows, 4 
flne, 2 
fodder, 7 
fog, 1, 3, 6 
fogger, 6 
foison, 3, 6 
f oisty, 3 
foldness, 2 
foliomort, 2 
foot-halt, 4 
foot-hedge, 1 
foot-plough, 6 
foreacre, 6 
foreheads, 4 
fore horse, 6 
fore-latch, 6 
fork, 1, 5 
fork-stale, 1 
forpet, 7 
forpit, 7 
forra-cow, 6 
foss, 1, 3 
fossa, 6 
fother, 7 
fond, 6 
fours, 1 

four-thorough, 1 
fourtooth, 5, 6 
fowle, 2 
fox, 1 
foxes, 6 
foxing, 1 
foyl, 3 

framwards, 6 
frap, 1 
fraundy, 6 
free-holly, 1- 
fr^emartin, 6 
French grass, 2 

fresh, 4 
fresh-ground, 1 

fret, 2 
frim, 1 
fringel, 6 
frith, 3, 6 
frizled, 4 
frog-ill, 6 
fromward, 6 
froom, 6J 
frote, 1 
frouse, 6 
frowe, 2 
frt)wer, 3 
frowy, 1 
frum, 6 
fudder, 3 
follheads, 4 
fushenless, 6 
fustian, 1 
fusty, 2 
frizen, 3 
fnzzen, 3 
fye, 6 

Qablock, 6 
gain, 6 
gait, 4, 6 
gaiten, 6 
gale, 2 
galloway, 6 
gaily, 4 
gambrel, 6 
gambril, 6 
gammer lamb, 3 
gare, 6 
garings, 6 
garlic, cow, 2 
garlic, crow or 

wild, 1 
garth, 3, 6 
gascoign, (a) 1, 

gast, 6 
gate, 4, 7 
gated, 4, 5 
gather, 6 
gavel, 4, 6 
gayelock, 6 
gaw, 6 
gawn, 3 
gee-ho, 6 
geeing, 6 
geg, 6 
geUins, 1 


gelt-cow, 6 
gennet-moyl, 3 
geoff, 3 
germins, 3 
gid, 1 

?Sf 3, 4 
gilt, 6 

gimmer, 3, 4, 6 
ginballs, 6 
girgle, 6 
girt, 3 
gisk, 6 
glean, (a, h) 1, 

glen, 7 
gnash, 2 
go and come, 1 
go lie, 4 
go through, 2 
goaf, 6 • 
goaf -burned, 6 
goak, 6 
goan, 3 

goar-yetches, 2 
goary, 4 
goffe, 3, 4 
goggles, 4, 5 
gold, wild, 5 
golden bee, 1 
golden grain, 1 
goUins, 1 
good hand, 5 
gool, 3 

goose tongue, 1 
gore, (a) 3, (6)4, 

gore thetch, 1 
goss, 3 
gotdi, 6 
gould, 1 
gould-weed, 1 
gout, 6 
gradely, 6 
graft, 6 

graffcing-tool, 6 
grains, (a, b) 6 
graip, 6 
gndth, 6 
grasscock, 1 
grass ill, 4 
grassum, 6 
gratton, 1, 3, 6 
graumy, 1 . 



greeds, 6 
green fidlow, 6 
green-fly, 1 
green-ware, 1 
greep, 6 
greets, 1 
gret, 6 
grete, 2 
grey com, 6 
grey pea, I 
greystocks, 4 
grioe, 6 
grieve, 6 
grig, 6 
grift (a, h) 2, (c) 

3, (c) 6 
gripe, (a) 2, (6) 

3, (a) 5 
griping, 4 
griss, 1 
groats, 3 
grom, 6 
groot, 4 
groove, 3 
ground rain, 4 
grout, 1 
grouty, 1 
grove, 3 
growan, 4, 5 
growing stones, 

growing wheat, 

grub axe, 3 
grubbage, 3 
gruft, 4 
guess, (a, h) 1 
guessed ewes, 6 
gulling, 1 
gully-place, 2 
gum, 6 
gundy, 2 
gurry, 6 
gust, 1 
gut, 6 
guttery, 1 
guttie, 5 
gye, 4 

Ha years old, G 
hack, 3, 6 
hacking, (a, h) 

1, (c, d) 2, (a, 


hacking and 
heeling, 4 

hackle, (a) 1, (h) 
3, (c) 6 

haddes, 5 

haddock, 6 

haft, (a) 4, (6) 6 

hag, 6 

haggard, 6 

ha^^ner, 1 

hainea, 6 

hair- weed, 1 

hairy-bind, 1 

hake, 6 

hakes, 6 

hale, (a) 1, (b) 

hale to, 1 

hale-weed, 1 

half-ware, 1 

halm, 2 

halt, 1, 2 

ham, 6 

hamel-tree, 1 

hamee, 6 

hanbery, 2 

handbill, 3 

handle, 6 

hanes, 6 

hants, 2 

hard grass, 5 

hare-pipes, 3 

harif , 4 

harl, 2 

harve, 6 

harvest-man, 1 

hask, 2 

hassocks, 4 

hatch, 4 

hatches, 3 

hattak, 6 

hattock, 3 

haugh, 6 

haulm, (a, h) 6 

haut-gust, 3 

haver, 3, 6 

haviour, 4 

haw, 3 

hawel, 6 

hawkit, 6 

hawky, 1 

hawl, 3 

hawm, 3 

hawmv, 3 

V 7 

hawneys, 3 
hawy, 3 
hayes, 3 
hayn, 2, 5 
hayn up, 2 
haze, 6 
hazel, 4 
headers, 1 
headf;rew, 6 
heading, 4 
head-land, 3 
heal, 2 
heart, 1 
heave, 2, 4 
heavle, 6 
hee-grass, 2 
heck, 3, 6 
heckle, 3 
hecks, 5, 6 
hedgCK-brows, 1 
hedge-green, 1 
hedge-peak, 2 
hedging-bill, 3 
heel-ru:e, 6 
heirs, 2 
hell rakes, 5 
hell- weed, 1 
helm, (a, 6) 2, 

(a) 3 
helper, 1 
hemel, 6 
hemp, 1 
hentmg, 1 
heps, 3 
hether, 4 
hever, 4 
hewing, 4 
heyrs, 3 
hi years old, 6 
hide-bound, 3 
hillock, 3 
hilt, 6 
hincks, 1 
hind, 6 

hinder-ends, 6 
hindle bar, 6 
hindrens, 6 
hint, 2 
hirsel, (a) 4, (a, 

hit, 1 
hitch-crop, 1 

field, 5 
hoar, 1 
hobbsd, 5 
bobbing, 6 
hobble, 6 
hobbling:, 4 
hobby de boy, 1 
hobhouchin, 1 
hockle, 4 
hod, 6 

hodding'-spade, 6 
hog, (a, b) 3, (0 

4, (a) 5, (a) 6 
hogoolt, 6 
hog-fence, 4 
hog fold, 2 
hog-pox, 1 
hog-sheep, 2 
hog- weed, 1 
hogget, 6 
hoggits, 4 
hogo 1 

hogshead, 6, 7 
holes and eyes, 1 

hollandtide, 5 
hollow- ware, 1 
holms, 3 
holt, 3 
Holy Thursday, 

honey cherry, 1 
honeyf all, 4 
honey-suckle, 1 
hood, 2 

hooded grass, 2 
hook and hincks, 

hook-land, 3 
hoop, 7 

hoop-outward, 1 
hooper's hide, 1 
hoose, 2 
hopper, 3 
hoppereared, 1 
horkey, 6 
homcoot, 1 
horse-bee, 1 
horse-break, 4 
horse-gould, 1 
horse houghing, 

horse-lease, 2 



horse-pipe, 4 

horse tying, 4 

hose, 1 

hosk, 2 

hotch, 6 

hot-seed, 4 

houckin, 1 

hough, 1 

hougher, 1 

houghing, 1 

hounces, 6 

housings, 6 

hove, 1 

hovel, (a) 1, (6) 
3, (c) 6 

hoven, 3, 6 

hover, 4 

hover-ground, 3 

how, 3 

howick, 6 

huU, 1, 2, 3 

hulls, 2, 6 

hummelled, 6 

hunching, 1 

hundred, 7 

weight, 7 

hunge, 1 

hupp, 6 

hurdles, 3 

hurds, 3, 5 

hurlock, 1 

hurlucky, 2 

hurter, 4 

husk, 2 

husky, 5 

hutch, (a, 5) 3, 
(c) 4, (h) 6 

hutch- waggon, 1 
tyle, 1, 7 
hypothec, 6 

lies, 3 
imn, 3 
in-bam, 4 
incast, 7 
inground hedge, 

ings, 6 

inn, 1 

in proof, 2 

in the suds, 4 

iron-grass, 5 

iron-moulded, 4 

iver, 5 

Jack, 3 

jack-hare, 1 

jack in the 
hedge, 1 

about, 1 

jack rot, 1 

jade, 1 

jamock, 3 

jannock, 1 

jigger-wheels, 6 


Jim, 6 

jobbet, 6 

joint-murrain, 2 
joist, 2 
joisted, 5 
journey, 6 
joy, 5 
joyst, 6 

jiig, 3 

juking-time, 3 
junames, 3 
;juniper, 1 
jussocks, 1 
juter, 3 

Kain, 6 
kaling, 6 
kane, 1 
karle-hemp, 3 
kebbet, 6 
ked, 6 
keel, 6 
keeler, 3 
keenly, 4 
keep, 6 
keeve, 3 
keil-pins, 1 
keils, 1 
kell, 3 
kelter, 6 
kemp, 6 
kempie, 6, 7 
kemi)y, ^ 
kenning, 7 
kerf, 1 6 
kern, (a, b) 1, (a) 

kernel, 1 
kerning, 1 

kerroon cherry, 1 
ketlocks, 6 
kettle-gallop, 1 
kew, 6 
kibble, 6 
kicker, 1 
kid, (a) 1, (a) 2, 

kidcrow, 3 
kid-faggots, 1 
kiln of limo, 1 
kilns, 6 
kincle, 4 
kirnel, 2 
kishon, 7 
kit, 3 
kittle, 2 
kiver, (a) 1, (b) 

6, {b) 7 
knacker, 6 
knee-bent, 2 
knee-sick, o 
knick, 4 
knit, 4 
knit-knots, 1 
knitch, 7 
knitting, (a, b, c) 

knolls, 3 
knot, (a)Jl, (6) 2 
knot nne, 2 
knotgrass, (a, b) 

knot-green, 2 
knotted, 1 
knotted sheep, 2 
knuckle-evil, 1 
knurr, 1 
knute, 6 
krimnel, 3 
kyle, 6 
kylo, 6 
kype, 6 

Lace, 6 

lade, (a) 4, (6) 6 
lade-horse, 6 
ladleman, 1 

grass, 1 
laid, 6 
laid- wool, 6 
laine, 4, 5 
lainge, 1 

lair, 6 
laire, 3 
lairy, 6 
laith, 6 
lamb-hog, 4 
lameness, 1 
land, 6 

land-ditching, 5 
land-eff, 1 
landing-up, 6 
langest, 3 
langet, 6 
langley-beef, 1 
lanner, 6 
lannock, 6 
lark-spurred, 2 
lash, (a) 4, (6, c) 

lashy, 6 
last, 4, 7 
lath, 3 
laugher, 4 
laund, 3 
lay, 1, 2 
lay down, 6 
layer, 3, 4, 6 
lea, 2, 6 
lead, 1 
leaf, (a, b) 1 
lean, 1 
lear, 4 
leap, 3 
lease, (a) 2, (a) 

4, (b) 6 
leathe, 6 
leather, 1 
lecuse, 3 
leazing, 6 
led-farm, 6 
leet, 1 

leigh, 6 
lent-crops, (5 
lent-grain«, 1 
lep, 6 
levalto, 1 
ley, 2 
leystall, 1 
lib, 3 
licare, 3 
Uflf, 3 
ligs, 4 
limber, 4 
limmers, G 



Hnchart, 2 
line, 6 
lined ont, 4 
ling, 4. 6 
linge, 1 
linhay, 6 
lippie, 7 
lirry, 1 
list wall, 5 
liYe-keepers, 1 
liver, 4 
liTer-sand, 5 
liyery, 4 
liyery-earth, 1 
load, 1, 4 
loak, 6 
lobgrass, 2 
loblolly, 1 
lock, 3, 4 
lodge, 2 
log, 3 
loggin, 6 
London dress- 
ing, 1 
looe, 4 
looker, 4, A 
looms, 6 
loore, 2 
lop, (a) 1, (h) 8 
lopheavy, 2 
lord, 1 
lose, 1 
loy, 6 

luckpenny, 6 
lug, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 
lumps, 6 
lurcher, 6 
lyery, 4 
lyncnet, 3 

Mad, 2 
mads, 3 
maggs, 6 
maiden, (a) 2, 

maid-sweety 1 
malm, 2 
malmey, 1, 6 
malt-rashed, 2 
mamocks, 2 
manger-meat, 1 
mangonism, 2 
manor, 6 

mantle, 1 
marbled, 4 
marfurrow, 6 
marlebrute, 4 
marled, 4 
marshland, 6 
mart, 6 
mash. 3 
mashlum, 6 
maslen, 3 
mast, 3 
master, 1 
master-oow, 1 
math, 7 
mattock, 3 
maukin, 1 
maumv-earth, 1 
maund, 3 
maw, 1 
mawhauk, 1 
mawn, 6 
maw-sick, 1 
maxhill, 4 
may, 1 

mayn-comb, 3 
may- weed, 1, 5 
meak, 3 
meal, 6 
meal shudee, 6 
measles, 4 
measure, 6, 7 
meat, 6 
meath, 3 
melder, 4, 6 
meliorate, 2 
mell, 6 
mending, 6 
mei'e, 3 
merebath, 6 
mesh, 3 
mesHn, (a, b) 6 
met, 3 
moth, 3 
mew, 4 
mewstead, 6 
midder, 4 
midding, 3 
midmay, 1 
mildew, 3 
mil-houses, 3 
mine, 1 
mistal, 6 
misten, 3 

mixen, 2, 3, 6 
moan, 6 
mobbum bread, 

mock, 3 
mogahade^ 3 
moued, 6 
molder, 2 
monks, 6 
months men, 1, 

moorband, 5, 6 
moor ding, 5 
moor^vil, 1 
moor-grass, 1 
mootj 6 
mootmg, 6 
moots, 6 
more, 2 
more-loose, 2 
mores, 3 
morg^an, 2 
monice bell, 1 
moss, 4, 5 

mother of com, 

moulded up, 1 
moulter, 6 
mounds, 3 
mow, 1, 2 
mow and bag 

up, 1 
mowbum, 1, 2 
mowmen, 1 
mowstead, 1 
muck, (a) 1, (a) 

2, (a) 3, (a, b) 

muckle, 6 
mudgel-hole, 1 
mudgeon, 6 
muil, 6 
mule, 6 
mullock, (a) 3, 

multure, 6 
muncom, 6 
murk, 1, 3 
berries^ 2 
must, 3, 5, 6 
mustin, 1 

mutcihkiii, 7 
muQEy, 3 

Nab, I 
nache, 4 
nag, 6 
nau, 3 

naked snail, 1 
nappy, 1 
nature, 1 
neat, 3 
neat-herd, 3 
neaying, 3 
neb, 6 
nesh, 6 
nib, 2 

nickanockaas, 1 
nicket, 2 
nickled, 6 
nidget, 6 
nigardioe, 1 
niget, 1 
maggot, 1 
nitch, 6 

nob, 4 ^ 

nolle, 4 
nooses, 4 
nope, 3 
not, 6 

notch-geers, 1 
nots, 4 
novist, 5 
nuzzel, 2 

Oak-apple, 1 
oak-bee, 1 
oakered, 2 
oatmeal kernel, 

oddman, 1 
offal, 1 
off com, 6 
oils, 2, 3 

beard, 1 
olland, 4, 6 
ollet, 3 
omy-land, 3 
onstand, 6 
on tack, 4 
on the nail, 1 
oose, 3 
oosty 3 



orchis grass, 5 
ore- wood, 3 
orl, 6 
ormorts, 1 
orra-mau, 6 
cits, 1, 6 
est, 3 
ouffhts, 2 
oiikle, 5 
otit holl, 6 
outlet, 5 
out-winterers, 4 
ouw, 6 

oyen honey, 1 
oyerwart, 6 
owl-headed, 4 
owler, 6 
owsen, 6 
ox- boose, 3 
ox-gang, 5 

Pack, 7 
pack of cows, 5 
pad, 3 
paddle, 1 
paddle-staff, 3 
pallies, 6 
palms, 3 
pammants, 4 
pan, 4, 6 
panic, 1 
pannage, 3 
pannef, 3 
par, 6 
parrick, 6 
par-yard, 6 
pass hemp, 1 
paterifih, 4, 6 
pay rent, 1 
peacock's tail, 1 
pea-esh, 6 
peal(a), 1,(6)2 
pease-bolt, 3 
pease brush, 6 
pebble-vetch, 2 
peck, 4 
pecked, 1 
pecked-arsed, 1 
ped, 1, 6 
ped-ware, 3 
peeked, 1 
peekish, 1 
peeler, 1, 6 
pegging, 1 

peggings, 1 
pelham, 4 

placmng, 5 

P^g» 1 
puggings, (a, h) 

pelt, 6 

plaice-worm, 2 


pelt-rot, 1 

plaise, 1 

pulse, 6 

pendicle, 4, 6 

plaish, 1 

pun die-tree, 6 

penk, 1 

plash, (a, h) 1, 

pur-lamb, 6 

penny-grass, 1 

plashing, 2 

purloin, 1 

pen-stocks, 3 

purples, the, 4 

pepper-wheat, 1 

pleck, 6 

purr-lamb, 2 

perch, 3, 7 

plim, 2 

purse, 2 

periwig, 1 

plough, 3, 4, 6 

putt, 6 

perkin, 6 

plough-line, 6 

pwn, 7 

pert, 2 

plum, 6 

pheltrie, 6 

plump, 2, 3 

Quaggy, 1 

phill-horse, 1 

poach, 2 

quarter, 7 

pick, 6 

poached, 4 

quarter ail, 6 

picked, 2 

poachy, 1 

quarter-evil, 2 

pick-fork, 3 

pocket, 7 

quarter-ill, 4 

picking-calf, 6 
picklock, 5 

poddery, 4 

quarters, 6 

poddle, 6 

quashing, 1 

picks, 1 

podds, 3 

quatt, 2 

pie, (a) 5, (a, h. 

point, 6 

quey, 6 


poke, (a) 4, (b) 7 

quick, 6 

piggin, 3 

pole, 1 

quick-beam, 1 

pifi^s-crough, 6 

pollard, (a) 1, 

quick wood, 5 


quicks, 6 

pikle, 6 

polt, 3 

quillet, 3 

pity, 1 

pome-pirk, 1 

quilt, 2 

pile, 3 

pompirkin, 1 

quinter, 6 

piley, 6 

pook, 2, 6 

piling, (a, h) 6 

peeking, 5 

Baddleman, 4 

piling-iron, 6 

popes, 3 

rafter, 5 

pilking, 6 

posse, 3 

raftering, 4, 6 

pillum, 6 

pot, 1, 7 


pin-aims, 6 

pot dung, 5 

ragweed, 1 
raik, 6 

pin faUow, 6, 6 

potted, 2 

pine-apple, 1 

poulch, 1 

rally, I 

pined, 2 

pound cherry, 1 

ramily, 6 

pint weight, 7 

pout, (a) 1, (6) 4 

randan, 1 

pirky, I 

powley, 6 

rapperee, 1 
rash, 6 

piscary, 3 

poy, 6 

pish, 1 

pregnant, 3 

rashed, 2 

pismire, 1 

president, 3 

rashy, 1 

pissum, 1 

prie grass, 4 
pritcn, (a, h) 6 

rassung, 6 

pissum-banks, 1 

ratch, 6 

pitch, 2, 6 

prong, 3 
proofy, 6 

rath-ripe, 1, 2 

pitch and chuck, 

rattle-grass, 1 


prove, 2 

ray, 3 

pitch of work, 4 

pucker, 1 

reap, 1 

pitcher, (a) 2, 

puckets, 3 

reasty, 6 

pitle, 6 

pucks, 6 

red and white 

pudock, 3 

dock, 1 

pits, 6 

pue, 6 

red gum, 4 

pitting, 4 

puffin-pea, 1 

red robin, 4 



red ahank.. 2, 4 
red-weed, 1, 2 
red-worm, 4 
redding, 1 
ree, 3, 6 
reed, (a) 2, (6, 

reek-fetayal, 3 
reekB, 2, 3 
reel, 7 
reen, 6 
reeze, 6 
rein, 6 
relly. 6 
rennet, 1 

grass, 1 
resp, 6 
ret, 6 
rhab, 6 
ribbing, 6 
ribbling, 4 
rice, 3 
rickets, 4, o 
rid, 6 

ridder, 1, 3 
ridding, 6 
riddle, 3 
ride, 3 
rider, 5 
ridge, 1 
ridge-stay, 6 
ridge-worth, 6 
ridging up, 1 
rift. 3 
rig, 6 
riget, 6 
riggits, 6 
riggle, 1 
rigot season, 1 
rigwelted, 6 
rigwooddie, 6 
rim, 1 
rime, 2 
rind, 2 
ringe, 4, 6 
ringle-eyed, 6 
ringo-roots, 1 
rip, 1 
ripple, 3 
risbalking, 6 
rising, 3 
risp, 4 
rizzors, 6 

roach, 6 
roading, 2 
rock, 3 
rock-treo, 6 
rod, 3 
rodded, 1 
roddled, 1 
rodikin, 4 
rods, 6 

roger-beam, 1 
roller, 3 
rolling, 6 
roily, 6 
ronclewort, 1 
rook, 6 
roost, 6 
root-fallen, 4 
rope, 7 

rose-headed, 4 
ross, 6 
rot, 1 
rotland, 6 
rough, 3 
roughings, 3 
round-ridging, 4 
round ruiw, 1 
round the ridge, 

round-tilth, 4 
round work, 1 
roup, 6 
rove, 4 
roves, 6 
roving, 6 
rowen, 1, 2, 3, 

rowet, 2 
rowing, 1 
rowy, 1 
rubber, («) 4, 

(ft) 6 
rubbly, 6 
rubs, 4 
ruck, 6 
ruckle, 6 
rudder, 2, 3 
ruddle, 6 
rugged, 2 
rully, 6 
run-ridge, 6 
runcle, 4 
rundle, 6 
runner, 3 
run net, 3 

runt, 6 
ruskey, 6 
rusty, 1 
rut, 6 
ryce, 6 
rying-sieve, 1 

Saddle, 6 

sale, 5 

sales, 6 

salley, 1 

salmon-bricks, 6 

salving, 4 

saming, 6 

sammy, 1 

sandlings, 4 

save alls, 4 

scab, 1 

scald-berry, 1 

scaling, (a, 5, c) 6 

scantling, 1 

scate, 4 

scollops, 6 

scom, 4 

scoring-rake, 6 

scour, 4 

scot, 5 

scraled, 1 

scrape, 3 

scrave, 6 

scudd, 2 

scuffle, 6 

Bcuppet, 6 

scuttle, 3, 6 

sea pines, 5 

sea waur, 4 

seam, (a, b) 1, 

scan, 3 

seats, 6 

seed-cot, 1 

seed-lop, 3 

seeds, 6 

seen, 3 

seg, (a, h) 6 

set, 6 

seugh, 6 

severalty, 5 

sew, 3 

shackable, 4 

med, 1 

shaddens, 1 

shading, 1 

sha^, 6 
shairu, 6 
shake-time, 3 
shaking, 2, 5 
shale, 1, 4 
shapes, 6 
sharavel, 6 
shard, 3 
shares, 5 
shatter, 3 
shaver, 1 
shaw, 3, 4 
shawle, 3 
shearing, 5 
sheat, 3 
sheep-lice, 1 
sheep-slate, 2 
sheep-sleig'ht, o 
sheer, 3 
sheer-point, 2 
sheffs, 1 
sheim, 1 
shell lime, 4 
shelling, 4 
shelts, 6 
shelving, 6 
shend, 1 
pouch, 1 
shere, 1 
sherrug, 1 
sheuch, (a, h) 6 
shield, 1 
shifts, 4 
shilpet, 6 
shim, 6 
shippen, 3, 6 
shoal, 1 
shock, 1, 3 
shock-fork, 6 
shoods, 6 
shoot^ 4 

shooting-time, 1 
shord, 6 
shorn, 4 
short shed, 4 
shot, 6 
shots, 6 
shoveling, 2 
shrape, 3 
shravey, 6 
shreading, 1 
shrew moji&e, 1 
shrink, 2 



sliroud, 3 
alludes, 5 
sliuppick, 6 
sLut in the 
twist, 4 

ehutes, 2 

sliutt, 3 

sickness, 5 

side, 1 

sieve, 7 

sike, 3 

sile, 3 

sillanks, 6 

sine-span, 1 

site, 3 

cattle, 6 

size, 4 

size lands, 1 

sizzing, 3 

skaddons, 3 

skeat, 4 

ske^i 5 

skeith, 6 

skelp, 6 

skenting, 2 

skep, 6 

skepe, 3 

skid, 3 

skid-pan, 6 

skillin, 6 

skilling, 3 

skUlins, 2 

skimming, 1 

skinters, 4 

skirting, 5, 6 

skit, 1 

skooty, 7 

skreyn, 3 

skudded, 4 

slab, 3 

slain-ears, 4 

slake, 1, 5 

slane, (a) 1, {b) 6 

sled, 3 

sleech, 4 

sleek, (a) 2, {b) 7 

sleeving, 1 

sling, 4 

slink, 2 

slinkers, 5 

slinking, 6 

slip-coat, 1 

sUver, 1 

sloap-wise, 3 

sloat, 1 

slumpwork, 6 

sluts-pennies, 1 

small oalls, 5 

smock-miU, 6 

smut, 1 

snag-greet, 3 

snaU-cod, 3 


snail-horn, 1 

snails, 5 

snarle, 1, 3 

snarlings, 1 

snead, 6 


soam, 6 

soft com, 6 

sogging, 2 

soil, 4, 6 

sollars, 1 

somerland, 4 

somers, 1 

sorrance, 1 

sough, 5 

soughing, 6 

souse, 3 

soutage, 3 

sow-bug, I 

sowen, 6 

sowel, 6 

sown under fur- 
row, 1 

sows, 4 

spaddle, 3 

spalt, (a)l, (6)2 

sparks, 4 

spean, (a, b) 6 

spear, 2 

spear-grass, 4 

spekes, 6 

spelks, 6 

speWj 1 

spewing, 2 

spewy . 1 

spike-leaves, 1 

spike-rods, 6 

spind, 4 

spindle, (a) 1, (b) 

spine, 3 

spinny, 6 

spire, 1 
spirtle, 1 
spiry, 2 
spit, 1, 6 
spitter, 3 
spleeted, 3 
spoil, 1 
spong, 6 
sprain, 1 
sprays, 6 
spret, 4 

spnggy, 2 
springy 1, 6 

springing, 6 

spudiuing, 6 

spuming, 2 

spurring, 1 

spurwood, 1 

squab, 1 

squall, 4, 5 

square, 7 

squatted, 2 

squatting, 2 

squirrel-teil, 1 

squitch, 4, 6 

stack, 3 

staddle, (a) 1, 

staff, 7 
staflold, 2 
stag, 6 

stag-headed, 4 
staff-hog, 4 
stule, 3 
stale, (a) 1, (fe) 

3, (a) 6 
stale-fallows, 2 
stalk, 1 
stamping. 6 
stamwo^ 3 
stand-hecK, 6 
standil, 3 
stang, 6 
staple, 2 
stare, 1, 2 
starky, 2 
starve, 2 
statesman, 5 
stavel, 5 
steale, 3 
stealing the 

bloom, 1 
steatch, 4 
stee, 6 

steel, 6 
steel-bow, 6 
stell, (a, b) 6 
sten, 6 
stenching, 4 
stetch, 6 
st. foyne, 1 
stibbony, 1 
stilts, 6 
stinkweed, 4 
stint, 5 
stinted, 4 
stirk, 6 
stirree, 1 
stitch, 1, 6 
stitched, 5 
stitle, 6 
stock, (a, b) 1 
stock-honey, 1 
stocking, 6 
stolch, 1 
stonff, 6 
stock, 4, 6 
stooling, 6 
stot, 6 
stound^ 3 
stover, 3, 4, 6 
stow, 6 
stowls, 6 
stowre, 3 
straik, 6 
strake, 1 
strangfullion, 1 
straw. 4 
stretcner, 1 
strike, 3, 7 
strike-balking, 4 
strike-plough', 6 
striking, 1 
strinffs, 2 
stroakings, 1 
stroke, 1 . 
strong, 6 
struck, 1 
struck with the 

blood, 4 
strut, 2 
stub, 1, 6 
studdy. 6 
stunnined, 1 
stunting, 1 
sturdy, 4 
sturk, 3 



suant, 2 
Buckler, 1 
mioklinff, 6 

Und, 1 
Bull, 1, 3, 6 
rallidge, 1 
sullow, 6 
Bolpaddle. 3 
Bummer-neld, 6 
Bmnmer-land, 6 
Bummer-stir, 3 
Bummer- work- 

Buppmff, 4 
BOBfiiDgie, 3 
swag. 2 
swazd. 3 
Bwarth, 3 
Bwath, 3 
fiwath rake, 6 
Bweal, 3 
swee, 4 
Bweed, 6 
sweep, 6 
sweetened, 6 
swift, 1 
Bwigging, 2 
swine-crue^ 3 
swingle, (a) 3, 

(J) 6 
swingle trees, 6 
swipe, 1 
swipple, 6 
swopping, 1 
swora grass, 6 
swyn-hull, 3 
sye-dish, 7 

Tabem, 3 
tack, 6 

tacking-out, 6 
taft, 6 

tagging, 1, 4 
tail-pomts, 4 
tail-seed, 4 
tail-soaked, 2 
tailing, 6 
tails, 1 
taint, 1 
tallard, 6 
tallent, 6 

tallow, 2 
tamed, 2 
tang, 1 
tare, 3 
tares, 1 
tasker, 1, 6 
tathe, 6 
taw, 2 
team, (a) 3, {b, 

ted, 3, 6 
tee-hole, 3 
teem, 3 
teen, 6 
teg, 1, 2 
tecs, 4, 6 
teUowB, 4 
temper, 6 
temi>ered, 4 
tenantry, 5 
tetstick, 6 
tew-taw, 3 
thack, 6 
thaiye, 1 
theaye, 3, 4, 6 
iihetches, 1 
tketch-hay, 1 
thets, 6 
thief, 2 
thiller, 6 
thirlage, 6 
thirl-horse, 6 
thorough, (a) 1, 

thram, 6 
thrave, 1, 3, 4, 7 
threaye, 7 
threayes, 6 
threep tree, 6 
thrippoos, 6 
throating, 1 
throaty, 4 
throw, 1 
thrustings, 4 
thwarted, |2 
tiohing, 3 
tickle-Dack, 1 
ticks, 1 
tight, 6 
tike, 3 

till, (a) 6, (b) 6 
tillage, (a) 2, (b) 

tiller, 4, 6 
tillings, 6 
tills, 1, 2, 3 
tilt, 2 
tilth, 1 
tilting, 6 
tine, 2, 3, 6 
tine-tare, 4 
tinsell, 5 
tippling, 4 
tits, 3 
tiyer, 6 
tod (a) 1, (a) 2, 

tofet, 3 
toff, 6 

toff and chofi^ 4 
tom plough, 6 
tongue-pad, 1 
tonsure, 4 
topping, 1 
tore, 6 

torwooddie, 6 
toss, 6 
tothe, 6 
tothe-fold, 6 
toyet, 3 
toward, 6 
town, 6 
town-place, 6 
trag, 4 
trams, 5 
trammel, 3 
trams, 6 
traunter, 1 
trays, 6 
treadle, 1 
trench, 5 
trendle, 3 
trifalloWj 3 
tnfiEdlowmg, 1 
trig, 2 
trinding, 4 
trolly, 6 
trout-fly, 1 
troy-foile, 4 
trugg, 3 
trumpery, 1, 2 
truncheons, 1 
trunchion, 3 

trundle, 3 
trundles, 2 

truss, 2 
tub, 7 
tue, 6 

tumble carr, o 
tumbler, 3 
tumbrel, 3 
tumbrily 6 
tunning disJi, 6 
tup, 2 6 
tupyeld, 6 
turbary, 5 
tumel, 6 
tumep-farm, 1 
turning, 2 
twelmonthing, 4 
twelye balls, 5 
twifallow, 3 
twine, 3 
twine-grass, 1 
twinter, (a, h) 6 
twist, 1, 4 
twitdi, 4, 6 
two shear, 5 
two-teeth, 2 

tye, 6 
tylth, 3 
tyne, 1 
tyne-grass, 1 
tything, 5 

XJncaUow, 6 
uncap, 1 
underline, 1 

unicorn, 6 
unkindly, 4 
up-setting, 4 
urry, 3 
utensils, 3 

Yale-lands, 1 
yallor, 3 
yallow, 3 
yang-in, 4 
yeei>oow, 6 
yeU, 6 



yelling, 3 
yeniij 4 
yenville, 5 
vergee, 7 
yines, 1 
yinnow, 2 
yiskey, 6 
yisney, 1 
yoor, 3 

Wad, 1, 2, 6 
wadstaff , 6 
wain, 6 
walk-hand, 4 
wallis, 6 
wallop, 1 
wantey, 3 
wanty, 6 
warble, 6 
warblet, 6 
warlock, 4 
warpj 4, 6 
warping, 6 
warps, 6 
warth, 6 
washes, 4 
water, 4 
watermen, 4 

water- wood, 1 
wattle, 3 
wattles, 6 
waye-wine, 6 
way-tree, 6 
weanel, 3 
weaning, 2 
weather, 4 

wecht, 6 
wedder, 4 
weeping, 2 
Weeyils, 3 
weight, 7 
well^ 6 
wennel, 6 
westerns, 4 
wether, 6 
wether-horse, 6 
wetkim, 6 
wey, 7 ^ 
wheat-nder, 1 
whey-butter, 1 
whicks, 6 
whig and wey, 4 
whin, 4 
whinnes, 3 
whip-beam, 1 
whipple-trees, 6 
whisKet, 3 
white-ash - herb, 

white bennet, 1 
whitebum, 5 
white-ewe^ 6 
white-grain, 5 
white-land, 4 
white-sincle& 1 
white-yictoal, 6 
white-wood, 1 
whole bodied 

cart, 6 
whole milk, 4 
whool, 1 
whye, 6 

ed, 1 

wift, 6 
wiggs, 1 
wild curds, 1 
wilk, 1 
wilker, 1 
wimshoet, 3 
Winchester, 1 
winder, 6 
windle, 7 
wind-row, 1, 3, 6 
winlace, 3 
winlin, 6 
winnisfcer, 6 
winrow, 4^ 6 
winter- pnde, 2 
winter-proud, 1 
winter-rig, 3 
wire, 2 
wit acre, 4 
withering, 1 
wither wine, 6 
withwind, 2 
wone^, 6 

wood-eyiL 1, 2, 6 
wood-land, 3 
wood-seer, 1 

ground, 2 
woodsheer, 2 
wood sour, 5 
works of the 

meadow, 4 
wrack, 6 
wreathes, 6 
wreest, 4 
wrestle, 4 
wytch, 6 
wyth, 1 

wyzles, 6 

Yad, 6 
yan, 6 
yangle, 6 
yarry-horse, 6 
yat, 6 
yate, 3 
yayal, 6 
yeaning, 2 . 
yeld, 6 
yeU, 6 

yellow bottle, 4 
yellow creese, 1 
yellowing, 1 
yellows, 1,2,4,5 
yelm, 1, 7 
yelt, 1 
yelye^ 6 
yenning, 6 
yeomaui, 6 
yest, 1 
yet, 6 
yett, 3 
yetted, 1 
yirling, 6 
yirning, 6 
yoak, 3, 4 
yoke, (a) 1,^4 
yolk, (a) 4, (b) 6 
youghth, 1 
yule-cow, 6 
yure, 6 

Zool. 4 



. ^V